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Outdoors 

ii> georgia 



January, 1973 



UHIViKBITY Oe ttBOAWiA 




* ■ 



Heritage Trust Edition 




Jimmy Carter 
Governor 

Joe D. Tanner 

Commissioner 

Department of Natural Resources 

George T. Bagby 

Deputy Commissioner 

for Public Affairs 

STATE GAME AND FISH 
COMMISSION 

James Darby 

Chairman 

Vidalia-lst District 

William Z. Camp, Sec. 
Newnan— 6th District 



FEATURES 

To Kill A Hawk Aaron Pass 

Introduction to Backpacking . T. Craig Martin 4 

To Rig a Worm T. Craig Martin 

Fore Your Pleasure Dick Davis 13 

For More Quail Aaron Pass 

DEPARTMENTS 

Sportsman's Calendar 21 



Leo T Barber, Jr. 
Moultrie— 2nd District 

Dr. Robert A. Collins, Jr. 
Americus— 3rd District 



George P. Dillard 
Decatur— 4th District 

Rankin M. Smith 
Atlanta-5th District 

Leonard E. Foote 
Marietta-7th District 

Wade H. Coleman 
Valdosta-8th District 

Clyde Dixon 
Cleveland-9th District 

Leonard Bassford 
Augusta— 10th District 

Jimmie Williamson 
Darien— Coastal District 



EARTH AND WAleR DIVISION 
Sam M. Pickering, Jr., Director 

ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION DIVISION 
R. S. Howard, Jr., Director 

GAME AND FISH DIVISION 
Jack Crockford, Director 

PARKS AND RECREATION DIVISION 
Henry D. Struble, Director 

OFFICE OF PLANNING AND RESEARCH 
Chuck Parrish, Director 

OFFICE OF ADMINISTRATIVE SERVICES 
Jam-s H. Pittman, Director 

MC RELATIONS AND 
INFORMATION SECTION 

H. E. (Bud) ■/-. i Orden, Chief 



Outdoors 



it? georgia 



January, 1973 



Volume 2 



Number 



Outdoors in Georgia is the official monthly magazine of the Georgia Departme 
of Natural Resources, published at the Department's offices, Trinity-Washingt 
Building, 270 Washington St., Atlanta, Georgia 30334. No advertising accept* 
Subscriptions are $3 for one year or $6 for three years. Printed by Williani 
Printing Company, Atlanta, Ga. Notification of address change must include t 
address label from a recent magazine, new address and ZIP code, with 30 dc " 
notice. No subscription requests will be accepted without ZIP code. Articles at 
photographs may be reprinted when proper credit given. Contributions are w ' 
come, but the editors assume no responsibility or liability for loss or damage 
articles, photographs, or illustrations, Second-class postage paid at Atlanta, (4; 

MAGAZINE STAFF 
Phone 656-3530 

H. E. (Bud) Van Orden 
Editor-in-Chief 

Bob Wilson 
Editor 



Staff Writers 

Dick Davis 
Jim Doherty 
Aaron Pass 



Art Director 

Liz Carmichael Jones 



Staff Photographers 

Jim Couch 
Bob Busby 



Circulation Manager 

Linda Wayne 



EDITORIAL 



's \burs, It's Mine 
ur Heritage 




Hunters, fishermen, sportsmen, outdoorsmen, 
conservationists, historians, ecologists and the 
everyday citizens of 1788, when the fourth 
state of the Union was formed, were as 
concerned about the future of Georgia then 
as we are about Georgia's past now. However, 
there is one exception. Our concern today 
involves not only our future, but our past 
as well. 

If we look back through the annals of 
Georgia history, we learn something of our 
state's strengths, its weaknesses and the 
poignant reasons why our state is where it is 
today. Different epochs and periods that 
reflect our state's heritage also contain 
something unique to that period alone. 

Today we are recognizing that these 
monuments of Georgia's past hold intrinsic 
values for 20th Century Georgians to enjoy 
as well as for the future citizens of our state. 
Also, we are aware that we must plan now 
to preserve and protect important parts of 
Georgia's present heritage that will be needed 
to meet the expanding and growing 
requirements of tomorrow. 

With this issue of Outdoors in Georgia 
we are including a supplement to vividly 
portray the challenging and intriguing 
program being launched by the Georgia 
Heritage Trust Advisory Commission to 
insure the preservation of our natural 
resources and areas of recreational, 
archaeological and historical significance. 

To this end, we of Outdoors in Georgia 
are also dedicated. 



%6C^ ^Ua^y ^c^i^y 



to kill 




aw 




By Aaron Pass 



As the cold gray of mid-winter holds Georgpi 
chilly grasp, the careful observer has a better thapi 
age chance to watch nature's living mousetraps in 
Hawks and owls, scourges of the rodent populat 
especially numerous in the state now as the 
population of hawks and owls is bolstered by r 
from the north. Most conspicuous are the large 
hawks, such as the red-tailed hawk, which perc 
trees near field edges or glide in sweeping circ 
their hunting grounds. Also present but less seeilre 
short-winged "bird hawks*' which stay closer ice 
and the owls which hunt on silent wings thn 
winter nights. 

Regardless of their habits and prey preferen 
species of predatory bird fills an ecological n 
performs a necessary service to the harmoniou 
of the wildlife community. 



■ e 

e 

ala 



Unfortunately, all are equally subject to being waste- 
ly shot by unscrupulous or ill-informed individuals, 
lumber of these incidents are caused by trigger-happy 
bs who shoot at anything they see, but just as many 
perpetrated by otherwise careful and responsible 
zens. 

Unfortunately, the predatory nature of hawks and 
Is has gained for them the undeserved reputation of 
rcilcss killers of game and poultry. As a result many 
iters and farmers wage a ceaseless war against the 
ds of prey, secure in the mistaken notion that they are 
forming a valuable service to the chickens and the 
dlife in the area. These individuals would be surprised 
disbelief by the information that they had actually 
jred the environment by killing a hawk and abso- 
;ly shocked to learn that they had violated the law. 
Hawks and owls are protected by State law. In 1963 
General Assembly of Georgia passed a law protect- 
all birds except the crow, starling, English sparrow, 
i game birds during a legal open season. This law 
>tects the predatory birds with the exception of those 
. . in the act of destroying poultry ..." The intent of 
state to protect birds of prey is specifically revealed 
the inclusion of all birds of the order Raptores (hawks 
1 eagles) in the totally protected species classification 
the 1972-73 Hunting Regulations. These laws and 
ulations were enacted to protect these birds as valu- 
e components of the ecology, whose predatory activi- 
are of great benefit to farmers and sportsmen alike. 
The farmer has traditionally viewed the hawk and, to 
;sser extent, the owl, as arch enemies of his chicken 
:k. In fact the names "chicken hawk" and "hen 
vk" are in general used to identify all of the large 
ring hawks in view of their alleged depredations in 
chicken lot. This is truly ironic since these same 
>e hawks are primarily rodent feeders and are the 
mer's best defense against field rats, but take few 
ekens. 

Like the farmer, many hunters consider hawks and 
Is competitors which deplete the crops of gamebirds 
h no regard to season or limit. Actually, the birds of 
;y perform a valuable service to both the game species 
i the sportsman by controlling populations and the 
ead of disease. Many hawks feed mainly on cotton 
s and other small rodents which compete directly with 
ne for food and cover. In another respect hawks and 
Is are a direct benefit to the small game species by the 
loval of sick individuals. Research has documented 
t natural predation is selective by removing the 
akest individuals of the prey species. Thus the hawk 
owl that takes the diseased quail may well prevent 
infection of the entire covey. 

Hawks and owls admittedly take some poultry and 
ne game, but research has proved this to be a much 
aller amount than previously believed. In a study by 
U.S. Department of Agriculture, 5185 hawk stom- 
is were analyzed for contents that would indicate the 
ent hawks feed on poultry and game. In almost every 
>e insects, rodents, and small birds made up more than 
% of the contents with poultry and game birds being 
;sent in very minor amounts. In the case of rough- 
ged hawks, a large soaring species, rats and mice 
de up an average of 72% of stomach contents. Game 



birds accounted for 4.3% and not enough poultry was 
found to show up in the sample. The highest consumer 
for both poultry and game was the Cooper's Hawk with 
10% poultry and 12% game birds, 55% small birds 
and 17% rodents. 

Thus the loss of a hawk is the loss of one of nature's 
most efficient rodent control measures, a virtual living 
mousetrap. Recognizing the value of the role of the birds 
of prey in maintaining healthy wildlife crops and in 
controlling field rodents, many conservation groups have 
endorsed the legal protection of hawks and owls. These 
include many enlightened conservation and sportsman's 
clubs, as well as the prestigious National Grange, which 
represents more than 850,000 farmers. 

Hawks and owls are going to need all the help they 
can get to survive the modern world in which their num- 
bers are diminishing. They share with most other forms 
of wildlife the continual loss of habitat to an expanding 
human population. As superhighways, housing develop- 
ments and shopping centers continue to gnaw away at 
rural acres, less and less land will support hawks and 
their prey. 

Yet another threat faces the birds of prey which may 
soon accomplish what man and gun have failed to do in 
200 years. Pesticides may eventually eliminate hawks 
and owls. Since the predatory birds live a relatively long 
time in comparison to other birds, they have a tendency 
to accumulate these pesticides in their bodies. These 
stored poisons have detrimental effects long before they 
build up to a lethal dose for the individual bird. The 
most noted of these effects is the loss of reproductive 
potential through infertile eggs and egg shell thinning. 

In Georgia, lowered reproduction has been noted in 
Cooper's, broadwinged, red-tailed, and marsh hawks; 
the last three being important rodent predators. In the 
face of such insidious threats as pesticide poisoning and 
loss of habitat, the future of the birds of prey is not 
exceedingly bright. It is a shame that each year hawks 
and owls must also run a gauntlet of gunfire directed at 
them by thrice-over ignorant shooters: shooters ignorant 
of any code of sportsmanlike conduct, of the law pro- 
tecting predatory birds, and of the true value of these 
birds both to man and the wildlife community. 




ntroduction to 



Backpacking 



It's not necessarily true that a back- 
er's feet are stronger than his 
id, although I've often thought that 
the guys that streak by me on the 
il, their packs stretching far below 
ir waists and above their heads. 
for me, my feet generally hurt 
■rse than my head, but neither has 
mplained nearly so much after a day 
the trail as after a day of shopping 
yardwork. 

Most people, of course, think of 
cing as something that can only be 
ne in dull green clothes and new, 
■fitting, blister-causing black boots, 
id never by choice. But it ain't true; 
ckpacking and hiking can be the 
Dst enjoyable outdoor sport you'll 
er find, if only you'll plan ahead a 
tie and forget most of what that 
usty sergeant forced you to learn. 
Modern hiking gear is light, com- 
rtable, and relatively inexpensive, 
though the prices can be higher than 
asstown Bald on a steamy day if 
>u insist on the ultimate. The old 
ack clodhoppers may rate a sacred 
ace in the back closet, but you'll 
:ver wear them on a trail after trying 
pair of carefully fitted two or three- 
>und hiking boots; that rib-blistering, 
dney-punching pack definitely will 
se out to a fitted lightweight alumi- 
Jm frame and nylon pack; and may- 
-\ just maybe, you'll find a new use 
t the cloth in your old tent, but 
m'll never carry it again after sam- 
ling one of the new nylon styles. You 

'Oto by Aaron Pass 



may even enjoy getting up after a 
breakfast of fruit cocktail, a western 
omelette, coffee cake and cocoa, all 
of which weighed less than two pounds 
when you carried in enough to feed 
four. 

All this comfort and convenience 
costs something, though, and the gear 
must be carefully selected or it can be 
just as awful as GI issue. We'll take 
a general look at backpacking equip- 
ment in this article, then examine spe- 
cific items more thoroughly in later 
issues. 

People hike in everything from 
lowcut sneakers to five or six-pound 
mountaineering boots, but it seems 
likely that only a few of them really 
are comfortable. Your feet need sup- 
port if they're to bear any extra weight 
— tennis shoes, street shoes, and most 
work shoes just don't give them the 
help they need. But even the best 
boots must be chosen carefully and 
fitted well by someone who knows 
what he's doing. 

"Light" boots (up to about 3 Im- 
pounds) are fine for Georgia trails. 
They should fit snugly, particularly at 
the heel so there is not much move- 
ment (no more than about Vs-inch) 
when you raise your heel. A heavy 
lug sole will provide a cushion against 
rocks, and give firm footing in slippery 
places. Hunting boots sometimes fit 
these standards, but they usually aren't 
selected with packing in mind, and 
often are heavier than necessary. 



By T. Craig Martin 



They'll do for occasional hiking, but 
serious packing requires serious shoes. 

Next to your feet, you'll probably 
have the most aches in your back and 
shoulders, especially if you attempt to 
carry any weight at all in the old 
fashioned rucksack. These venerable 
creatures suspend all the weight from 
your shoulders, which weren't de- 
signed for that kind of thing — no mat- 
ter what your sergeant said or the way 
your girlfriend coos. In fact, your 
back and shoulders are pretty delicate, 
and if you want to carry very much 
very far, you'd best find someplace 
else for the load. 

That's exactly what a modern 
packframe does. These light, strong 
(welded aluminum or magnesium) 
frames are designed to: a) distribute 
your load evenly so you stay bal- 
anced; and b) put the weight on your 
hips and legs where you were de- 
signed to carry it. If the frame is 
properly fitted, the shoulder straps 
serve only to hold the load in place; 
they carry none of the weight, which 
is suspended on a waistband. Add a 
coated nylon bag to this frame, and 
you've got a rig to carry all you want 
as far as you want to go. 

One of the things you might want 
to stuff in that lovely light pack is a 
sleeping bag. Not one of the canvas 
and flannel ones with animals cavort- 
ing on the lining like your kid has. but 
one of the tough, light, nylon and 
down creations now on the market 




Hiking and climbing boots come in a bewildering variety 
of styles, shapes, and sizes. Your best bet probably is to 
put yourself at the mercy of a knowledgeable salesman. 
(Photos on pages 6 & 7 taken at Appalachian Mountain- 
eering, Ansley Mall, Atlanta.) 



A selection of pack frames and bags. The frame should be 
fitted, then the choice of a bag narrows to a model that 
fits the frame in single or multiple compartment, full-length 
or %-length bag. 




Or, if you're an experimenter, one 
the newest foam types. 

About all that dacron bags ha^ 
going for them is price. They're hea\ 
bulky and don't keep you warm wor 
a darn unless you're inside a heati 
tent or camper. But they're chea 
maybe $10 to $40 or $50, which 
one half or less of what you'll pay f 
the best down bags. If you're going 
get a bag for carrying, or for use 
cold weather, it's only sensible 
think about a down bag. 

There's a lot of variety here, a 
we'll cover the individual types mc 
thoroughly in a later issue. But t 
main things to look for are: a) prii 
goose down, or in slightly cheaj 
bags, prime duck down; b) a constn 
tion scheme that eliminates sev 
through seams (A sewn-through se; 
will completely foil the down's insu 
tion, and the cool night air it lets 
will tickle you crazy); c) a strong z 
per, preferably the nylon coil ty 
backed by a down baffle; and d) ro 
enough to be comfortable. T 
"mummy" bag will save you so 
space and weight, but you may 1 
like the creature from the crypt try 
to get out of it. 

If you do decide on a down It 
you'll need some insulation betw 
the ground and the bag, becaus 
down bag works by creating thousa 
of tiny dead air spaces to insu 
your warm body from the cold 
When you lie on it, you compress 
down and destroy these air pocket; 
the bag doesn't insulate. An air r 
tress or foam pad will keep you off 
ground, and may even help disguis 
those rocks you missed in your rus 
set up camp. 

Another thing you'll probably \ 
is a tent to keep the rain and the 
ters out. Good two-man tents w 
anywhere from three to seven pou 
which isn't too much considering 
comfort they provide. Most tents 
are coated nylon, held up by al 
num poles, and better ones 
heavily coated waterproof floors, 
"breathing" upper portions to a 
condensation. This upper portic 
protected in heavy rain by a fly t 
either separate or built-in. These \ 
usually have a zippered screen 
and some sort of vent, with a 
closure that can be shut in 
weather. 

Once you get to some remote 
you'll probably want to eat, drinl 




'ft '.htweight camping stoves provide the ultimate in portable 
it, and they, combined with freeze-dried foods, can make out- 
or cookery a gourmet's delight. 

lerally be merry. This, too, can be 

iplified by modern equipment. 

>st campsites you'll find will already 

devastated by those before you, and 

• dead wood will be stripped for 

les around. Do not, repeat, do not 
down a living tree — there aren't 

3ugh to go around. If you're really 
i erested, you won't even knock 
f wn that beautiful dead tree or hack 

ay at that old stump. 

You just don't need that fire, if 
\ u think about it. Sure it's pretty and 

nakes you think of that nonexistent 
f 'at-hunter ancestor, but you don't 
: illy need it most of the time. Cook- 
i ', is much more efficient over one of 
i ■ lightweight gas stoves (Not one of 
ubiquitous Coleman monsters), 
i d a lot easier on the environment. 

ese single-burner stoves weigh less 
\ in two pounds with their fuel, and 



Photos by T. Craig Martin 





There's something in this freeze-dried supermarket for everyone's taste . . . all 
you have to do is find it. (Photo taken at American Adventures, 370 North- 
side Parkway, Atlanta.) 



are a lot more adjustable than the 
average campfire. 

Camp cookware has moved a long 
way from the old iron frypan and cof- 
fee pot. Nesting aluminum pots with 
frypan lids weigh little, and take up 
very little space. 

What goes into those pots has 
changed even more. Gone forever are 
the old beans and bacon days: now 
you can have beef stroganoff (13 
ounces for four servings), turkey with 
noodles 3 ounces for four), or 
spaghetti with meatballs (again 13 
ounces), a side order of corn, peas, 



carrots, or green beans, and a dessert 
of fruit salad, pudding, cobbler or 
applesauce. The whole meal for four 
will cost about $4.00, and weigh Wi 
pounds. 

We'll talk about specific items in 
later issues, and will try to suggest 
gear best adapted to Georgia condi- 
tions. If you're interested in the mean- 
time, however, you might read Colin 
Fletcher's THE COMPLETE 
WALKER (Knopf, 1969), or Robert 
Wood's PLEASURE PACKING . . . 
How to Backpack in Comfort (Con- 
dor Books, 1972). 



Photo by T. Craig Martin 



Of course, if wandering around i 
the woods seems too frivolous, yc 
can always claim to be doing son* 
thing useful, like scouting deer trail 
or searching out that perfect troi 
stream. Backpacking equipment w 
greatly expand your range by lettii 
you go further and stay longer. B< 
whatever your avowed goal, mode 
equipment can only help by makii 
your trip more convenient and coi 
fortable. 




to rig 



o 



By T. Craig Martin 

Photos by Jim Couch 

Winter's cold and drizzle traditionally offers 
the bass angler respite from the chase, allows 
him time to relax by the fire with comfortable 
old books, provides him an opportunity to savor 
the moment when visions of bass dance through 
his head. Then can he review each epic battle, 
remember the throbbing rod and screeching 
drag, perhaps sorrowfully recall those that got 
away. 

The angler can look forward to spring's 
golden warmth, or, if he's truly dedicated, to a 
moderate winter day when he can renew his 
challenge to Micropterous Salmoides & Co. Per- 
haps even Shakespeare indulged in such a 
moment back around 1606 when he wrote: 



'Give me mine angle, we'll to the river; there, 

My music playing far off, I will betray 

Tawny-finn'd fishes; my bended hook shall 
pierce 

Their slimy jaws." 



In its more virulent forms this anticipation 
entices the angler to his tacklebox, where he 
examines each lure, fondling the worms, heft- 
ing the plugs, testing each hook with a sur- 
geon's care. He may even repair to the back 
yard with a practice plug for an hour or so of 
rehearsal. 

The fisherman may, in short, seem strange to 
the uninitiated ("A stick and string with a fly at 
one end and a fool at the other," one observer 
scoffed), but he's a hard working stranger. In 
honor of his dedication, Outdoors In Georgia 
herewith provides the angler with a brief re- 
fresher course to warm his wintry days. 



^WOJlJf 



Stan Herdlein of Stembridge Products ("Flip- 
tail" lures) agreed to profess this course, and, 
like all professors, he has some jargon all his 
own: what the rest of us call plastic worms are, 
to him, "soft plastic lures." Which is only fair, 
he claims, since they resemble eels or small 
snakes more than they do worms .. .Whatever 
he calls them, however, Stan knows how to rig 
these critters as well as anyone around, so it 
behooves us to listen when he instructs. 

The single hook "Texas" or weedless style 
probably is the most common— and most pro- 
ductive—rig for plastic lures. Stan recommends 
a 4 sproat hook for 7-inch lures, a 5/0 or 6/0 
for the 9-inch versions; and he favors a straight 
barbed shank over the bent-shank Eagle Claw 
style. Use bullet sinkers, varying the weight ac- 
cording to wind velocity and the depth you 
want to fish. 




The point goes into the head of the lure slightly above it: 
centerline . . . 




The perfectly rigged "soft plastic 
lure"— simple, but the result of pre- 
cise steps. 



Slide the body up the shank of the hook to the barbs, I tf 
not over them . . . 




and turn the hook so that the point 
faces the lure. 



Then slip the body over the barbs, 
the eye of the hook, and the knot. 
At this point, the eye of the hook 
should be parallel to the body, and 
the lure's head closed over the line. 
Mark the bottom of the hook's curve 
with your thumbnail . . . 



then bend the body upward and 
insert the point there. Be sure not 
to twist the lure as you do this, or 
it will spin in the water and twist 
the line. 






11 




The point should be pushed through 
past the barb, but not through the 
opposite side of the lure. This leaves 
a weedless and straight rig that wil 
pull over or through almost any 
bottom structure and will not kink 
your line. 







% 



mm 



mm 







Portraits of Georgi 



Text by Bud Van Orden 



An artist paints and a picture emerges. 
And although this first effort is not worthy 
of any immediate acknowledgement of 
greatness or claim to immortality, it does 
show promise of things to come. This 
rendering, and those that follow, will 
represent certain important and integral 
phases in the artist's life. As he or she 
matures, and is affected and subtly influenced 
by the happenings of the world and the 
resultant pressures of the times, so also will 
the artist's work be affected so that each 
picture will portray something important or 
representative of the various periods or stages 
of growth and development in the artist's life. 

When, finally, the works of the artist are 
truly acclaimed as having achieved greatness, 
it is easy to then look back at the earlier 
attempts, and see graphically the patterns of 
growth in each which represent and reflect 
the heritage of the time in which they were 
painted. Considered together, this 
accumulation of portraits represents a vivid 
picture of the heritage that resulted in the 
artist's greatness. 

Greatness is not given, nor does it come 
easily. It must be earned, and while being 
earned, it will be documented and recorded 
for all to see just how and why it was 
indeed earned. Many scoff at it, for they 
cherish it for themselves. 

Georgia is great. Its greatness was not 
given, but was earned through its struggle 
for survival during early colonization, a civil 
war, and in its determination to become a 
state that would build a heritage unsurpassed 
in the annals of history. Its greatness is like 
that of the artist. 

Since becoming the fourth state of the 
Union in 1788, Georgia has indeed recorded 
countless epochs of history that represent the 
story and the glory that make our state what 
it is today. Each era of our state's greatness 
has left some noticeable and recognizable 
elements that today richly and vividly portray 



a picture out of the past — our heritage. It 
may be a natural area of scenic beauty, an 
archaeological wonder, a civil war site, an 
early Georgian home reflecting the architectu 
of the period in which it was built, or any 
one of a number of treasures that are 
Georgia. 

There are those who believe that we 
should look at our past so that we can plan 
for our future. However, much of what onc( 
represented Georgia's past can no longer be 
seen. Through neglect, we have allowed muc 
of what used to be a part of our state's pas) 
to be leveled or destroyed for the sake of 
progress. Great monuments of the past have 
been bulldozed under to be replaced by 
today's modern technology. Archaeological 
wonders, some found only in Georgia, are 
being wasted and destroyed so that future 
generations will only be able to read about 
them, not touch and feel them as we could 
just a few short years ago. Rustic, scenic, 
historical and natural areas that can never i 
replaced when once altered are being 
wantonly destroyed and replaced by 
commercial development. 

We have reached that point in time whe 
it is imperative that we decide if we wish 
preserve natural areas of importance availa »f 
today as well as vestiges of the past for 
future generations to see and enjoy, or if ve 
are going to let them slip from our grasp 
and become extinct only to be read about 
in history books. 

Today, in the decade of the Seventies, s I 
of natural, recreational, historical and 
educational significance are at a minimum 
and their scarcity has brought concern to 
countless numbers of Georgians who belie^e 
"that the past is but a prelude to the futui; 

The alarmingly rapid loss of important 
significant sites that once represented an 
integral part of our state's heritage has not g) 
unnoticed. Concerned citizens, conservation s 
historians, ecologists, recreation specialists. 



: 



nrtsmen and outdoorsmen alike voiced their 
:inions to a Governor who not only shared 
i:ir views, but was willing to take the 
pessary action to insure the protection and 
reservation of the remaining examples of 
^orgia's heritage. 

To face this challenge, on July 21, 1972, 
overnor Jimmy Carter created the Georgia 
!< ritage Trust Advisory Commission, 
pnposed of 15 prominent leaders representing 

liversity of public and private conservation 
i erests at all levels of government. The 
jnvernor's charge to the commission was 
^-fold: 
i They were to develop the most appropriate 

>cedure for identifying, acquiring and 
■ )tecting vital elements of our heritage; 
I ate a program for the immediate 
: juisition of the most significant and 
i langered historical, environmental and 
| reational areas; devise a method for 
I iodic review and determination of 
il litional areas so as to assure the continued 
i tlity of life of our citizens today and in 
i future; develop appropriate measures for 
:<'tecting such sites and areas in order to 
pure their preservation and continued value; 
ij I insure citizen involvement in the 
| ntification, acquisition and preservation of 
xh recreational facilities, historical sites 
M environmental areas. 

The commission immediately created an 
it r-agency and inter-disciplinary Task Force 
m lposed of the Georgia Forestry 
.pnmission, Georgia Historical Commission, 
| ce of Planning and Budget, Department 
i \rchives and the Georgia Department of 
"i ural Resources. 

li ites were carefully analyzed and classified 
i< three categories: environmental, historical 

t recreational, and were judged as to their 
lj£ree of significance, endangeredness, 
>J ince and accessibility. The Task Force 
y ewed 38 sites and recommended an initial 
:o the Governor for immediate acquisition 



due to their impending loss if action was 
delayed. 

On November 18, 1972, the Georgia 
Heritage Trust Commission held a statewide 
briefing to initiate a statewide program of 
identifying and classifying additional sites as 
part of a 10-year acquisition program. 
The evaluation of the sites is to be completed 
by December of 1973 and will be the basis 
for the overall program. 

Geographically located throughout the state 
are 18 Area Planning and Development 
Commissions which will serve as focal points 
from which local community volunteers will 
serve in carrying out the 10-year action 
program. 

Recommendations for sites will cover 
estimates for acquisition, feasibility studies, 
and policies regarding operations, and will 
include heritage sites of recreational, 
historical, archaeological and natural area 
significance. 

Governor Carter, in responding to the 
Heritage Trust Program, asked the General 
Assembly to appropriate 17 million dollars in 
support of the first year program and further 
pledged his continuing support in developing a 
program that will preserve the state's heritage 
of yesterday while providing for a heritage 
that is yet to come. 

To insure the listing of all sites that are 
endangered and subject to loss unless 
immediate protective action is initiated, the 
Governor requested that further studies be 
made to be certain that all sites of significance 
(natural areas, historical, recreational and 
archaeological) be included in the first year's 
acquisition program. 

The following pages represent outstanding 
examples of the various endangered sites 
recommended to the Governor for acquisition 
under the Georgia Heritage Trust Program. 
Many of these sites are available now to the 
highest bidder and some will be lost, never 
to become a part of our state's heritage. 
Some will be gone forever, even now, as you 
the reader scan these pages of treasures that 
belong to the people of Georgia. Others that 
were destined to be a part of our heritage 
and a part of this writing are already gone. 



Woodall Tract, 
Chattahoochee River 



Scenic almost beyond description, 
challenging to the trout fisherman, and daring 
to those who ride the crests of its rapids, the 
Chattahoochee's rustic and natural beauty 
can easily overwhelm a visitor to its banks. 
The 48-mile stretch of the Chattahoochee 
River from Buford Dam to Peachtree Creek 
is probably the most unspoiled scenic, historic 
and ecologically interesting river remaining 
in any major metropolitan area of the United 
States. Outstanding scenic distinction, 
ecological uniqueness, wilderness character, 
historical and archaeological significance, 
educational and scientific interest, fishing 
quality and canoeing, tubing, and hiking 
suitability combine to make the area one of 
almost unlimited recreational potential. 

The Chattahoochee lies within Atlanta's 
major growth corridor, and the implacable 
expansion of development threatens to 
transform it into a southern version of the 
Charles, the Potomac or the Hudson. Today, 
at least 70% of the river-front land on both 
sides of the river is owned by real estate 
developers and speculators. Public acquisition 
of several major tracts is essential within the 
next year if the natural integrity of the 
Chattahoochee is to be preserved for future 
generations. 

Bordering a portion of the river in Fulton 
County is 195 acres of beautifully wooded 
acreage known as the Woodall Tract, the 
most unique site of several acquisitions 
planned on the river. It is primarily forested 



with hardwoods on both the mainland and 
island property and contains outstanding 
botanical species as well as numerous small 
game, including quail, squirrel, rabbit, 
muskrat and beaver. The shoals area, one of 
the two largest on the river, provides an 
excellent habitat for trout and is the most 
popular spot for trout fishing on the entire 
river. The Morgan Falls Reservoir touches th 
top of the property, creating an interesting 
combination of still water and free-running 
river. 

Old roads provide excellent means for 
exploring the area's exciting historical remaii 
which include Indian rock shelters, pottery 
from the Mississippian period and possibly 
relics from Nomadic time. 

The property is endangered and loss to 
development is imminent if steps for 
acquisition are not initiated. It is currently 
zoned agricultural and residential, but a 
change to apartment-condominium is 
pending. 

To be called Island Ford State Park, the 
property would blend harmoniously with oth:i 
recreational park areas identified along the 
river and would compliment the total 
recreational and park system under 
consideration for the area. 

The scenic, recreational, historical and 
archaeological significance of this property- - 
coupled with the fact that the area is withi; 
30 minutes' driving distance of 1,500,000 
Georgians — leaves it without comparison 
today. 



\^)ut of the htlts of diabersham, 
LQown the valleys of (fiall, 
o/ hurry amain to reach the plain, 
LKun the rapid ana leap the fall, 
Split at the rock ana together again, 
Clccept my bed, or narrow or wide, 
Cind flee from folly on every side 
vUtth a lovers pain to attain the plain 
(yar from the hills of (Habersham, 
cfar from the valleys of (flail 



Song of the Chattahoochee 
Sidney Lanier 










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Wormsloe 



Historically speaking, Wormsloe provides a 
not-to-be-duplicated example of early 
Eighteenth Century Georgia and portrays a 
vivid record of our state's early history. 

Built in 1739 near Savannah on the Isle 
of Hope and today easily accessible by 
the new Skidaway Island Causeway, Wormsloe 
was one of the original buffer forts constructed 
to protect Savannah from the Spanish, and it 
has remained in single family ownership 
through the past two and a half centuries. 
Wormsloe is adjacent to the existing 
Skidaway Island State Park. 

Originally started with a 500 acre grant 
from George II, King of England, to Noble 
Jones, an associate of Oglethorpe, 
Wormsloe received an additional 350 acres from 



King George III. These original grants remain 
intact today and are preserved in the state 
archives building. 

The large plantation home was built in 
1837 and is lived in today. The Wormsloe 
library, constructed in 1 870, contains a 
complete history of the Confederacy including 
an original copy of the Articles of the 
Confederacy which is today on loan to the 
University of Georgia. 

Wormsloe's existence as part of Georgia's 
heritage is highly endangered. Seven hundred 
fifty acres of virgin timber, natural areas and 
historically significant buildings, grounds and 
adjacent marsh are owned by the Wormsloe 
Foundation, which previously held a tax 
exempt status. This exemption has been 
revoked and there is currently a pending tax 
lien which will devastate the 
foundation. Its natural and historical 
significance must be preserved. 

Historians have said, "History worth 
knowing is worth preserving," and Wormsl 
historical significance must and can be 
preserved if the state assumes 
its present tax lien. 



^ewis 
r sland 



Natural resources, abounding on Lewis 
and, describe the past, are a vital part of 
i present and indicate what the future 
grit be. Lewis Island truly holds mysteries 
the past, yet unknown to man and yet 
be. 

In the center of this 5,500 acre tract, 
Iden from the world, stand towering giant 
Dress, the only known stand of virgin 
:>ress in the state, representing 1,300 years 
heritage. 

Nestled in its safety, a sanctuary provides 
labitat for rare species of animals — the 
npkin, the magnificent swallow tailed kite 
1 1 Mississippi kite. Fish, amphibians, reptiles, 
i ds and mammals abound. Human 
ture is also entwined in the history of this 



great swamp as evidenced by early Indian 
village sites. 

Seeing these giants of time is an 
educational experience. Botany, ecology, 
biology, beauty and history are contained in 
this one tract of land as is the history of 
logging itself. 

Recreationally speaking, the island holds 
great potential — boardwalks through the 
great wilderness, built above the water level; 
high towers, exposing the great secrets of the 
trees; and camping decks, for those who 
wish to brave the voices of the night. 

Lewis Island, truly a primary source for 
educational experience not only of the past, 
but of the present and the future. 

But the giant cypress monarchs on Lewis 
Island live on borrowed time, for their owners 
must soon use the recently constructed roads 
to the cypress forest to begin a logging 
operation that will rid Georgia of a unique 
treasure indeed. 

If developed into a wilderness park, access 
to the island would be by boat only, and 
would offer a wilderness setting unparalleled 
in its character. 




Jarrell Plantation 




Crops harvested from Georgia's famous re( 
clay have helped build much of our state's 
commerce. Truly, agriculture has been a 
dominant factor in the development of rural 
Georgia and the state itself in the early 
agrarian economy. The Jarrell Plantation, 
15 miles from Macon in Jones County, is a 
seven-acre farm complex, that reflects a widi 
period of history from the 1850's, through post 
Civil War times, to the World War I era. 
Amazingly, it remains a unique self-sustaininj 
farm operation in a near perfect state 
of preservation. It includes 
houses, a barn, carpenter and blacksmith shop, 
buggies, wagons, threshing machines, bailer, 
sawmill and cotton gin, all running and 
operational today. 

It is an excellent example of farm and 
plantation life of the post-Civil War era. 
It records the history of Georgia agrarian 
culture and is being offered to the state 
without cost. 



Barrington Hall 




Remnants of the antebellum era in Georg i 
are fast diminishing. Barrington Hall, an 
exceptionally well preserved example of a 
Greek revival style antebellum townhouse wi ii 
its original boxwood gardens and old 
outbuildings, is one of the last of its kind. 

Picturesquely located on seven acres in th 
heart of Roswell, Barrington Hall, built by 
the founder of Roswell, is entirely unchangd; 
inside and out, containing much of the 
original furnishings and family belongings. 1 

The warmth and charm of the style of l\< 
era from which it came can still be seen — an 
it could dramatically serve as a history 
museum exemplifying the white-columned en : 
in Georgia. And where more appropriate 
should a "Gone With The Wind" era estate 
be presented. 



Pigeon Mountain 



Pigeon Mountain, deriving its name from 
e passenger pigeon which once roosted 
ere, is a 17,000 acre little-known arm of 
Dokout Mountain. Rising in elevation from 
)0 feet on the valley floor to 2,200 feet on 
e top of the plateau, Pigeon Mountain 
fers a multitude of natural wonders and a 
lality of wilderness which today is highly 
dangered by land speculation and 
Duntain development. 
It offers a rare visit to the outdoors, a 
'cumentation of history and archaeological 
jnificance and a challenge to manipulate 
caverns and walls. 

Pigeon Mountain contains eight caves, two 
which are classified as major caves in the 
stern United States. Petty John's Cave, first 
scribed in 1837, has 4.5 miles of 
ssageway presently mapped with new 
;ssages still being discovered. Petty John's 
, .ve, however, is small beside Ellison's Cave, 
i i third deepest in the United States. Two 
! its pits rank first and second in depth 
tong caverns found anywhere in the world, 
le called the "Fantastic" has a perpendicular 
:)p of 510 feet. The other, the "Incredible" 
is a free fall of 440 feet. At present, eight 
les of caverns have been explored in 
i ison's Cave and this is said to be only a 
[ all fraction of the Ellison system, which 
i:ers near the summit of the mountain and 
) erges at the foot. 

Geologically fascinating rock formations 
] resenting 150 acres known as 
V ktown present a version of Disneyland in 
Ik. Fossils 280-450 million years old can 
t found, picturesque and scenic waterfalls 
Inund, historic points of interest are 
l rywhere, wild flowers compose a botanical 
I den and scenic vistas surprise the eye. 
\ natural amphitheater where acoustic 
I roduction is near perfect is accessible 
i Dugh the pocket area on the mountain. 
fc s is just a part of what makes up Pigeon 
1 ( untain, an area few Georgians have ever 
fan., but once viewed, could never forget. 
; because of its size and its diverse and unique 
t'ural characteristics, Pigeon Mountain 
'■'(■ vides an excellent habitat for game 
a lagement areas and could greatly increase 
tie deer and other wild game populations in 
Dithwest Georgia. 




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Fort 
Morris 



Colonialization created Georgia and its 
heritage, and Fort Morris, in Liberty Count, 
is one of the most important surviving 
vestiges of Georgia's colonial and revolutionai i 
period coastal history. 

Built on the Medway River to protect the 
important 18th* Century port of Sunbury, 
Fort Morris is one of the few remaining 
revolutionary period earthwork fortifications. 

Nearby, the historic Midway Church, 
Cemetery and Museum already complement 
the importance of the Fort as a historic site 

Presently the state owns only approximate) 
12 acres of land at the Fort Morris site and i ( 
need 20 additional acres to adequately 
protect the present site and 
allow easy access to the property. The 
fort would vividly provide an irreplaceable 
example of a portion of early Georgia's 
history and would be one of Georgia's maj(r 
contributions to the bicentennial of the 
American Revolution. 



The Augusta Canal, built by Chinese 

x>r, is a historically significant landmark. 

le Chinese were brought to Augusta to 

ild the canal and to work in Georgia textile 

lis built along the canal. The 

source is itself a historic and scenic 

rt of Augusta. It is both a power canal and 

soiree of drinking water for the City. 

le canal extends from the lock and dam 

the Savannah River on through downtown 
igusta until it empties back into the 
vannah at Hawks Gully. Presently, 
ins would center around the 
velopment of a 1,000 acre park, winding 
way through Augusta using the canal 
a focal point. Already 500 acres are publicly 
ned, but speculators are rapidly 
'esting in all available bordering property. 
Trails, footpaths and bikeways as well 
road development along the parkway would 
;hlight the development and the 
ssibility of some form of urban water 
nsportation system along its canal has 

reased interest notably. 

The Chinese were the labor force behind 

5 "public works project" sponsored 

the City of Augusta, but have remained in 

gusta to become outstanding and highly 
pected citizens of the community. 



Bear 
Island 



\ "he Quaker contribution to the heritage of 
I >rgia is little known and not fully understood. 
I town of Wrightsboro in McDuffie 
J inty was established in the 1 8th Century 
c settled by people seeking to achieve the 
si ?ious freedom that originally led many to 
;■■< rgia. Now the last vestige of this lost 
n munity, the Old Rock House, stands 
" ially preserved by private funds but subject 
constant vandalism. This fortress-like 
we represents an irreplaceable element of 
jcrgia's heritage. 



Augusta 
Canal 



The original vision of Georgia to our 
forefathers was not what the visitors see 
today. Bartram, the 18th Century naturalist, 
wrote of "vast cane meadows" of massive 
proportions along the Savannah River and 
elsewhere. Today, they are all a thing of the 
past except for the tiny remnant on Bear 
Island in Effingham County. Here they grow 
with virgin bottomland hardwood — also a 
soon to be lost element. Preservation is 
possible because of a 

lumbering firm's concern to afford the state an 
opportunity to protect the island. A large 
area surrounding the island would provide an 
area for game management as well as for 
educational and recreational experiences. 



Old 

Rock 

House 



Pine Log 
Mountain 



Often, surprises have been found in the 
heritage of our state such as Pine Log 
Mountain — a nearly undisturbed wilderness 
within 50 miles of Atlanta in Bartow and 
Cherokee Counties. Unusual plants have 
evolved in the varied soil conditions, and the 
rugged terrain affords a habitat for turkey 
vulture, ruffed grouse and black-throated 
green warbler. Evidence of a rare Indian 
grinding mill and other artifacts provide 
unique insight to the progressive Indian 
cultures of our state. Today a development 
of second homes threatens to deny the citizens 
of the entire state this site rich in education, \ 
recreation and research opportunity. 



Marshall 
Forest 






Marshall Forest in Floyd County has long 
been recognized by local, state and national 
groups as a unique example of a natural 
loblolly and shortleaf pine forest. It was 
recognized as one of the original 14 National 
Natural Landmarks in 1966. The site is 
located within the growing metropolitan area 
of Rome in Floyd County and is adjacent to 
Shorter College. It is an example of a 
family's concern to preserve an educational 
and recreational opportunity until the time 
when their own private funds become depleted 
That time has come. Developers now offer 
the only funds that can pay the needed tax 
revenues for the community. This rare 
example of our natural history would serve 
as an open space area, and a natural educatio 
and research facility for citizens of Northwest 
Georgia and Shorter College. 



U^leasant it was, when woods were green 

Cind winds were soft and low, 
cJo lie amid some sylvan scene, 
vi/here, the long drooping boughs between, 
Shadows dark and sunlight sheen 

Clltemate come and go; 

cJhe green trees whispered low and mild; 

itt was a sound of joy! 
cJhey were my playmates when a child, 
Cind rocked me in their arms so wild! 
Still they looked at me and smiled, 

Cis if it were a boy; 

Voices of the Night 
Longfellow 






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Mcintosh Inn 



Georgia's heritage is filled with stories 
concerning the Indians and their involvement 
in the development and settling of colonial 
Georgia. Steeped in tradition and rich in the 
Indian culture of the time in which it was 
built, the Mcintosh Inn, or the Varner House, 
is an early inn and long-time resort hotel 
adjacent to Georgia's oldest State Park, 
Indian Springs. Tt was built by Creek Indian 
Chief William Mcintosh and a partner as an 
inn for visitors to the springs. 

The signing of the Treaty of Indian Springs 
allowed Mcintosh to sell 1,000 acres to the 
U.S. Government, but he was murdered by 
the Upper Creeks for selling this plot without 
the full consent of the Creek Nation. 

The inn would greatly augment and 
enhance the already established Park operation 
and would provide the state with a site 
devoted to the history of Georgia's famous 



resort springs and that is representative of Cr 
Indian life. 

Preservation of the inn would make cert 
that history concerning Indian culture and 
Indian participation in the early days of o i 
state's heritage would be enshrined for futt. 
generations to see. 




Soapstone Ridge 



Sites of open space and archaeological 
>rominence are scarce anywhere in the world, 
iiuch less in Georgia. However, on Soapstone 
lidge in DeKalb County such a rare 
ombination exists. There is definite 
rchaeological evidece of quarrying for 
arious sized blocks and bowl preforms 
uring the late archaic period — 3000 to 
5000 B.C. — and economic and technical 
evelopment as early as 5000 years ago. The 
oapstone Ridge sites are important 
indmarks of prehistoric Georgia and should 
e preserved for future generations to 
larvel. 

Recreational features are strong, as no 
pen space areas are planned in DeKalb 
ounty where scenic distinctiveness, ecological 
niqueness, wilderness character, historical 
i id archaeological significance and educational 
nd scientific interest are combined in one 
rea. Soapstone Ridge represents a unique 
importunity to balance this deficit while 
i 'oviding an outdoor area of a significance 
nequalled anywhere in the Southeast. 




n Mlips 
Tract 



Representing an undisturbed wilderness 
ea that early Georgia explorers and settlers 
tnessed when they first crossed this section 

I the state in the late seventeenth century, the 
lillips Tract in Tattnall County exemplifies 
Dne-of -its-kind, last-of-its-kind and best-of- 
-kind environment in Georgia, or, for 

i it matter, in the Southeast. 
Consisting of 750 acres, two-thirds of 
lich compose a Pleistocene Sand Ridge, the 

i >st biologically important aspect of this 

f'a is that it contains more plants of 
iottea racemosa (the Georgia plume, 
ich is presently known to grow indigenously 

i only about 10 or 12 counties in Georgia) 
n all the other populations in the world 

3 nbined. 



Another unique feature of the area is the 
occurrence of the largest population of 
Quercus myrtiojolia (myrtle oak) known in 
Georgia. 

The wilderness character of this area 
provides an excellent opportunity for the 
outdoorsman to enjoy nature to its fullest. 
Located adjacent to the Altamaha River Sand 
Ridge the uniqueness of this area can never 
be reproduced. 





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FORE 

your \ 

LEASURE 

By Dick Davis \ ^ ■ 

Photos by the Author m ^fc 



Feel the urge to challenge par? To 
split the fairway with a distance drive? 
To watch a long putt drop for a birdie? 
Or to place an approach shot tanta- 
lizingly close to the cup? 

You can do it all — come Summer, 
Winter, Spring or Fall — in three of 
Georgia's State Parks. 

And to make it even more inviting, 
golf can be combined with camping, 
picnicking, swimming, fishing, sight- 
seeing and the other outstanding rec- 
reational facilities offered at Georgia's 
State Parks. 

Would you like to beat par on a pic- 
turesque links course in the highrising 
foothills of the beautiful north Geor- 
gia mountains? Visit the golf course 
at Victoria Bryant State Park in north- 
east Georgia. 

Perhaps you prefer eighteen holes 
in the more gently rolling terrain of 
the Georgia Piedmont. Journey to 
Hard Labor Creek State Park at Rut- 
ledge near Madison. 

In the piney-woods of the Coastal 
Plain, Little Ocmulgee State Park near 
McRae offers an outstanding round 
on the links beneath the long-needled 
pines, the majestic magnolias, and the 
gracefully hanging Spanish moss. 




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Hard Labor Creek State Park 
Golf Course 

Designed to take maximum advan- 
tage of the beautifully rolling land- 
scape of Morgan County, the out- 
standing 18-hole Hard Labor Creek 
State Park Golf Course is considered 
one of middle Georgia's finest golf 
layouts. Offering almost every test the 
golfer may seek — on fairway, ap- 
proach and green — the course is com- 
plete with an impressive clubhouse 
thai could make many a country club- 
ber envious. 

The formidable Hard Labor Creek 
State Park Course has an overall 
length of 6682 yards using the profes- 
sionals' tees. There are four par-5 
hoks, dog legs, water hazards and 
forbidding sand traps. 



Golfers who keep the course busy 
throughout the year and from morn 
until evening are both day visitors and 
campers, state residents and tourists 
from near and afar. 

The Hard Labor Creek links are 
proving to be a special attraction to 
golfers from Atlanta and the surround- 
ing area. Many foursomes from Geor- 
gia's Capital City and its environs 
eagerly drive the relatively short dis- 
tance to Rutledge to play on the ex- 
cellently maintained course among the 
towering pines and intermingled hard- 
woods. 

Many avid linksmen, from other 
cities and communities 50 or even 
more miles distant, converge on the 
course. From Madison and through- 
out Morgan County, and from cities 
and communities in surrounding coun- 



ties, they come for a round of g 
Athens, Greensboro, Covington, 1 
tonton, Monticello, and Monroe 1 
among the localities with ready aci i 
to the Park and course. Dodson ( j 
ter, veteran Superintendent at H l 
Labor Creek State Park, who has I 
rected the growth of the park for rr t 
than a quarter-century, counts r 
opening of the golf course sev p 
years ago as one of the major i 
vancements. 

Golf pro Mike Barber directs I* 
operations at Hard Labor C {: 
Course. A veteran of the golfing w( r. 
Mike was formerly a profession; I ' 
the Brunswick Country Club an It 
Cochran. He participates in local |i 
state professional events. Homer t- 
strap assists Mike, and the exce I 
and constantly improving greens, r 




$ /s and bunkers are a standing 
ute to Homer's green thumb and 
■icated efforts. 

"he spacious, luxurious clubhouse 

-lard Labor Creek Course houses 

complete pro shop operated by 

% ce, a snack bar and kitchen, a large 

I ng and lounging area beautified by 

I 'eplace, locker rooms, and storage 

f recharging facilities for the bat- 

-operated golf carts and other 

ipment. The front of the club- 

i se features a large porch affording 

:xceptional view of the course. 

' .t Hard Labor Creek Park there is 

/( the inviting opportunity to com- 

A golf with the outdoor experiences 

amping, hiking, picnicking and 

< "iming. There are ten cottages and 

mobile homes available for ren- 

h olus numerous camping areas. 



Victoria Bryant State Park Course 

The picture-book Victoria Bryant 
State Park Golf Course is a garden 
spot for golfing nestled in the foothills 
of the northeast Georgia mountains in 
Franklin County. 

Located near Royston and within a 
half-hour's drive of Lavonia, Hartwell 
and Carnesville, and easily accessible 
from Elberton, Athens, Commerce 
and Toccoa, the Victoria Bryant nine- 
hole Course and Clubhouse provide 
an outstanding recreational facility for 
a multi-county area. 

Overall length of the Victoria 
Bryant Course, using the champion- 
ship tees, is 3224 yards, with two 
par-5 holes, a lake hole and 20 sand 
traps. Steep slopes, both across the 
width and along the length of the fair- 
ways, dog legs and menacing rough 
add to the difficulty of the course. 

For golfers in the population cen- 
ters of Atlanta, Augusta and Gaines- 
ville, who may find their local courses 
crowded or who seek a new challenge, 
the Victoria Bryant Course affords an 
unusual opportunity to combine a 
pleasant one-day visit to an area of 
outstanding outdoor beauty with one 
or more rounds of driving, pitching 



and putting. There is also the open in- 
vitation from Park Superintendent 
David Hansen to set up housekeeping 
in a tent or camper or trailer and en- 
joy several days of golf along with 
swimming, fishing, picnicking, follow- 
ing a nature trail or just hiking. 

Golf pro Bill Sargent directs the ac- 
tivities at the Victoria Bryant Course. 
A tournament veteran, Bill formerly 
served as pro at the Houston Lake 
Country Club in middle Georgia, and 
he now participates in the competi- 
tions of the International Association 
of Professional Golf. At the course, 
Bill offers a five-lesson instruction 
series for both beginners and advanced 
golfers at modest fees. He has also 
conducted a ladies' clinic. As a public 
service, he has arranged benefit tour- 
naments with proceeds donated to 
charitable causes. A successful Lions 
Club tournament provides funds for 
services to the blind. 

The attractive, well-designed club- 
house at the Victoria Bryant Course 
provides complete pro shop facilities 
with golfing equipment and supplies, a 
snack bar and lounging and eating 
area, and facilities for servicing and 
maintaining carts and other equip- 
ment. 




Little Ocmulgee State Park 
Golf Course 

Far-stretching fairways, inviting 
greens and gaping sand traps are fea- 
tures of the Little Ocmulgee State 
Park Golf Course, a major recrea- 
tional facility in south central Geor- 
gia that attracts thousands of golfers 
yearly through all seasons. 

The heavily used Little Ocmulgee 
Course is being expanded from nine 
to eighteen holes, with the new nine to 
open during the coming summer. 

The nine holes now in use at Oc- 
mulgee State Park have an overall 
length of 2972 yards using the men's 
tees, with two par-5 holes. When play 
begins on the additional nine holes, 
the overall length of the men's course 
will be 6042 yards with four par-5's. 
The nine holes being completed in- 
clude two water holes. 

The course regularly draws players 
from throughout Telfair County and 
from the surrounding counties of Lau- 
rens, Treutlen, Montgomery, Toombs, 
Jeff Davis, Coffee, Ben Hill, Dodge, 
Pulaski and Wilcox. Little Ocmulgee 
Park is within easy driving distance 
of such communities as Dublin, So- 
perton, Vidalia, Lyons, Hazelhurst, 
Douglas, Fitzgerald, Eastman and 
Hawkinsville, and a round on the 
well-designed course amply rewards 
the dedicated golfer for the relatively 
short drive to the Park which is lo- 
cated on U.S. Highway 441 just north 
of McRae. Even the "fly boys" have 
special access to the Little Ocmulgee 
Park Course. The Telfair County- 
Wheeler County Airport is located 
just across from the park entrance, 
affording the apportunity for a "fly- 
in" for golf. 

Tourists from throughout the state 
and many parts of the nation, camp- 
ing in cottages, trailer or tent, are 
among the many golfers to be found 
on the Ocmulgee Course along with 
their enjoyment of the other varied 
outdoor recreation offered in the park 
under the direction of veteran Super- 
intendent Julian Price. 

Links professional Ray Gentry 
the operations of the golf 
course, with his activities centered in 
the clubhouse pro shop. In addition 
cmanding responsibility of 
maintaining the course and accommo- 
dating tin many who come to play, 
Ray finds to instruct and guide 

players, young and old, in improving 




1 A 



U. S. Hwy. 41 




LITTLE OCMULGEE STATE PARK 

GOLF COURSE 



17 





•**► 



their game. The Ocmulgee Park 
Course serves as practice and playing 
area for physical education students 
and teams from several educational 
institutions. The Little Ocmulgee Park 
Golf Course offers a special family 
membership plan which has proved 
especially successful and continues to 
grow in popularity. 

Truly the sport for all seasons is 
regulation, championship-caliber golf 
in three of Georgia's State Parks in 
north, south or middle Georgia. And 
another big plus is that for non-golfing 
spouses or other members of the fam- 
ily there is much other outdoor recre- 
ation. So it's fun for the entire family. 

As they say, try it and you'll like it! 




Tor More Quail 



By Aaron Pass 







• 




Photo by Dean Wohlgj 



To the bobwhite quail the world 
appears only eight inches high; within 
this ground level stratum the quail 
must find all the necessities to fulfill 
his daily needs. Quail do fly and oc- 
casionally perch on logs or low limbs, 
but for all practical purposes the bob- 
white quail (Colinus virginianus) is a 
ground-dwelling bird. Its principal 
foods are plant seeds pecked from the 
ground, it roosts and nests on the 
ground, and the quail prefers to walk 
and seldom flies when undisturbed. 

Cover, the quantity and quality of 
food, water, dusting, roosting, and 
nesting areas all effect the potential 
of a given tract of land to hold quail 
and limits the number it can support. 
Quail populations, like all wildlife, 
are directly related to the quality of 
their habitat and gains in this popula- 
tion can be made only when the habi- 
tat is improved with the quail's needs 
in mind. Good quail management is of 
necessity, good habitat management. 

Before we go deeper into the the- 
ories and techniques of quail manage- 
ment practices, there are several terms 
and concepts which must be under- 
stood. This is the language and termi- 



nology of all wildlife management 
which in this story is directly applied 
to quail. 

Habitat will be an oft-used word 
and is one of basic importance in 
wildlife management. Habitat is the 
environment, the physical surround- 
ings, of any species of wildlife (in this 
case quail). It is this habitat which 
furnishes the quail with the necessary 
essentials of life, food, water, cover, 
etc. "Good" habitat is that environ- 
ment which produces these vital com- 
ponents in abundance. 

Carrying capacity is another basic 
management term which relates the 
wildlife population to the capability 
of the habitat. The carrying capacity 
(for quail) is that number of indi-, 
viduals that the habitat can adequately 
support at a specific time. This is not 
a stable number since the habitat has 
peaks and lows of production depend- 
ing on the season. Late winter is usu- 
ally the period of lowest production 
and consequently has the lowest car- 
rying capacity. 

Annual surplus and annual mor- 
tality are the check and balance sys- 
tem of wildlife population control. 



Each breeding season sees the pro 
tion of an overabundance, a sur 
of the individuals of most spe 
This surplus constitutes ample b 
against predators, disease, and ( 
rigors of the environment and in 
an adequate brood stock for the 
mating season. 

Working against the over-prc 
tion is the reality of annual mort 
which seeks to bring the popul 
back to carrying capacity of the 
tat. The annual mortality in an 
age quail population is estimati 
between 70% and 80% . This n 
that of all quail hatched in a 
spring, 70 percent will be lost b 
the next spring, and that the rema 
30 percent will produce enougl 
spring to withstand a similar moi 
in the succeeding year. This reti 
a fixed carrying capacity is a n; 
phenomenon accomplished th 
predation, hunting (human preda 
disease, weather, or food shorta 
one or more of these factors is a 1 
another will account for the rec 
loss. 

Limiting factors are those < 
tions and forces in the habitat 



; - e causes of the annual mortality 
id fix the carrying capacity for all 
ildlife species in the habitat. For 
jail these can be "welfare factors" 
hich are the essentials of life such 
; food supply, water, or cover for 
•osting, nesting, and escape and limit 
e population as a whole. They can 
i so be "decimating factors" such as 
•edi'.ion, disease, parasites, adverse 
eather and competition from other 
iecies which limit on a more indi- 
dual basis. The number and degree 
' these limiting factors at work in a 
ven area are the determinants of the 
rrying capacity in that habitat. 
Population density is a more ab- 
■act term used by wildlife managers 
discern the optimum population of 
given area. It is basically an average 
at shows what numbers of a specific 
ecies a locality will support. If, for 
ample, one 20 bird covey was 
und on a 200 acre farm, it would 
?m that an expression of this pop- 
ation density would read: "Density 
i X farm, pea patch — 20 birds per 
re; surrounding 199 acres — no 
rds." In actuality this population 
nsity would be expressed as "one 
rd per 10 acres." Since the opti- 
jm density approaching saturation 
lat point at which the population 
11 no longer expand) is about one 
J d per acre in an intensive manage- 
i :nt situation, it is possible that well 
] inned quail management could in- 
case the 1:10 ratio of the example. 
Quail management is, in effect, the 
inipulation of the available habitat 
improve the production of quail 
lues or to remove liabilities. Within 
ison, known limiting factors may be 
sened or even removed to increase 
J : population density and the overall 
'rying capacity. Of course these' 
; 'ious limiting factors may differ in 
U i portance in different habitat locali- 
s, and trained eyes may be needed 
J soot the problem. All the food 
\ :ches in the world will not increase 
|uail population in a habitat with a 
\ liting factor of lack of cover. 
Successful management occurs by 
ntification of the key limiting factor 
effect on any individual tract of 
3 ^'tat. If this limiting factor is re- 
i j ved or substantially lessened in 
a t'w of quail needs, the population 
' 1 theoretically then increase to the 
> rying capacity tolerated by the next 
( wst significant limiting factor. 
\ Modern quail management is usual- 




Quail spend the midday hours loafing in cover and 
dusting in dry exposed soil. 



ly directed toward the positive aspect 
of improving the supply of the "wel- 
fare" factors such as food, water and 
cover. Control of the "decimating" 
factors is often neither possible nor 
desirable because of their valuable ef- 
fects. Weather is, of course, an uncon- 
trollable, but its most damaging effects 
can be lessened by provision of ade- 
quate cover. 

Predator control has been tried and 
tried again, only to be found, again 
and again, generally worthless for in- 
creasing small game populations such 
as quail. The elimination of natural 



predators has rather been found to be 
detrimental to the management of 
small game. Natural predators are op- 
portunistic, taking that prey which is 
most easily caught, usually the slow, 
weak, or otherwise unfit individuals. 
In the case of the quail, this tends to 
selectively remove the diseased and 
parasite-ridden birds before other 
members of the covey can become in- 
fected. Also, since most quail preda- 
tors prey on cotton rats and other 
small rodents, they tend to reduce the 
quail's competition for available food 
and cover. By removing natural pred- 



VSSS^ 







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v.' ' 



I 



•■ 









I'. • '. 



■ 



9 9 ^y^^AJm^'J' -wSf - j 



The hunter's regulated harvest does not deplete the quail 
population. It is part of the annual mortality that would 
be lost to other causes. 



Photo by Ted Borg 



ators, it is also possible to remove the 
natural controls on competition from 
other species and against the spread 
of disease. 

Stocking additional birds into an 
area would seem to be an obvious 
and direct solution to a low quail pop- 
ulation. Stocking was one of the earli- 
est methods tried by game depart- 
ments to increase the numbers of quail 
and other small game species. The re- 
sults of all these attempts have been 
almost universally zero, but many in- 
dividuals still cling to the idea that 
stocking would surely boost sagging 
quail hunting. This ignores the basic 
management concept of carrying ca- 
pacity, in which an annual surplus is 
produced naturally and is just as na- 
turally reduced to the number which 
can be supported by the habitat. 

Once again we have returned full 
circle to that magic word, habitat, and 
its relationship to a good quail popu- 
lation. Just what is good quail habitat 
?nd how does one develop it? 

For management purposes quail are 
often classed with other game species 
having the same habitat preferences. 
Quail have always been associated 



with farming and agriculture, and are 
often referred to as "farm game." 
More specifically, quail are usually 
found along field borders, woods 
edges, and other transitional areas in 
an "early successional habitat." That 
last, high-sounding phrase meaning 
land in the early stages of plant suc- 
cession by which cleared land eventu- 
ally reverts to forest. Annual weeds 
come first, followed by perennials, 
then woody shrubs; saplings sprout 
and the former field is reclaimed by 
the forest. Quail needs are favored by 
these early stages and a simple ap- 
proach to effective quail management 
would be to keep land in this transi- 
tional condition. 

Quail needs are fairly simple and 
basic; food, water, and cover. Water 
is seldom a problem in the southeast, 
except when it is present excessively 
during the nesting season. So we are 
left with food and cover (welfare 
limiting factors) as the habitat values 
most efficiently manipulated to in- 
crease the carrying capacity of the 
area. 

Quail food preferences are relative- 
ly narrow. Seeds from annual and 



perennial weeds, grasses, and 
grains from crops make up abo 
to 65% of the annual diet. Ar 
15 to 20% comes from wild frui 
berries, but this is seasonal as a 
sects which make up about 15| 
and large it is the seeds and grair 
see the quail through the hard 
of late fall, winter, and early s 
Food patches planted for quail i 
include a selection of plants ada 
to the region. The lespedezas 
color, Kobe, serica), millet, pea. 
the cereal grains are all good c 
for quail. 

Artificial feeders are not < 
good method of increasing the 
able food in a given habitat, si 
tend to concentrate the bird; 
small area, making them susceprJ 
disease and excessive predation 

In many cases, a particular : 
will provide ample food suppl : 
be deficient in cover. Adequate 
then becomes the "most-limitin I 
tor and additional food plots w< i 
of no avail. The cover needs c 
bobwhite quail arc varied and It 
on the use of the cover. For r k 
and nesting, quail utilize tall g ': 



' weeds and brush with an open 
rstory. Such low cover is not pre- 
ed by the covey during midday 
(ing hours, however. Small thickets 
leavier brush are utilized for such 
tected lounging and might be re- 
ed to as a "headquarters" area, 
en pursued by predators or during 
ecially severe weather, the covey 
izes very dense thickets and wood- 
is for escape cover. All these cover 
;s must be present for optimum 
lagement of quail. 
4ost farms have areas which pro- 
e both food and cover for quail 
bundance but still have poor quail 
ulations. The answer to this riddle 
sually the interspersion factor, or 
physical location of the necessary 
iponents in relation to one an- 
r. Quail are fairly localized crea- 
s and will not venture far from 
it to find food and water. 
l tract that consists of 500 acres of 
iguous cropland and 1 000 acres 
nbroken mature forest is not 1 500 
i s of quail habitat. The useable 



quail habitat will be restricted to the 
edge between field and forest, and this 
is useful only if the field border is 
somewhat brushy. Ideal interspersion 
for quail management would be 500 
one-acre weedy food-plots scattered 
through 1500 acres of forest, with 
brush around each plot. This would 
be totally unfeasible from the stand- 
point of agricultural production, but 
the quail would thrive. 

There are a number of things that 
can be easily and economically done 
to increase quail populations on farm- 
land. Food, in the form of weed seeds 
and waste grain, is usually abundant 
but may be too far from adequate 
cover. A border strip of brush around 
all fields can be maintained by pe- 
riodic disking or mowing. This will 
keep the vegetation in an early suc- 
cessional stage, and useful for quail. 
This same technique is recommended 
where pasture and woodlands join, 
and if small thickets of brush are 
left sprinkled through pastures and 
fields so much the better, as these will 



serve as headquarters coverts. Other 
small things like not filling a brushy 
ravine between two fields or leaving a 
grassy corner unmowed and ungrazed 
are much appreciated by the quail. 

Forest land is more difficult to man- 
age for quail, but with little expense 
good quail habitat may be maintained 
in the forest. The main problem with 
woodland is directly opposite to that 
of farm land; cover is usually ade- 
quate but food is scarce. It is on land 
which is predominantly in forest cover 
that food plots are most useful to the 
wildlife manager. The plots should be 
small (less than an acre) and irregu- 
lar in shape. Long, narrow forest 
openings seeded to perennial or natu- 
rally reseeding annual seed producers 
are part of good forest management 
for quail. 

In mature forests, cover as well as 
food may be limited. A closed tree 
canopy will shut off the light getting to 
the ground and carpet the ground with 
letter and debris. This will seriously 
deplete the understory on which the 



Attempting to increase avail- 
able quail food by artificial 
feeding is not usually a good 
idea. The feeders tend to con- 
centrate the birds, making 
them vulnerable to disease 
and predators. 



yr* 




■*<• *r ' 












?'* 



■ 
i 



23 



quail depend for cover and any food 
produced by the trees or shrubs will 
sift through the thick layer of leaves, 
called "duff" where the quail, a weak 
scratcher, can't get to it. 

In a pine forest, this situation can 
be rectified by prescribed burning, 
and a thinning of the trees. The fire 
will remove the duff and expose min- 
eral soil and the sunlight reaching the 
forest floor will encourage the growth 
of low pluants which will furnish food 
and cover for the quail. A "cool" fire 
which burns only the ground cover 
and does not damage the trees is de- 
sired, so burning should be carried 
out on cool, damp, windless days in 
late winter. Fire lanes or breaks at 
least six feet wide should be cut at five 
to eight hundred foot intervals to con- 
trol the fire. These can later be planted 
as food plots. In a hardwood forest,, 
fire can be damaging to the timber. 
Openings and food patches should be 
relied on in such areas. 

The thoughtful application of any 
or all of the above practices and tech- 
niques is the key to successful quail 
management. Most of these can be ac- 



complished by an individual land- 
owner, but a bit of professional advice 
might save a lot of wasted effort ex- 
pended in the wrong direction. The 
trained wildlife manager will spot the 
most significant limiting factors and 
suggest management techniques di- 
rected specifically at alleviating those 
conditions. Wildlife biologists with the 
Game and Fish Division of the De- 
partment of Natural Resources will 
advise landowners free of charge of 
the most effective management prac- 
tices for their land. An informative 
booklet, How To Have Small Game, 
also free, is available through the 
Public Relations and Information Sec- 
tion of the Department of Natural Re- 
sources, 270 Washington Street, At- 
lanta, Georgia. 

One more point of advice, once a 



population is established and grc 
by all means hunt it. Game, pa 
larly small game, cannot be i 
piled. Keep in mind that natural c 
remove 70% of the quail popu 
annually. Regulated hunting is a 
form of predation and as such fit 
the scheme as a normal limitinj 
tor. Numerous scientifically pu 
studies have shown that human p 
tion (hunting) has a relatively 
nificant effect on small game pc 
tions in good habitat. 

There's that word habitat agai 
real key to increased wildlife 
lations. Without good habita 
amount of control on hunting or 
ral predation can save wildlife, 
good habitat, natural predatior 
regulated hunting are not only 1 
less, they are actually beneficial 



This well managed pine stand produces both timber ana 
through application of planned management techn 









mm>' '■■■■. 



24 



Sportsman's 
Calendar 



CKS: December 2 through January 
ig limit is 5 daily with the possession 
)f 10. Limits on ducks are one black 
iaily an dtwo in possession, four mal- 
laily and eight in possession, and two 
ducks daily and four in possession. 

WASBACK, REDHEAD DUCKS, 
; IT AND GEESE: There is no open 



}TS: December 2 through Januray 
g limit is 15 daily with the possession 
f 20. 

I: There is no closed season on the 
of fox. It is unlawful for any person 
i or attempt to take any fox, within 
te, by use or aid of recorded calls or 
or recorded or electronically ampli- 
cations of calls or sounds. 

')USE: October 14 through February 
g limit 3 daily with the possession 
'6. 

HOGS: Hogs are considered non- 

| nimals in Georgia. They are legally 

i perty of the landowner, and cannot 

ed without his permission, except on 

ands. Firearms are limited to shot- 

ith Number 4 shot or smaller, .22 

rifles, centerfire rifles with bore 

r .225 or smaller, all caliber pistols, 

loading firearms and bows and 



iDON: October 16 through Febru- 
in Carroll, Fulton, DeKalb, Gwin- 
tow, Jackson, Madison, Elbert and 
1 1 ties north of those listed. Bag limit 
[i t ight per person. Night hunting al- 
All counties south of the above 
|*J ounties are open year round for the 
)f racoons. No bag limit. Night 
; allowed. 

1 *REL: November 4 through Feb- 
! Bag limit 10 daily. 

EY: November 20 through Febru- 
in Baker, Calhoun, Decatur, 
a :y. Early, Grady, Miller, Mitchell, 



Seminole, Thomas Counties. Bag limit 2 
per year. 

OPOSSUM: October 16 through Febru- 
ary 28 in Carroll, Fulton, DeKalb, Gwin- 
nett, Barrow, Jackson, Madison, Elbert, and 
all counties north of those listed. No bag 
limit. Night hunting allowed. All counties 
south of the above named counties are open 
year round for the taking of opossum. No 
bag limit. Night hunting allowed. 



QUAIL: November 20 through February 
28. Statewide season. Bag limit 12 daily 
with the possession limit of 36. 

RABBIT: November 20 through January 
31 in the counties of Carroll, Fulton, De- 
Kalb, Gwinnett, Hall, Habersham, and all 
counties north of those listed. Bag limit 5 
daily. November 20 through February 28 
in all counties south of the above listed 
counties. Bag limit 10 daily. 




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t 




Jimmy Carter 
Governor 

Joe D. Tanner 

Commissioner 
Department of Natural Resources 

George T. Bagby 

Deputy Commissioner 

for Public Affairs 

STATE GAME AND FISH 
COMMISSION 

James Darby 

Chairman 

Vidalia— 1st District 

William Z. Camp, Sec. 
Newnan— 6th District 

Leo T. Barber, Jr. 
Moultrie— 2nd District 

Dr. Robert A. Collins, Jr. 
Americus— 3rd District 

George P. Dillard 
Decatur— 4th District 

Rankin M. Smith 
Atlanta— 5th District 

Leonard E. Foote 
Marietta-7th District 

Wade H. Coleman 
Valdosta-8th District 

Clyde Dixon 
Cleveland-9th District 

Leonard Bassford 
Augusta— 10th District 

Jimmie Williamson 
Darien— Coastal District 



EARTH AND WATER DIVISION 
Sam M. Pickering, Jr., Director 

ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION DIVISION 
R. S. Howard, Jr., Director. 

GAME AND FISH DIVISION 
Jack Crockford, Director 

PARKS AND RECREATION DIVISION 
Henry D. Stroble, Director 

OFFICE OF PLANNING AND RESEARCH 
Chuck Parrish, Director 

OFFICE OF ADMINISTRATIVE SERVICES 
James H. Pittman, Director 

PUBLIC RELATIONS AND 

INFORMATION SECTION 

H. E. (Bud) Van Orden, Chief 



FEATURES 

Beneficent Bobcats T. Craig Martin 

Georgiology— 

Providence Canyons .... Allen R. Coggins 

Fungus Among Us T. Craig Martin 1 

Log Cabin Bears Aaron Pass 1 

Backpacking- 
Boots & Packs T. Craig Martin 1 

DEPARTMENTS 

Outdoor World 2 

Sportsman's Calendar 2 

ON THE COVERS 

ON THE FRONT COVER: The bobcat, native to Georgia, is much misundersto< 
and much maligned, but is in fact a beneficial predator. See "Beneficent Bobcat! 
by T. Craig Martin on page 2 of this issue. Photo by Jim Couch, with pho 
arrangement courtesy of Red Palmer. 

ON THE BACK COVER: Fire and Ice. Top photo by Bob Busby. Lower photo I 
T. Craig Martin. 



Outdoors 



ii? georgia 



February 1973 



Volume II 



Number 



Outdoors in Georgia is the official monthly magazine of the Georgia Departmi \ 
of Natural Resources, published at the Department's offices, Trinity-Washingt 
Building, 270 Washington St., Atlanta, Georgia 30334. No advertising accept 
Subscriptions are $3 for one year or $6 for three years. Printed by Willio I 
Printing Company, Atlanta, Ga. Notification of address change must include < 
address label from a recent magazine, new address and ZIP code, with 30 di ' 
notice. No subscription requests will be accepted without ZIP code. Articles c < 
photographs may be reprinted when proper credit given. Contributions are v. I 
come, but the editors assume no responsibility or liability for loss or damage )' 
articles, photographs, or illustrations, Second-class postage paid at Atlanta, < I 

MAGAZINE STAFF 
Phone 656-3530 

H. E. (Bud) Van Orden 
Editor-in-Chief 

Bob Wilson 
Editor 

Art Director 

Liz Carmichael Jones 



Staff Writers 

Dick Davis 
Aaron Pass 
T. Craig Martin 



Staff Photographers 

Jim Couch 

Bob Busby 



Linda Wayne 
Circulation Manager 



7 hat Better Time 



EDITORIAL 




We sit back complacent, and lazily repeat to 
ourselves, there's still plenty of time. Our only 
problem is that we begin to believe what we're 
saying instead of realizing that here, we go 
again — procrastinating. 

Yes, there is plenty of time left right now, but 
in a few short weeks, March the 21st to be 
exact, spring will be bursting forth and 1 1 days 
later trout season opens and then it will be too 
late. 

Soooo — what better time than now to pre- 
pare ourselves and our equipment for the up- 
coming seasons that will bring us closer to the 
out-of-doors. 

You'll be doing yourself a big favor if you 
get out your camping equipment, boating and 
fishing gear, hiking boots — whatever, now, and 
make sure they're ready to go when you need 
them. It's a lot safer for you, your family and 
other outdoorsmen if your equipment is in 
good shape. 

If you put any hunting equipment away that 
needed a little work, why not get it out and 
make sure it will be ready when you are next 
fall. 

What better time than now. 



^^ (^c/i^y 



Beneficent Bobcats 



By T. Craig Martin 



Among the denizens of our carefully stuffed 
menagerie in the Outdoors in Georgia office, 
there stands a bobcat poised on a pine log, peer- 
ing forward as if planning his stalk of some 
little morsel that, alas, never will succumb to 
his pounce. His teeth didn't survive the transi- 
tion from forest to office, his new eyes lack the 
flash of gold and green the originals once had, 
and his claws are forever sheathed in paws that 
have lost their spring-steel speed. But he remains 
the most fascinating and exciting creature in 
the collection. 

For even in this toothless and stolid state, 
our bobcat is unmistakably wild. Visitors usu- 
ally pet the fox and coo over the raccoon, but 
they seem content merely to look at the cat, as 
if his ferocious independence has carried over 
from life to create an aura that protects him 
from human intrusion. While alive he respected 
and avoided man, and he would not be tamed; 
it seems somehow appropriate to respect him 
in death. 

Few Georgians ever see a live bobcat, per- 
haps because those who do usually shoot at him, 
a response that would drive the most gregarious 
animal into solitude. This hostile greeting com- 
bines with the cat's solitary nature and more or 
less nocturnal habits to make him pretty much 
lger to most of us, although a few hunters 
specialize in stalking or calling cats and an oc- 



casional deer hunter will catch a glimpse ol 
in the early morning. 

Two subspecies of Lynx rufus, L.r. rufui 
L.r. floridanus, live in Georgia, rufus in 
mountains and floridanus in the coastal p 
but it takes a biologist to distinguish them, 
liam Bartram's description of this "fierce 
bold little animal" in his "Travels" woulc 
either: "They are not half the size of a con 
cur dog, are generally of a greyish colour 
somewhat tabbied; their sides bordering o 
belly are varied with yellowish brown 
and almost black waving streaks, and brine 

He left out of this portrait, of course, the 
cat's most distinguishing characteristic 
strangely "bobbed" tail. This rather hum 
appendage usually is about four to seven i 
long, a comic addition to his two or thret 
body. A cougar's tail, in contrast, is abou 
as long as his body, as is a house cat's. Altl 
the tail markings are not crucial in sepa 
Georgia's bobcat species, the black bar c 
top of the bobcat's tail surely distinguis 
from its near relative, the Canada lynx, 
tail sports an all-black tip. 

Bartram's colorful "not half the size 
common cur" suggests a confusing ima 
fact, adult male bobcats weigh between 1 
40 pounds, averaging about 20 to 25 in Ge 
while adult females range between 10 a 



i 



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Photo by Leonard wm 
















■ ■* ■ \.y 



pounds. They are, then, larger than a cur ter- 
rier, smaller than a cur labrador. Domestic cats 
weigh somewhat less, seldom more than 15 
pounds. 

Bartram found bobcats "common enough" 
in the 1770s, which suggests civilization has 
done them no favors: recent estimates place the 
bobcat population at about 1.5 per square mile 
in the best modern habitat. They range through- 
out Georgia, but the Okefenokee Swamp and its 
National Wildlife Refuge probably harbors the 
largest single population. Some have claimed 
that the cats prefer "edge" or transition areas 
between swamp or river bottoms and higher dry 
ground, but this preference may be more ap- 
parent than real. Certainly the rabbits and small 
rodents that live in such areas make the cat's 
hunting more convenient, but most evidence 
suggests that he'll live wherever he can find suf- 
ficient prey. Cats have been seen living quite 
happily in abandoned — but still rather open — 
fields. 

Like all non-human predators, the bobcat 
has been subject to some abuse because he 
lives by preying on other living creatures. His 
detractors portray him as living in rapine aban- 
don, destroying hordes of some valuable spe- 
cies: the hunter invokes the image of the vicious 
cat pouncing on poor huddled Bambi, or, if his 
taste differs, describes the cat's insatiable appe- 
tite for tender young quail; the farmer imagines 
a bobcat in every henhouse, while the rancher 
screams for federal aid to protect his lambs or 
calves from the inevitable slaughter; and, fi- 
nally, there is the grandmother's grandmother's 
friend whose baby was carried away by a forag- 
ing bobcat in '06. 

Each of these myths, unfortunately, contains 
that infinitesimal grain of truth that allows men 
to cling to it long after rationality should have 
set in. The bobcat is, in fact, an opportunist; 
he'll eat anything he can catch and subdue, 
whether large or small, wild or domesticated. 



i 



If he can find an unprotected or weak fawn, 
will kill it, but this happens infrequently 
Georgia. W. T. Hewitt of Waycross, a dedicati 
bobcat hunter who works the edge of Okefen 
kee, says he's seen signs of bobcat attacking 
deer only four times, and he's been hunting 
that area for more than 25 years. 

Bobcats certainly eat more quail than thi 
do deer, but a careful analysis of bobcat fee 
in an area where quail were abundant show* 
that these birds made up only about 2.6 per ce 
of the cats' diet. And they eat more rabbits th< 
quail, but the same study concluded that a goc 
rabbit population could survive even hea^ 
hunting by bobcats. Professional biologists 
Georgia are unanimous: bobcat impact on gan 
species is negligible. 

There are infrequent reports of bobcats ta 
ing a chicken or two, and sometimes even 
lamb. But Game and Fish Division biologis 
could report no instances of widespread pred 
tion on domestic stock in Georgia. Some wes 
ern hunters of the federal Branch of Predat< 
and Rodent Control have reported heavy a 
tacks on stock, as have ranchers, but the pr 
fessional consensus today seems to be that the: 
reports are the result of overreaction to isolate 
incidents. 

And that ancient old wife must have bet 
telling tales: the authenticated accounts of u 
provoked bobcat attacks on man invariably i 
volve rabid animals. And even these instanc 
can be counted on the claws of one paw. It! 
true that a bobcat will fight when cornered, 
will any wild animal; and it is true that und 
these circumstances he amply earns his oth 
name, wildcat. But if we respect valiant spi 
in men and in domesticated animals, why n 
in wild creatures? 

Unhappily for the mythmakers, the bobc 
subsists on much less glamorous fare. He M 
the most readily available prey, which, in Ge<i 
gia, most often is the lowly cotton rat. He cc 



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sumes many rabbits as well, and a few birds, 
squirrels, snakes, and other small creatures that 
wander unwarily across his path. 

In his realm, and against this sort of prey, 
the bobcat is a remarkably efficient predator, 
successfully completing nearly 40 per cent of 
his stalks. Dan Marshall, a Game and Fish Di- 
vision biologist who studied the cats for his 
Master's Thesis at the University of Georgia, 
noted this success rate in the animals he ob- 
served, and contrasted it to that of wolves (8 
percent) and Indian tigers (8.3 per cent). Mar- 
shall noted that the only predator reported to 
be more efficient than the bobcat is the African 
wild dog, which downs 85 per cent of the game 
it chases. 

Although he is a relatively efficient hunter, 
the bobcat still must work hard to survive. 
Marshall watched one cat sit out a thunder- 
shower, then creep through the lespedeza so 
slowly that it took more than 13 minutes to 
cover less than a yard to a cotton rat's nest. 
Its reward? One small rat, not a very satisfying 
feast for an animal that must consume about 
500 times his body weight each year to live. 

The bobcat's never-ending search for food 
does man more good than most of his human 
detractors are willing to admit. He, with the 
able assistance of foxes, hawks, and owls, keeps 
the rodent population within manageable 
bounds. And his tendency to prey on the weak 
and faltering protects game species from their 
diseased members. A rabbit with tularemia is 
more apt to be captured than a healthy one, as 
is a quail suffering from coccidiosis; either ani- 
mal could transmit his illness to others of his 
kind and to man or his domestic stock if it does 
not fall to some predator. Constant predation 
also helps to improve game animals by insuring 
that weaker members of a species have less 
chance of reproducing before being killed. 

Georgia's bobcats stalk their prey within fair- 
ly defined territories, although the females seem 



more territorial than the males. Marshall radio 
tracked several animals during his research, anc 
found that while the males seemed to roam a 
will, the females maintained strict boundan 
lines against others of their sex. None of th< 
animals ranged far, however: the most activi 
male covered only about three miles in an aver 
age day. The females stayed within a homi 
range of one to two square miles. 

Both sexes seem to lead solitary lives afte 
they mature, meeting briefly to mate and can 
for their young, then going their separate ways 
The kittens are born about two months afte. 
conception ( 1 to 4 per litter), usually in th 
early summer. They change to a meat diet afte. 
another two months, and are on their own b 
fall. Hawks, owls, and foxes sometimes prey o 
young bobcats, but the mature animal has fev 
enemies in Georgia. 

Except man. Few men actually hunt bobcat!, 
but it seems that anyone with a gun who sees 
one feels obliged to kill it. Those few who d) 
hunt the cats must work hard these days. Ai 
Hewitt puts it, "Most of them would rather hur t 
foxes, because they're easier to catch. A bobc; t 
will lose any dog trained to hunt fox after I 
couple of dodges, and only a few of us still trail 
dogs to chase the cats." A very few hunters ca I 
the cats using an artificial call, but this tecl. 
nique is most successful at night, and has b 
come less popular as stiff laws against jackligh: 
ing deer are enforced. 

To die at the hands of a skilled and deci 
cated hunter is, perhaps, a fitting end for a bo 
cat. To succumb to a casual shot from a loafiiij 
deer hunter or casual target plinker is not. Til 
bobcat deserves man's respect and concern, n >| 
his enmity; for it is only right that one efficie 
predator should appreciate another. 

Perhaps it is something of this appreciate 
that moves our office visitors to gaze with quil 
admiration at the stolid remains of a once beaj 
tiful hunter. 



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Georgiology 



By Allen R. Coggins 



fovidence 
anyons 



It's not the Grand Canyon, even 
if it has been called that by local 
people for many years, but it is im- 
pressive — this network of mammoth 
gullies called the Providence Can- 
yons. 

The formation of these 3,000 
acres of canyons near Lumpkin, 
Georgia, occurred over a very short 
period, geologically speaking, a pro- 
cess which commenced just after the 
first settlers moved into the area and 
began pursuing the age-old practice 
of unrestricted farming. 

Millions of years ago, when the 
shore of the Atlantic Ocean abutted 
the present fall line, sediments from 




the eroding Piedmont highlands wash- 
ed down into the shallow sea cover- 
ing this area to form the present day 
sands and clays. As the harder crust 
of surface soil where the canyons now 
lie began to break up in modern times, 
the lower, softer sediments gave little 
resistance to the forces of wind, water 
and gravity which gouged out the 
Providence Canyons. Even today cen- 
tral Georgia gully-washers continue 
their process of freeing grains of sand 
and sending them on their way to 
their resting place — the sea. 

The people who really know the 
canyons, like Mr. Robert Baxter, 
Superintendent of the new Providence 
Canyon State Park, can testify to the 
fact that these giant gulches show dif- 
ferent personalities each time one 
walks through them. Water flows over 
the clay-like gray floor of the canyons, 
sometimes in thin sheets, sometimes 
in mild-mannered streams. At times 
a stream will meander sideways across 
the entire width of a canyon floor in 
less than a day. This leaves bars and 
deltas to mark the path of previous 
flows. 

Erosion occasionally loosens the 
earth which entombs ancient sea crit- 
ters that lived and died here when 
marine life dwelt in central Georgia. 

Scenic Providence Canyon State 
Park is located 40 miles south of 
Columbus, in Stewart County. It's 
eight miles west of Lumpkin, on State 
Route 39 connector from Highway 
27. The park contains 15 separate 
finger-like canyons within 1,078 acres 
of pine and mixed hardwood forests. 
The largest gorge is about one-half 
mile long, and some of the canyons 
are 200 feet or more deep and per- 
haps 400 feet wide. Narrow columns 
of more resistant sandstone rise 50 
feet in places, adding to the awsome- 
ncss of the scene. 

The canyons arc named for the 
ante - bellum Providence Methodist 
Church which still stands near the 
encroaching edge of a gorge. The 
church was built on solid ground in 
1 860, but erosion of the canyons 



caused concerned parishioners to or- 
der it moved to its present location 
shortly after the Civil War. The 
ground where the church once stood 
is nonexistant today. In its place is a 
great abyss. 

Church members face a similar 
problem today as the gorge continues 
to eat away the ground churchward. 
The church and its quaint little ceme- 
tery, containing several Civil War 
dead, will need to be moved again 
within a few years unless this erosion 
can be arrested. 

There are several local legends 
concerning the formation of the 
Providence Canyons. Mr. George 
Lowe, a one-time resident of the 
community, theorizes that the can- 
yons were started by water dripping 
from his grandfather's barn. Others 
say that a spring called Peed Spring 
(named for early landowner Henry 
Peed ) started the erosion process. 
These theories could have seme truth 
to them, but they do not offer the en- 
tire answer. The most widely accepted 
theory suggests that well established 
animal and Indian trails as well as 
roads once crossed the land which 
now contains the canyons. Water 
draining from cultivated fields, barn 
roofs, or whatever, probably followed 
these paths, eating away at the upper, 
more resistant soil and finally break- 
ing through to the softer more erod- 
able earth beneath. If this did happen, 



and it seems quite feasible, the wja 
could well have gouged out large | 
lies which, over a period of 150 ye 
could result in the present cany< 
The poor farming practices of 
past allowed large volumes of wN 
to flow unchecked over easily ei 
able soil, thus forming a classic ex;> 
pie of man-induced erosion. 

The geology of the area is qJ 
interesting and impressive. One 
clearly see three vertical division; 
soil along the edge of the canyi i 
The uppermost division is called 9 
Clayton Formation. This reddish | 
er averages 1 5 feet but can be as m j 
as 25 feet thick. Its consolidated I 



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and sand is much more resistant to 
erosion than the underlying layer. 

Once this surface is broken, the 
easily eroded Providence Canyon 
sands of the middle layer are exposed 
to the elements and erosion proceeds 
quite rapidly. This second 125-foot 
thick layer is composed of gray-white 
sands. The sands of the Providence 
Formation were being laid down dur- 
ing the time when the great dinosaurs 
reached their peak and began their 
long road to extinction. 

The floor of the canyon is com- 
posed of a gray clay-like layer called 
the Ripley Formation. This formation 
is very resistant to water's wear and 



ID 



because of this the canyons will not 
erode any further. 

Present day erosion is greatest up- 
stream toward the head of the can- 
yons, but lateral landslides of from 
25 to 35 tons are not unusual. These 
slides occasionally carry large trees 
crashing to the canyon floor. 

The canyon's colors boast a rain- 
bow ranging from whites to reds, 
browns, blues, oranges and purples. 
Chunks of clay sometimes fall into 
the canyon and roll along a stream 
bed to form the clay balls often dis- 
covered there. 

Climbing out of the gorges one 
notices changes in vegetation that 



generally correspond to difference}! 
available soil moisture: swamp, wl 
and chestnut oak, tulip poplars, swt 
gum and willows thrive in the \ 
sometimes flooded, soils along 
floor of the canyons, while bli 
southern red and post oak, dogw< 
and persimmon are not as water 1 
ing and occupy intermediate sloj 
Still higher, sassafras, sourwood, pi 
and blackjack oak occupy even d 
soils. 

Festoons of kudzu vine hang < 
the rims of the canyons in sev 
places. Kudzu was introduced d 
to retard erosion several years \ 
because this hardy plant, a men 



_. 



the pea family, is a rapid spreader 
;h very broad leaves which check 
: impact of falling rain drops, 
iter thus is allowed to soak slowly 
o the soil rather than rapidly run- 
ig off and causing erosion. 
Partridgeberry, grasses and other 
^-growing herbs add a touch of 
en 10 the otherwise barren grey of 
canyon floor. 
The rare Plumleaf Azalea (Rhodo- 
idron priimfolium) is abundant in 
lower reaches of the canyons, al- 
■ugh this plant is found wild only 
a twelve-county area of south- 
stern Georgia and southeastern 
ibama. These azaleas put out their 
ow and orange to deep scarlet 
ssoms from late July to September, 
ny people visit the canyons during 



this time just to see this magnificent 
floral display. 

The people of Lumpkin and Stewart 
County for many years carried on a 
crusade to have this area developed as 
a park. As far back as 1938, Na- 
tional Park officials visited the can- 
yons to investigate this possibility; 
but the aftermath of depression and 
the onslought of World War II cur- 
tailed any efforts in this direction. 
Nonetheless, the persistent citizens 
continued their efforts. A resolution, 
introduced by State Senator Hugh 
Carter on behalf of the people of the 
14th District in 1970, called for pur- 
chase of the Providence Canyons site 
and establishment of a state park. In 
July, 1971, the citizens' dream finally 
began to be fulfilled as Providence 



Canyon State Park became a reality. 

Shortly thereafter the property was 
purchased and a planning firm was en- 
gaged to prepare a comprehensive 
master plan for the park. Purchases 
were made with funds allocated by 
the State of Georgia, Stewart County 
and the Federal Bureau of Outdoor 
Recreation, but had it not been for 
the additional financial assistance of 
the people of Stewart County, the 
park might still be but a dream. The 
canyons within this park may some- 
day prove to be one of Georgia's 
major tourist attractions, but, more 
important, this park will preserve a 
Georgia site of national importance. 
Nowhere else in the southeast has 
such short term erosion left a more 
spectacular sight. 




AMONG US 



By T. Craig Mar 




Photos by the Author 



Wherever we turn, there is a fungus among 
us. They create our bread, cheese and wine, 
masquerade as the delectable mushrooms in our 
haute cuisine, initiate the process that leads to 
some of our most important medicines, and, 
finally, transmute death into a basis for renewed 
life in our forests, dumps, and trashbins. 

If fungi — in the form of blight or rust — 
occasionally destroy our crops, they always 
produce the nutrients that allow those crops to 
grow. This is, in fact, their most important ser- 
vice, for they dissect dead matter into its original 
minerals, releasing these into the soil to be con- 
sumed by new plants. 

In the process, they provide room for these 
new beings. Imagine a world in which every 
tree lay forever where it fell, every animal re- 
mained where it died, or each bit of trash stayed 
where it dropped — soon there would be no 
space for anything new, and the dead would 
reign supreme. The fungi save us from this 
imaginary world by decomposing the dead into 
their constituent parts and spreading them 
through the soil. 

We see this process at work every time we 
walk in the woods. Those moldy leaves, that rot- 
ting log or stump, and that decaying rabbit all 
point to fungi busily transforming death into the 
basis of life. 

And we see parts of the fungi themselves, al- 
though usually only the flower or reproductive 
organ, like those shown on these pages. The 
true body of the fungus (some scientists are re- 
luctant to call it a plant) consists of microscopic 
threads, the hyphae, which join in a tangled 
mass, the mycelium; but these portions almost 
always are hidden from surface view. 

The fungi shown here are saprophytes, that 
is, they live on dead matter. Others are para- 
sites, preying on the living, while still others are 
parasites when they can find a live host, sapro- 
phytes when they cannot. 

These particular fungi, brown and black 
members of the polyporaceae and the greenish 
members of the hydnaceae, grew on the same 
fallen log. They inhabited separate areas be- 
cause each emits an enzyme that is hostile to 
competing species; but together they created 
marvelous designs on this old log near the Chat- 
tahoochee River in Habersham County. 





By Aaron Pass 



Many hikers, backwoods campers and other 
assorted explorers have been mystified this past 
summer by finding small log cabins in some of 
the more remote areas of the north Georgia 
mountains. The small structures appear recent- 
ly built and are so low as to prohibit standing 
up while inside. The guesses made so far have 
included trail shelters, equipment sheds, or sim- 
ulated bunkers for the Army Rangers to wage 
war against. In truth, the structures are 
bear traps, set by wildlife biologists of the Game 
and Fish Division. 

Most people thinking of bear traps envision 
massive connivances. Large and cumbersome, 



these traditional bear traps often required I 
men to "set" and would securely hold the big j 
bear by one leg. The traps used by the G | 
and Fish biologist not only had to hold I 
bears, but be harmless at the same time. 

The log-cabin traps, as well as the sm;l 
culvert design, operate on the principal of cl 
ly large rabbit boxes. The animal enters the I 
after bait, trips a release and the door si 
shut. The animal is then securely but harm 
ly held for later study. 

Study is what the bear traps are all al 
The traps are being set in conjunction w I 
proposed study of the north Georgia black I 






they themselves are part of a pilot study on, 
ng other things, how to trap bears, 
he habitat of the black bear (Ursus Ameri- 
is) has for the past 70 years been shrinking 
re an expanding human population. For a 
1 many years, the sighting of a bear has been 
rity. More recently, bear sightings have be- 
e more frequent, and even common in some 
s. This apparent increase in the number of 
s in north Georgia has prompted the interest 
le Game and Fish Division of the Depart- 
t of Natural Resources, 
ame and Fish is now in the process of initi- 
l a full-scale study of the black bear in Geor- 
Wildlife biologist Bob Ernst, the project 
er, explains it this way, "If black bear is 
mi in north Georgia in significant numbers, 
a valuable natural resource, which we 
Id protect. In this study we hope to learn 
lensity of our bear population, what are the 
ured bear habitats, and by what measures 
an best maintain these." 
le study is expected to run for at least three 
i. It will consist of a trapping and tagging 
ition on three wildlife management areas 
will include the use of radio telemetry to 
i tor bear movements. From this it is hoped 
i viable population index will be established 
i ing the density of Georgia's northern bear 
\ lation. The habitat needs of the black bear 
lso be studied to identify food habits, den- 
otes, and other areas which the bears might 



use. According to Ernst, "Black bears must be 
viewed as a limited and hence highly valuable 
members of the north Georgia wildlife com- 
munity. Should it become necessary to identify 
and specially protect prime bear habitat, we 
must know exactly what constitutes that habi- 
tat." 

The work done this past summer and fall was 
part of a preliminary study which must precede 
the full scale project. This is due in part to regu- 
lations covering federal aid to states in wildlife 
restoration. Federal funds authorized under the 
Pittman-Robertson Act of 1938 are available to 
state conservation agencies for approved wild- 
life management projects. The money comes 
from an 1 1 % excise tax on sporting arms and 
ammunition. The state wildlife agencies are 
funded by the sale of hunting and fishing 
licenses, so in effect, it is the hunter and the 
shooter who pays for most wildlife work. 

The pilot bear study completed this year 
established two prime considerations for state 
and federal cooperation on the comprehensive 
study, "Ecology of the Black Bear in the North 
Georgia Mountains." First, it established that 
there are a significant number of bears in the 
area and secondly, that there are reliable and 
effective techniques for studying a wild bear 
population. 

The pilot study was, in effect, an experiment 
in the techniques of investigation. Titled "An 
Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Bio-Teleme- 




Wildlife biologist Bob Ernst with a 
very groggy bear. This large male, 
weighing 366 pounds, was the 
largest trapped all summer, and 
had to be dragged from the trap 
by a truck. 



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try as a Technique of Monitoring the Move- 
ments and Home Range Occupation of the 
North Georgia Black Bear," the study sought 
the best methods for accomplishing the desired 
results in the forthcoming comprehensive 
"ecology" study. This summer's work centered 
around the trapping and monitoring techniques. 

How, when, and where to trap was part of 
the study, as was a determination of the best 
type of trap to use. Three types of traps were 
evaluated, the log cabin type, the culvert, and 
the leg snare. The snare has been used with 
some success in other states, but was a poor 
producer here. The culvert trap is made from 
sections of 3-foot diameter steel culvert trans- 
ported on a boat trailer. It is moveable, cheap, 
and operates on the sliding door principle like 
a rabbit box. The log cabin trap was the most 
successful, but is also the most difficult to build 
and is permanent. 

The techniques of radio telemetry were also 
investigated. One problem that arose was 
"bounce" of the radio signals in the mountain 
terrain. This was effectively dealt with as were 
the questions of how to handle and mark the 
trapped bears. Over the summer, 8 different 
bears were trapped and four others escaped the 
traps. One bear evidently enjoyed the proceed- 
ings so much that he was trapped twice more. 

According to Ernst, the pilot project was suc- 
"We wanted experience and know- 
got both. The successful results of 
lould influence the approval and the 
success ' the comprehensive 'ecology 1 study 
next 



Bear #102, a 155 lb. male, was the 
first bear trapped and equipped 
with a radio tracking transmitter. 
This allowed an accurate tracing of 
his movements during the summer. 



Wildlife management personnel invol 

in the bear study this summer: (L-R) W 

Foster, Biologic Aide; David Carle 

Wildlife Biologist; A. C. A bernai 

Refuge Manager; and Bob Ernst, pro 

leader, kneeling in foregrou 




Public assistance will be necessary for 
coming study to be successful. Judging In 
the increasing number of sightings, the vj 
Georgia bear population is on an apparent 
swing. After the long scarcity many people < ( 
know how to react to the black bear as a n ■ i 
bor. Since many rely on folklore and tall H 
there is an almost predictable panic rea< t 
when a bear is sighted near a settled area. F 
pie shut themselves up and are afraid o 
"savage beast." A local posse is formed 



i packs of dogs, they ritually hunt down and 
rminate a "killer" bear. 
: looks great in the newspaper and, like little 
5, the posse members congratulate each 
:r on their bravery. Actually, the black bear 
3t such an offensive beast. He much prefers 




Did anyone get the number of that truck? 

In order to safely examine the trapped 

bears, they had to be drugged with a 

tranquilizer. Sernylan was used and was 

reported to be extremely satisfactory as it 

does not wear off abruptly. The bears 

apparently liked it as well and #102 got 

himself trapped three times. 



to go his own way and be left alone. On the 
other hand, the black bear is a relatively large 
and powerful animal and can be dangerous 
when treated carelessly or cornered. 

For this reason, the study areas where traps 
are set are posted with warning signs asking the 
public to stay out. For one thing, human activity 
might cause the bears to leave and render the 
effort of building or setting the trap wasted. Of 
more paramount and direct importance is the 
possible danger to unwary passersby. If, for 
example, a young cub were trapped, the mother 
would not abandon it. The protective instinct a 
sow feels for her young is very powerful and she 
will linger near the trap that holds her cub. In 
these circumstances, the sow must be considered 
very dangerous indeed. Ernst says that he and 
other project workers are particularly careful 
when they first approach a trap for this reason. 

Biologist Ernst is very enthusiastic about the 
project and its early results. "Our ground for 
study is very fertile; Georgia has previously done 
very little in regard to bears, and not much has 
been done in the whole southeast." 

Contrary to some erroneous local reports, 
the Game and Fish Division has not and will not 
stock any bears in the mountains. Ernst said, 
"We are dealing with a pure wild bear popula- 
tion in a wild habitat. These are not 'garbage 
can bears' like the ones in the Smokies. We 
originally thought the north Georgia bear popu- 
lation was very small, but our pilot study has 
indicated more than was expected. Hopefully 
the results of the forthcoming study of the black 
bear's ecology will tell us." 





By T. Craig Martin 



istered feet and an aching back 
;poil the pleasure of a day on the 

but the suffering often is un- 
ssary and usually can be avoided, 
er boots, carefully fitted, and a 
ously chosen pack will insure a 
I Drtable evening whether the day's 

involved only a good lunch or 
uh gear for a week on the trail. 
] oosing the "right" boots is at 
: as individual a decision as selec- 

the "right" deer gun or worm 

there are a few guidelines, but 
i 1 these guidelines the range is 

and outside advice only slightly 

Ibl. Just as a .460 Weatherby 
um is inappropriate for white- 
so a 5 '/i -pound mountaineering 
is the wrong choice for Georgia 
On the other hand, a flea- 
t spinning rod won't pull that 
i worm through the brush at 
I George, and tennis shoes won't 
it rt feet burdened by a 40-pound 
Once these outside limits are 
Dwever, experience and preju- 
£|t ike over as deciding factors. 
: ;i short walks with light loads — 
« ting trip in deer country or one- 



day hike up to that favorite trout 
stream, for example — almost any 
sturdy shoe will do, particularly if 
the walker is blessed with tough feet. 
An etched or lugged sole will help 
provide sure footing, and sturdy 
leather will add some support, but 
this type of walking is not so far re- 
moved from daily routine that it calls 
for protective measures. 

Anything much beyond that, how- 
ever, deserves more attention. Gear 
for an overnight or weekend trip can 
weigh as much as 20 or 25 pounds, 
and most feet can't cope with this 
extra load without some help — help 
in the form of good boots and some 
prior conditioning. 

Some general considerations: Geor- 
gia trails, while often steep and some- 
times muddy and slick, seldom are 
rocky, so they do not call for extreme- 
ly thick soles and heavy scuff-resis- 
tant uppers; Georgia's weather is 
moderate, and won't necessitate extra 
liners or many pairs of socks; and 
finally, the 1954 U.S. Mount Everest 
expedition concluded that it took as 
much energy to move one pound on 



the feet as to move five pounds on 
the back . . . Which suggests a simple 
rule: don't buy more boot than you 
need. 

Most backpackers prefer a rather 
low-cut hiking boot with a waffle- 
patterned Vibram (composition ma- 
terial) sole. Until recently, almost all 
these boots were imported from 
Europe and were fairly expensive, be- 
sides being molded on European 
lasts (a wooden model of the foot, 
around which the boot is formed), 
which differs from the typical Ameri- 
can shape. But now that many Ameri- 
can manufacturers are producing hik- 
ing boots, the price for a gcod pair 
has dropped to $20 or $25. The 
foreign boots cost $10 to $15 more, 
although a little searching may turn 
up a pair in the $20 range. 

About six inches high, these boots 
weigh from two to seven pounds. The 
middle range — three to four pounds 
— certainly is sufficient for most 
Georgia hiking. Serious hikers look 
down on hunting boots and other 
high-top styles, but this probably is 
a hangover from the days when back- 



packing was an esoteric sport. The 
only real arguments against high boots 
are that they're too heavy and that 
they constrict the muscles of the calf. 
Some models may have too many ex- 
posed seams for really rough work, 
but this is true of some pure hiker 
styles as well. 

Seams, in fact, traditionally have 
been the key to quality in hiking 
boots: the fewer exposed seams, the 
better the shoe. As in most things, 
cost is only a general indicator, and 
a fairly inaccurate one at that; but 
well-made trail boots could always be 
identified by their lack of outside 
seams. This old standard really isn't 
crucial on Georgia trails, where there 
are few sharp rocks to gouge and tear 
exposed joints and thread, although 
it still is a good indication of the 
amount of care that went into the 
boot's design. And fewer outside 
seams make the boot easier to water- 
proof. 

Some people feel that smooth outer 
leather also is necessary for a really 
top rate boot, but this seems more of 
an individual preference than objec- 
tive criterion. Rough-out (suede-like) 
uppers resist scuffling much better, 
and seem to take waterproofing just 
as well. 



But all this has to do with whether 
or not the boot will last, and that 
doesn't make very much difference if 
it doesn't fit well: there's no sense 
being stuck with a pair of long-lasting 
blister factories. 

The best way to get a good fit, of 
course, is to find an honest and experi- 
enced salesman and put yourself at 
his mercy. Since backpacking is fair- 
ly new in Georgia, however, knowing 
a little about the process may save a 
lot of grief. The boots should be snug 
in the heel and instep, loose around 
the toes. There should be 1 /8-inch or 
less play in the heel when they're 
tightly laced, and your toes should 
never touch the front of the boot. If 
you're shopping in a store, always 
wear the socks you intend to hike in; 
if ordering by mail, wear them when 
vou make- the tracing of your foot. 
Don't pay much attention to size, for 
there doesn't seem to be much stan- 
dardization among various models. 

In the store, stand up in the boot 
with the laces loose and slide your 
foot forward to the toe. If there's 
about Vi-inch space at the back 
(about a finger's width), you'll prob- 
ably have enough toe room once the 
boots are properly laced. That is, 
laced loosely over the toes, but snug- 



The large and small of hiking boots: on the left is a conventional 
high top hunting hoot, in the center a heavy mountaineering 
boot, and on the right a light trail boot. (Photo arrangements 
courtesy of Nacoochee Station Sports Shop, Sautee-Nacoochee, 
Georgia.) 




ly over the instep and the vert 
portion of the shoe. When the 
laced, have the salesman hold 
boot tightly, then try to twist y 
foot; neither your heel nor the bal 
your foot should move noticea 
Then walk around some, up and d< 
stairs, trying to force your toe 
ward. If there's much play, those 
the wrong boots for you. Be sure 
there's at least Vi-inch between 
laces when they're tight at the si 
if not, you may not be able to tigl 
the boots when the leather sofi 
and conforms to your foot. And d 
be afraid to show indecision: tl 
boots are a major investment 
should last you a long time, so 
wise to be careful. 

Once the boots are selected, 
should be worn around the house 
several days; then, if they still s 
right, waterproofed before the; 
worn outdoors. Sno-Seal probab 
the best ointment around, but it se: 
to stiffen the leather. Use it (espe 
ly around the seams) when r| 
conditions are expected, but Hub 
Shoe Oil is adequate for normal 
Both will tend to mat a rougr 
finish, but that's better than soa 
it with water. 

Wear the boots as much as pos 
before trying any long trips, 
leather must begin to conform to 
feet, and your feet must toughes 
a little before any great strain is 
on them. Blisters are the inevi 
result of skipping this conditio 
no matter how good the b 
careful the fit. 

An aching back and sore shou 
can be at least as annoying as blis : 
feet, but they can be prevented i 
just a matter of having the right > 
for the right load. 

Packs come in nearly as 1 1 
varieties as boots, but they ca i 
divided into two general cl;> 
those with frames, and those witu 1 
Those without, commonly called m 
sacks, are the older form, and sti I 
more popular in Europe, whil> -' 
newer aluminum-framed model 
the favorites here. Each type h s 
uses, although the skilled outo : 
man can make do with either sty J 

The common canvas Boy if 
pack looks much like the tradi k 
rucksack, although the Eun p ■ 
models are somewhat more so} h 
cated. Essentially, it's just a bag fi 
with shoulder straps and, some it 



','c 







V of hiking boots poised on the Chattahoochee River. The 
ter, and right models probably are too heavy for Georgia 
hile the other two might not hold up well in rough 
n work. 



band. The weight hangs from 
Mulders in a fairly compact 
Vlany "are narrow or teardrop 



which is ideal for hunters or 
imbers because there are no 
;j1 ons to catch on limbs or over- 
j Most have a single main com- 
rfe it, with one or more outer 
a:: for easy access. They're made 
p /as or nylon, are generally 
-I 'pellent if not waterproof, and 
ipnforced bottoms to cope with 
if itable scuffing. A few models 
i B ;xible braces to cushion the 
;j : nd others have a modified 
nt iat can help support the load. 
^i ks are relatively cheap, from 
I 35, and are a good choice for 



i ps 
re 



and light 
ideal for 



loads. The day 
carrying lunch, 



extra clothes, ammunition, or fishing 
tackle comfortably and out of the 
way, and they cost only $15 or $20. 

For long distances and heavy loads, 
however, nothing tops a packframe 
and bag combination. Unlike the ruck- 
sack, which drapes the load from the 
shoulders and concentrates the weight 
on the spine, the pack frame (with its 
vital waistband) puts the load on the 
hips and thighs, where humans were 
meant to carry it. 

These frames, usually welded alum- 
inum or aluminum alloy, are con- 
toured to fit the back and waist, al- 
though they never should touch cither. 
A more or less elaborate system of 
padded shoulder straps keeps the 
frame centered, while a pair of broad 
nylon bands (or, in some cases, nylon 



mesh) at the shoulder blades and hips 
holds the frame slightly away from 
the body. The really crucial facet of 
the rig, however, is the waistband, 
which, when tightened, supports the 
load and places it on the hips and legs. 
It doesn't seem to matter much wheth- 
er this is a full band that goes com- 
pletely around the waist, or two straps 
connected to the frame that buckle in 
the front. If the frame is properly fit- 
ted, either style will provide the neces- 
sary support. 

This fitting should be done by some- 
one who knows his business. The 
frame should ride fairly high, with 
the hipbelt circling the waist just 
above the flair of the hips and but- 
tocks. The backhands, which provide 
room for air circulation and prevent 
the frame from chafing, should cross 
the hack at the shoulder blades and 



o I 



PIN TO HOLD 
BAG 



CONTOURED 
FRAME 



PADDED 

SHOULDER 

STRAPS 



BACKBANDS 



WAISTBAND 




JO 










s waist. None of the weight 
i be suspended from the shoul- 

have a friend hang on the 
; if you feel any of the weight 
2 shoulder straps, something is 
[. Frames come in several sizes, 
lere's no shame in settling for 
hing less than "large" . . . follow 
lanufacturer's advice and pick 
ie that matches your height. 
:n there's the problem of find- 
bag to put on this perfectly fit- 
ame. They come in several 
that can be differentiated only 
sonal prejudice. The main divi- 
de 3 4 -length versus full length, 
lgle compartment versus multi- 
npartment. A ¥ 4 -length bag is 
;d to leave room at the bottom 
of the frame for a sleeping bag, 
is held on by a set of straps, 
ull length bag extends the 
of the frame and requires that 
eping bag be stuffed in. The 
compartment sack is just that, 
mpty sack that can be filled in 
y of ways. It provides the most 
space, and, in a full length 

room for more weight than 
in his right mind would carry. 

multiple-compartment sacks 



The large and small of packs: from left to right there 

is a day pack, a conventional rucksack, and a frame pack and 

bag with sleeping bag strapped underneath. 



A fully rigged 3 A-length pack and its frame. This 
twm-compartment bag leaves room for the sleeping bag 
underneath. Notice the handy outside pockets 



• - • .. . 




usually have two sections, although 
some have three and even four. One 
is a large compartment that opens at 
the top, the other a slightly smaller 
area accessible through a zipper at 
the back. This arrangement requires 
a good deal less planning than the 
single compartment bag, for the gear 
is more readily available. Both types 
have several outside pockets for 
small items that must be kept handy. 

For general use, the V-x length, 
twin-compartment, bag probably is a 
good starting point. It will serve most 
purposes, and requires less experience 
for convenient use. It should be made 
of waterproof material, usually a 
coated nylon, although one of the 
very best manufacturers, Kelty Pack, 
Inc., makes only a water repellent bag 
(they do, however, offer a 4 oz. 
waterproof cover for the pack, a 
necessary addition). "Water repel- 
lent" is fine if it doesn't rain, but it's 
sure to mean wet gear if you're caught 
in a storm. 

A good frame and bag is going to 
cost between $25 and $60, so it 
might be well to rent them for a while 
to see if you're really interested in 
backpacking before making the in- 
vestment. 

It is very easy to carry heavy loads 
on a packframe, but some care in ar- 
ranging the weight will help. The 
heaviest gear should be packed close 
to the back and fairly high. This puts 
the weight near your center of gravity, 
and keeps the pack from pulling away 
from you. Most people seem to find 
the load easier to carry if it rides 
up around the shoulders, which is why 
the 3 A length pack has room under- 
neath for the light sleeping bag. But 
this high load is a little unstable, so 
ski-tourers and climbers often shift 
the bag down on the frame. A varia- 
tion on this — also a standard safety 
precaution when crossing streams — 
is to release the hipbelt when in pre- 
carious footing. 

The packframe is quite unweildy 
in dense cover, and probably isn't a 
good choice for hunting. But there's 
no better way to carry gear into a 
camp. 

p quality boots and pack will be 

ite an investment, both in cost and 

in the time spent in making a good 

choice, but a few comfortable eve- 

:s in camp will make this payment 

eminently worthwhile. 



the 

OUTDOOR WORLD 



PLANTING QUAIL FOOD 

One of the methods of improving 
quail habitat is the planting of food 
patches. These patches should be 
laid out in strips or in irregular shapes 
and cover Vs to l A acre for each 20- 
25 acres of habitat. These plants may 
be used as borders to woodlands and 
fields or on firebreaks when used in 



conjunction with prescribed bun H 
Quail are mainly seed-eaters aiP- 
large number of plants are attraJi 
to them. The table below is t ¥& 
from Circular 578 of the Cooper .f 
Extension Service, University «■ 
Georgia College of Agriculture ;* 
lists some of the important pi 
foods used for plantings in this re j'- 
— Aaron Pct^ 



1 . Kobe or Korean 
Lespedeza 

2. Hairv Vetch 



3. Cow peas 
(Tory, Iron, Clay, 
Covington or Thorsby 
Cream) 

4. Cow peas and 
Soybeans 



5. Grain Sorghum 
(DeKalbE57, F64, 
North rup King 222) 

6. Brown-top Millet 



7. Bicolor Lespedeza* 
(seedlings) 



8. Florida Beggarweed 
"tickclover" 



9. Benne 
"Sesame" 



Broadcast 30 to 35 pounds per acre from F< 1 [ 
ary 1 to March 1. Plant in clay, loamy or n 
soils of medium fertility. 

Broadcast 20 to 30 pounds of inoculated see P 
acre from September 1 to October 15. Pla 

well drained soils. 

tt 



Broadcast 10 to 15 pounds per acre from 
to June. Not productive on deep sandy soils 



Broadcast 15 pounds cowpeas and 15 pound 
beans (Gatan or Laredo, other local soybv 
per acre on moderate to well drained saCT ! 

medium to good fertility. 

f.:\ 

Broadcast 30 pounds per acre or plant in re » 
10 pounds per acre on moderate to well chafei 
soils of medium to good fertility. 

Plant 20 pounds per acre drilled on sites i 
quired by grain sorghum. Plant as late as p< 3 
to insure seed maturing before frost. 

Set 1 8 inches apart in three-foot rows, 200 I ] 
feet long; four to eight rows per plot. Plan 
December 1 to March 1 . Does well on all ; 
except deep sands or poorly drained soils. 

Plant 10 pounds scarified seed per acre whe i 
is "laid by" or not later than June 1. Plar: 
in South Georgia. 

Plant five pounds per acre in rows arounc 
Best suited to South Georgia. Do not pi i 
same plot of land two or more years in suo e 
due to wilt. 



!|! Bicolor or other shrub lespedezas also make good cover plantings. 



AL TU CHAPTER GETS 
IONAL AWARD 

recognition of outstanding ef- 

in the creation of a trophy trout 

m, Waters Creek, the Chatta- 

hee Chapter of Trout Unlimited 

recently awarded the Gold Trout 

rd as the nation's outstanding 

ter of TU. Formal presentation 

2 award was made by Chris Colt, 

leastern Representative of TU 

mal, at the chapter's annual fall 

uet held in Atlanta. 

chael Frome, Conservation Edi- 

f Field & Stream, was the guest 

:er at the banquet. Chris Colt 

presented Mr. Frone with the 

Reserved TU Gold Trout Award 

i news media category. 

! Townsend presented the Chat- 

chee Chapter's Silver Trout 

d in the professional category 

on Kirkland, Chief of Fisheries 

Game and Fish Division, Geor- 

I apartment of Natural Resources, 

is outstanding contributions to 

fishing in the Southeast and the 

of Georgia during the past 15 

| *b Beattie, President of the 
1 thoochee Chapter, presented 
[ hapter's Silver Trout Award in 
'. in-professional category to Kirk 
{on of Chattanooga, Tennessee, 
; r" Association for the Preserva- 
,( f the Little "T." Kirk was rec- 
j: d for his fight to save the Little 
fi ssee River. 

Surls presented the Biggest 
t Released Award to Bo Brooks 
l s 26-inch brown caught and 
f:d in Waters Creek. There is 
) ig possibility that Waters Creek 
J eld a 30 inch trout to take the 
\ I next year. 

— Joe Townsend 




Sportsman's 
Calendar 



FOX: There is no closed season on 
the taking of fox. It is unlawful for 
any person to take or attempt to take 
any fox, within the State, by use or 
aid of recorded calls or sounds or 
recorded or electronically amplified 
imitations of calls or sounds. 

GROUSE: October 14 through 
February 28. Bag limit 3 daily with 
the possession limit of 6. 

WILD HOGS: Hogs are considered 
non-game animals in Georgia. They 
are legally the property of the land- 
owner, and cannot be hunted without 
his permission, except on public lands. 
Firearms are limited to shotguns with 
Number 4 shot or smaller, .22 rimfire 
rifles, centerfire rifles with bore diam- 
eter .225 or smaller, all caliber pis- 
tols, muzzle loading firearms and 
bows and arrows. 

OPOSSUM: October 16 through 
February 28 in Carroll, Fulton, De- 
Kalb, Gwinnett, Barrow, Jackson, 
Madison, Elbert, and all counties 
north of those listed. No bag limit. 



Night hunting allowed. All counties 
south of the above named counties are 
open year round for the taking of 
opossum. No bag limit. Night hunting 
allowed. 

QUAIL: November 20 through 
February 28. Statewide season. Bag 
limit 1 2 daily with the possession limit 
of 36. 

RABBIT: November 20 through 
January 3 1 in the counties of Carroll, 
Fulton, DeKalb, Gwinnett, Hall, Hab- 
ersham, and all counties north of 
those listed. Bag limit 5 daily. Novem- 
ber 20 through February 28 in all 
counties south of the above listed 
counties. Bag limit 10 daily. 

RACCOON: October 16 through 
February 28 in Carroll, Fulton, De- 
Kalb, Gwinnett, Barrow, Jackson, 
Madison, Elbert and all counties 
north of those listed. Bag limit 1 per 
night per person. Night hunting al- 
lowed. All counties south of the above 
named counties are open year round 
for the taking of raccoons. No bag 
limit. Night hunting allowed. 

SQUIRREL: November 4 through 
February 28. Bag limit 10 daily. 

TURKEY: November 20 through 
February 28 in Baker, Calhoun, De- 
catur, Dougherty, Early, Grady, Mil- 
ler, Mitchell, Seminole, Thomas 
Counties. Bag limit 2 per year. 



Outdoors 

ii? georgia 



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Some say the world will end in fire, 
Some say in ice. 

From what Ire tasted of desire 
I would hold with those who favor fire. 
But if it had to perish twice, 
I think I know enough of hate 
that for destruction ice 
l\ i'. 

Robert Frost 



Outdoors 

it? gecrgia 






(•ass™ of Georgia March, 1973 











Jimmy Carter 
Governor 

Joe D. Tanner 

Commissioner 
Department of Natural Resources 

George T. Bagby 

Deputy Commissioner 

for Public Affairs 

STATE GAME AND FISH 
COMMISSION 

James Darby 

Chairman 

Vidalia-lst District 

William Z. Camp, Sec. 
Newnan— 6th District 

Leo T. Barber, Jr. 
Moultrie— 2nd District 

Dr. Robert A. Collins, Jr. 
Americus— 3rd District 

George P. Dillard 
Decatur— 4th District 

Rankin M. Smith 
Atlanta-5th District 

Leonard E. Foote 
Marietta— 7th District 

Wade H. Coleman 
Valdosta-8th District 

Clyde Dixon 
Cleveland— 9th District 

Leonard Bassford 
Augusta— 10th District 

Jimmie Williamson 
Darien— Coastal District 



EARTH AND WATER DIVISION 
Sam M. Pickering, Jr., Director 

ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION DIVISION 
R. S. Howard, Jr., Director 

GAME AND FISH DIVISION 
Jack Crockford, Director 

PARKS AND RECREATION DIVISION 
Henry D. Struble, Director 

;CE OF PLANNING AND RESEARCH 
.'•:k Parrish, Director 

OFFICE OF ADMINISTRATIVE SERVICES 
James H. Pittman, Director 

PUBLIC RELATIONS AND 

INFORMATION SECTION 

H. E. (Bud) Van Orden, Chief 



FEATURES 

Tents and Bags T. Craig Martin 

Ty Cobb Memorial Allen D. Coggins 

Donald C. Pendergrast 

Terrariums T. Craig Martin 

Wildlife Profiles: Crappie Aaron Pass 

Georgia's Geologic Showplaces . . . Dick Davis 

Turkey Forecast Aaron Pass 



DEPARTMENTS 



Eook Review 



Outdoor World 



Sportsman's Calendar 

Front Cover: by Jim Couch 
Back Cover: by T. Craig Martin 



Outdoors 



ii> georgia 



March, 1973 



Volume 2 



Num; 



Outdoors in Georgia is the official monthly magazine of the Georgia Dec 3 
of Natural Resources, published at the Department's offices, Trinity-Wa I 
Building, 270 Washington St., Atlanta, Georgia 30334. No advertising c : 
Subscriptions are $3 for one year or $6 for three years. Printed by S 
Printing Company, Atlanta, Ga. Notification of address change must inc i 
address label from a recent magazine, new address and ZIP code, with i 
notice. No subscription requests will be accepted without ZIP code. Arti I 
photographs may be reprinted when proper credit given. Contributions i 
come, but the editors assume no responsibility or liability for loss or da I 
articles, photographs, or illustrations, Second-class postage paid at Atlc l . 



MAGAZINE STAFF 

Phone 656-3530 

H. E. (Bud) Van Orden 
Editor-in-Chief 

Bob Wilson 
Editor 

Art Director 

Liz Carmichael Jones 



Staff Writers 

Dick Davis 

Aaron Pass 

T. Craig Martin 



Staff Photograph i 

Jim Couch 
Bob Busby 



Linda Wayne 
Circulation Manager 



EDITORIAL 



Silhouettes at Eventide 



Softly rippling waves gently rocked the 
ttle fishing boat where for the best part 
f the day I had shared the space with what 
i speared in the water now as the silhouettes of 
vo small boys, peering eagerly into 
le water. My own shadow on the water 
noked restful and peaceful as I sat with feet 
: opped up on the seat in front of me 
nd my cap pulled down in the front over my 
; 'es shading me from the remnants of the 
; st rays of the sun before it disappeared behind 
: le horizon. 

The two small silhouettes never stayed 
« ng enough in one spot to reminisce 
J )on because they belonged to two boys on 
i fishing trip with their dad. They moved about 
) 1 the water as fast as the little rascals 
id in the boat. They moved excitedly when we 
i nded a big one and questioned me 
< lentlessly when we threw back some small 
9 ies, and I explained why. 
' I baited hooks, cast lines, reeled in, 
* ited hooks, added sinkers, put on lures, 
' ited hooks, and unbaited one small finger off 
a number six sproat and I loved every minute 
y it. For I was sharing some unforgettable 
J] )ments with my sons while at the same 
i le teaching them about how to enjoy and 
m the most out of fishing while practicing a 
[i tie conservation and good 
|| Msmanship. And so we learned a little 
"i >re about each other this day. Expressing 
- pect for our natural resources helped us 
'<■ n more respect for each other. 
This little trip with my two favorite 
s ling buddies reminds me of some favorite 
J >ughts of another great fishing partner, not 
r y of mine, but of fishermen throughout the 



state, George T. Bagby. When I told him about 
my weekend trip with my boys, he reached 
into his hip pocket and pulled a slip of 
paper from his wallet and read these words 
of an unknown author: 



My son when you have older grown 
I'll take you to a lake I've known 
At midnite, noontime, dusk or dawn. 
I want to show you where I've gone 
To find my freedom — and want to be 
In the boat with you and have you see 
And learn from me, oh! son of mine, 
How to cast a fishing line. 

For I've been young — too well I know 

The rocky road your feet must go. 

But I know, too, a path that clings 

To a wooded hill where the PeeWee sings. 

Where dogwood grows, and oak and pine, 

And all I ask, oh! son of mine, is to row 

The boat for you some day 

A long that shore where the willows sway 

To be with you when first you feel 

A leaping fish unwind your reel. 

My son will sleep as I have slept 
Beneath the heavens reach, star swept. 
I want the dawn's first gleaming dim 
To waken something deep in him. 
I want my boy to learn to take 
His troubles to that shining lake 
And lose them there. And so I wish, 
Oh! son of mine, that you may fish — 
For my boy's sake. I ask it God, 
Teach him to love a casting rod. 



iusL ~U^ (^Ui^y 



Tents & Bags 




\ 







By T. Craig Martin 



Photos by the Author 



K 



■J? 




X- 




3A. ■ 



Many an amorous fling with hack- 
ling has suffered its demise in the 
sp of a chilly night. Others of these 
lemeral affairs have died in the 
mmy cold of a rainy 3 a.m. But 
i and cold and dark of night should 
i be allowed to interfere with out- 
nrs pleasures, particularly when 
: ;ping bags and snug tents are readi- 
vailable. 

Modern equipment to keep warm 

ind rain out is available in profu- 

) 1, but only a small portion of this 

; r will serve backpackers, and an 

! a smaller portion serve well. A 

j< d sleeping bag or tent is a major 

:stment; together their cost can test 

commitment of all but the rich. 

>ut to buy a cheap bag or tent is to 

' te trouble, while a fine version of 

I er one will provide comfort and 

: sure for many years. And, of 

. "se, the cost is relative: a back- 

: cer can superbly equip himself 

his family for a great deal less 

the cost of the motor on an aver- 

: base boat . . . 

tent's duties seem fairly simple: 
:|> ide a barrier against rain, cold, 
Ip I, and unwanted critters. To pro- 
l< this protection against the out- 

iand furnish a livable space on the 
e in a portable package, however, 
ires ingenious — and usually ex- 
ive — design and materials. 
ie requirement that it be portable 
i i nates almost all tents not spe- 
pdly designed for backpacking, 
J I a few that are. Most good tents 
|ji vo weigh less than seven pounds, 
i ding poles and pegs. They need 
veigh even that much: Stephen- 
astonishing "Warmlite" tent 
£ is 3 pounds in its two-man ver- 
1 The requirement that it exclude 
c and inquisitive creatures elimi- 
most tarps and tube-tents, al- 
ii either will dampen the wind's 



howl if properly rigged. And the re- 
quirement that it protect against rain 
(not showers, but a heavy and pro- 
longed rain, which is, after all, when 
you want a tent) eliminates most of 
the canvas and other "water repellent" 
models. 

Once this process of elimination 
has been carried out, some refine- 
ments should be checked: a good tent 
should have a sewn-in waterproof 
floor, preferably of a heavy material 
that continues 8-10 inches up the side 
wall; it should have good ventilation, 
even when closed against a storm; 
there should be some means of keep- 
ing out bugs while letting air in, and it 
should be easy to pitch under the 
worst possible conditions. 

These standards are met by all the 
major outdoors manufacturers, in- 
cluding, among others, Gerry, Camp 
Trails, Ski Hut, Sierra Designs, Holu- 
bar, Recreational Equipment, Alp 
Sport, and North Face. Choosing 
among their products is difficult, and 
usually depends on personal taste 
rather than differences in overall 
quality. Prices in this group run about 
$50 to $70 or more for two man 
tents. 

Stiff? Yes, but beware of cheaper 
tents or "special buys." Always keep 
the weight in mind, for an extra pound 
or two will mean a lot during the hot 
trek over a mountain. And that tent 
that is "guaranteed waterproof" be- 
cause of its rubber-coated nylon body 
may well rain on you due to interior 
condensation: the tent must "breathe" 
out accumulated moisture or it will 
condense on the sides and top, then 
rain back on you in the cool morning. 
Most good tents utilize a more or less 
porous body with a separate water- 
proof fly to stop the rain; the tent 
body then passes interior moisture out 
of the tent. 



The tent should be large enough to 
allow comfortable movement inside, 
and, preferably, room to store gear 
out or the rain. Different designs ac- 
complish this in different days, but 
the old "A"-line pup tent style re- 
mains popular. 

The poles should be sturdy and 
easy to assemble and disassemble. If 
not, you may be in for a wet night. 
The best tents now include poles con- 
nected by elastic shock cord: the sec- 
tions can't be lost, and about all you 
have to do to assemble them is toss 
one end in the air. 

Make sure there's good ventilation. 
A well-ventilated tent is less subject 
to condensation problems, and cer- 
tainly is more comfortable to live in. 
There are horror tales of men suffo- 
cating in tents during snow storms: if 
you plan to be out in such weather, 
make doubly sure the tent has good 
air vents. 

Before buying any kind of tent, it 
probably is best to rent one and use 
it a few times. You may decide to buy 
that style, or you may not; but at least 
you'll have some ideas of features 
you like or dislike. 

The same goes for sleeping bags, 
although the choice seems simpler. 
All top rate bags are made of ripstop 
nylon, all are filled with high grade 
goose down, all incorporate "differen- 
tial cut" and down baffles; the only 
problem in choosing one is to find a 
shape that suits you. Or is it? 

Good bags are filled with down be- 
cause it is the most efficient insulator 
yet discovered for this use. It expands 
to trap air in tiny dead spaces, thereby 
separating the warm air near your 
body from the cold outside. It also 
compresses to an easily portable size, 
which is important to backpackers. 

The "differential cut" design allows 
the down to reach its maximum ex- 



' nt provided by American Adventurers, 370 Northsidc Parkway, Atlanta. 



Water vapor 
escapes as 
air circulates 



Waterproof 
rainfly 




Breathabli 
tentwall 



The tent must breathe so that water vapor does not condense inside to rain back on 
occupants. The waterproof fly protects against rain. 



pansion or "loft" by combining two 
entirely separate bags, an outer shell 
and a smaller inner shell next to your 
body, with the down trapped between 
the shells. The inner shell constricts 
your movements enough to prevent 
your accidently compressing the down 
against the outer wall, which would 
ruin the down's effectiveness. 

The system of internal baffles keeps 
the down in place and assures even 
loft throughout the bag. Various de- 
signs are used, but all baffles are sewn 
to the outer and inner shells (never 
buy a bag with sewn-through seams 
if you have any intention of using it to 
stay warm). Whatever the design, the 
intention is the prevent the cold spots 
that develop when down drifts' away 
from one portion of the bag. 

Ripstop nylon is the universal 

choice because it is "down-proof 

(down can't escape through the 

weave), quite strong, and very light. 

But it is a bit chilly next to the skin, 

so there is a continuing search for a 

more comfortable inner bag material. 

I bags also use nylon zippers, 

•ause they seem to be less 

icularly in extreme 

I metal style. The 

zipper c backed by a down 

flap that cold air that 



leaks through the zipper or its stitch- 
ing. 

All these common features, how- 
ever, don't help very much in selecting 
the right bag for your $80-$ 120 in- 
vestment. The most important ques- 
tions remain: what style — mummy, 
modified mummy, barrel-cut, or 
square-cut; and what weight of down 
fill — the range varies between Wi 
and 5 pounds. 

A pure mummy style is the lightest 
and warmest bag available. But for 
most people, it also is the most un- 
comfortable because it provides the 
least room for movement. Unless you 
plan to be out under arctic conditions, 
or are comfortable sleeping like King 
Tut, you probably should avoid a 
pure mummy bag. It will almost cer- 
tainly be too hot for all but the coldest 
winter months in Georgia's moun- 
tains, or too cold if you get a very light 
fill for summer use. 

The modified mummy, on the other 
hand, probably is a good all-round 
choice for Georgians. This style pro- 
vides a moderate amount of room, 
but still is light enough to carry com- 
fortably. It can be drawn tight for 
winter use, or opened up (generally, 
the zipper runs from the shoulder to 
the foot of the bag, and can be opened 



from either end) in the spring | 
summer. It will be slightly hea' 
than a mummy bag, and will si 
slightly cooler for the same amc 
of down fill. But it is more versa 

The barrel-cut and square-cut t 
weigh more than is ideal for b; 
packers, and they cannot be clc 
tight enough to be suitable for < 
weather camping. They are n 
comfortable in warm weather, s 
they can be completely opened i 
used like blankets, and they pro 
more sleeping room than the o 1 
styles. These summer advantt; 
however, are definite drawback 
cold weather: that extra room mu; . 
warmed, which drains badly ne< : 
heat from your body; and the widi 
leaves more room at the shoulder 
cold air to leak in. These are fin* 
summer and fall work, and grea 
use in tents or camper trailers. B i 
packers may want to avoid them. 

Within any given style of bag 
general rule is "more down, 1 1 
warmth." Thus a mummy bag ' 
2 Vz -pounds of goose down wl 
warmer than the same bag will 
pounds of fill. But this rule doe 
hold true between styles: a barn 
bag will need much more fill to v 
warm as a mummy or modified r «' 



- 




JW 



iw 



; T^i -:s«^».l 



*»t^isa»^flK^- 




'Id weather — where there are few or no critters to contend with — a tarp provides 
protection against sun, light showers, and unwanted breezes. 

S can be rigged in almost infinitely varying forms, depending on weather and the 
■'$ creativity. 




my bag. Loft generally is taken to be 
the key indicator of the bag's temper- 
ature range (more down can expand 
int omore area) since most tests 
suggest that it is the thickness — not 
the amount or material — of insulation 
that counts. 

Tests with "average" people indi- 
cate that a 5-inch loft will be sufficient 
down to about 0° F, with each addi- 
tional inch extending the range down 
20° F and each inch less reducing the 
range by the same amount. But some 
people "sleep hot" and some "sleep 
cold," so these guidelines may not fit 
your individual case. 

The range of any bag (except the 
pure mummy) can be extended up- 
ward by unzipping it a little at a time 
until it becomes comfortable. Extend- 
ing the range downward is a bit more 
complicated, but several techniques 
may help: 

1 ) Wear more clothes (but only dry 
clothes, not those you wore on the 
trail); 

2) make sure your head and shoul- 
ders stay covered (a tremendous 
amount radiant heat pours out 
through your head, so snuggle 



down into the bag or wear a knit 
cap of some kind); 

3) Don't exhaust yourself on the 
trail (the bag does not provide 
warmth; it only preserves the heat 
your body generates, so if you are 
exhausted and cannot produce 
body heat, you'll stay cold); 

4) Eat something sweet just before 
you go to bed (the sugar will move 
into your bloodstream and pro- 
vide extra calories of heat). 

All down bags must be insulated 
from the ground, for your body com- 
presses the down beneath you, and 
you lose that insulation. A foam pad is 
best for backpackers, since it is light 
and compact; even better, although 
less comfortable, is the compressed 
foam known as Ensolite: %-inch of it 
yill leave you comfortable even on ice. 
An air mattress provides almost sy- 
baritic luxury, but they're heavy to 
carry. If you do use one, don't fill it 
too full, add just enough air to keep 
your body off the ground. Air mat- 
tresses should be avoided in cold 
weather because they leave too much 
circulation space for cold air. 

Your down bag shouldn't be al- 
lowed to get wet, or it won't insulate. 
But a good tent will keep you dry, 
and a good bag will keep you warm, 
so there is no reason to be afraid of 
discomfort in the outdoors, even in 
midwinter. 




Free loft in a steeping bag: shake the hag out, then lay it on the ground. Measure from 
ground to the top of the bag, somewhere near the middle. 



Various types of sleeping bag construction. Sewn-through is terrible, the others are all 
for backpackers, although the laminated style probably is too heavy for most Georgia 




Slant Tube 



Box 




Overlapping Tube 




Laminated 



Sewn Through 



®y (Entli Mmanvi 




By Allen D. Coggins and Donald C. Pendergrast 



/lany Georgians will undoubtedly remember 
jfe famed Georgia-born Ty Cobb, a colossal 
f i re in baseball. A memorial and museum to 
J >b is now being developed by the Parks and 
|< reation Division at Royston, Georgia. This 



museum will be operated as part of Victoria 
Bryant State Park. 

There are many baseball enthusiasts in this 
country and this facility, strategically located 
near 1-85 will be a great asset to the state as well 




as a valuable addition to the State Park system. 
The first phase of development should be com- 
pleted by the Spring of 1973. 

In 1962, the Georgia General Assembly 
passed a bill which provided for an appropria- 
tion of $200,000 to establish this shrine. The 
building, located across the street from Roys- 
ton's Cobb Memorial Hospital, was completed 
late last year. Exhibits are now being established 
which will depict both Cobb's life and the evolu- 
tion of the game of baseball. 

Tyrus Raymond Cobb, the famed "Georgia 
Peach," was born on December 18, 1886, at 
Narrows, Georgia. Soon afterward his family 
moved to Royston, Georgia, where Ty grew to 
maturity. Young Cobb had medical school as- 
pirations, although his father wanted him to go 
to law school. Bom were forsaken for the young 
man's one burning desire, baseball. 

At 17 Ty went to Augusta, at his own ex- 

nse, to play in the Sally League. He lasted 

i week. Undaunted, he moved to Anniston, 

la, where he gained further experience in 

i rough and sometimes downright dirty 

baseball. He later returned to Augusta, 



The first poll of the Baseball Writers' Associatioi 
America in January, 1936 elected five players to 
Hall of Fame. These were Ty Cobb, who was name 
222 of the 222 ballots cast; Babe Ruth and Honus \ 
tier received 215 votes; Christy Mathcwson, 205 v 
and Walter Johnson, 189. This plaque, commemon 
his election, hangs in the National Baseball Hall of 1 
and Museum in Cooperstown, New York. A replica 
presented to Cobb by Mr. Earl Mann and fellow C 
gians on Ty Cobb Day during ceremonies at the Pom 
Leon Ball Park. The plaque was displayed there 101 
was given to the Ty Cobb Memorial Shrine in Roy 
Georgia. 



and after a successful season was bought by fe 
Detroit Tigers for $750. 

During his first season in Detroit (19)) 
Cobb played only 41 games and batted Sak 
That was his first and last mediocre year. F I 
then on he never batted below .300, and he ' *n 
his first of twelve American League bat :g 
championships in 1907. In eight seasons he :1- 
lected more than 200 hits, and in 1911 e 
batted .420. 

Driven by his passion to excel, Cobb pr> 
ticed endlessly and developed his potential nil 
he became one of the finest and probably ie 
most competitive player baseball has fl 
known. To him a ball game was a relen Iss 
fight. He went into every game full of fury, 1 I'd 
with a deep and burning desire to win. And n 
he did. 

Cobb became the dominant character in 1 ip 
ball during his stay with Detroit. He played 6 
years and managed and played another sb e- 
fore a conflict between Cobb and the o'^r 
of the club forced him to leave. Every tea rirt 
baseball offered Cobb phenomenal contris. 
but he held out. By this time he was alrsiy 



ealthy due to his private holdings. Finally Con- 
e Mack, president of the Philadelphia Ath- 
tics, persuaded Cobb to play for him. After 
m seasons with the Athletics, Ty Cobb retired, 
iving spent 24 years in the majors. 
The "Genius in Spikes" left behind a record 
' 3,033 games played, 4.191 hits, 892 stolen 
ises, and a lifetime batting average of .367. 
ittle wonder Ty Cobb was the first player voted 
to the Baseoall Hall of Fame, and little won- 
t that his home state should wish to memorial- 
; him. 

Initial development of the Cobb Memorial 
useum will involve construction of a carpeted 
ale-model baseball diamond within a thirty- 
e by thirty-two foot exhibit hall. Large three- 
led display boards will be placed on the field 
the various positions, and life-size action pho- 
i graphs of Cobb will cover one side of each dis- 
I ly. A second side of each board will exhibit 
1 :ords, score cards, and historic sketches, while 
i ! third side will display a large collage of news 
ppings and small photographs. 
Display cases will be placed along the walls 
ii rhin what would be foul territory on a real 
I d. These will contain uniform parts and some 
- : Cobb's personal articles. 
The history of baseball during its "golden 
£ i" will also be depicted. The overall plan in- 
* des exhibits showing the evolution of base- 
i Is, bats and other equipment from their con- 
I ition to the present. 



An authentic film of a Detroit Tiger game, 
showing Cobb in action, will be shown by the 
museum curator several times daily. This film 
will be shown at no charge to visitors in a pro- 
jection room adjacent to the exhibit hall. 

The museum will be open daily from 10:00 
a.m. until 6:00 p.m. Special group tours may be 
arranged by writing: Superintendent, Victoria 
Bryant State Park, Royston, Georgia 30662, or 
by calling (404) 245-6270. No admission will 
be charged. 

The Parks and Recreation Division has been 
working with the Baseball Hall of Fame, the 
Detroit Tigers and the Detroit Public Library to 
obtain information, news articles, records and 
photographs concerning Cobb's life and career. 
These agencies have been of great assistance in 
the search for artifacts and additional informa- 
tion. Ken Smith, Director of the National Base- 
ball Hall of Fame and Museum, Inc., has taken 
a personal interest in this memorial to his late 
friend, Ty Cobb. 

Unfortunately Cobb artifacts, which include 
personal items, equipment, clothing, family pic- 
tures and such are rare and the Parks and Recre- 
ation Division has had little luck obtaining au- 
thentic materials. The funds actually allocated 
for physical development of the museum and 
purchase of display items were small and are 
practically exhausted. The success of the project 
will therefore depend upon the willingness of the 
people of Georgia to donate, not money, but 

Photo by Don C. Pendergrast 




*£*° 



R 



|AL 




artifacts. Naturally, Ty Cobb memorabilia ii 
needed. This would include photographs of hi; 
early life, his career, and his outside interests 
There is also a need for old baseball equipmen 
(gloves, bats, shoes, uniforms and so forth), and 
news clippings or photographs concerning im 
portant local and world events during Cobb' 
career. Donations of any items will be great! 
appreciated and credit will be given to donor 
directly on items chosen for exhibition. If yo 1 
would like to donate, please contact Allen Coj 
gins or Donald Pendergrast, Parks and Recre<- 
tion Division, 270 Washington Street, S.W, 
Atlanta, Georgia 30334. 

Ty Cobb is an inspiration for all who aspinj 
to greatness in athletics. He was born in a smal 
Georgia town and struggled along a hard roal] 
to world fame. Disliked by many, loved an 
truly understood by few, but respected by all '< 
one of the greatest and most competitive bas - 
ball players that ever lived, Cobb's memory wi 
endure in this memorial. 




Terrariums 




By T. Craig Martin 

Photos by the Author 



A simple terrarium can help you enjoy the 
outdoors in the year-round comfort of your 
home. The container may be as elaborate as a 
30-inch plexiglass oval, or as simple as a mason 
jar, while the plants and mosses can include 
exotic varieties from greenhouses, or mundane 




All the materials for a fine terrarium. 
Kathy Henderson suggests that you gathe, 
everything before beginning work so that 
all will be handy when you need it. 
Materials here were supplied by the 
Fernbank Science Center. 



domestic plants collected during any trip to the 
outdoors. 

Horticulturist Kathleen Henderson of the De- 
Kalb County School System's Fernbank Science 
Center suggests several steps that will help 
make your terrarium a success: 

1) If you collect wild plants, be sure to collect 
as much of the root system as you can. Dig up 
plenty of soil around the roots; it won't hurt, 
and can be removed after you make sure the 
roots are safe. Never take all the members of 
any single species. 

2) Put the plants, dirt and all, in a box for 
ip home. Try to transplant them within a 

■ so, but in any case water them and 
itcre them in a coo! place until you're ready to 
transplant. 



12 



3) Fill the terrarium in the following order: 

a) Put about 1/2 inch of large pebbles i 
the bottom. 

b) Add an inch or two of soil (a mixture ) 
1/2 Michigan peat and 1/2 sand w i 
a small amount of commercial gra I 
charcoal mixed in). 

c) Place individual plants, beginning wt 
the smaller ones, covering the roots < 
each. 

d) Put the mosses in last. 

e) Add water until you see it draining ii 
the bottom. 

f) Leave the cover off for about th < 
days, then put it on. Condensate 
should occur about twice each day 
water condenses all the time, leave I 
top off for a while so that the excess < 
evaporate. 

g) If a plant begins to mold, or dies, » 
move it immediately. 






Native plants should last about three or four 

>nths or slightly longer, Mrs. Henderson says, 

t domestic plants from greenhouses will last 

til they outgrow the terrarium. 

She suggests the following plants for home 

rariums: 

oup I (may be used in open or closed 

rar urns) 

arf '.Vandering Jew Species 
arf Climbing Fig 
ill Leaf Peperomias 
gy Back Plant 
iv's Tears 

ill Ferns (Maidenhair) 
ocarpus 
yer Plant 
pe Ivy 
onia 

us Fly Trap 
ginella 
)lane Plant 

wherry Begonias (Saxifraga) 
minum Plant 
; nthe Bella Palm 
i lese Evergreen 
:aena Species 

>up II (require careful watering) 

■ can Violet 
i ingia 
1 leria 
i cia 
> >nias 

i >up III (prefer an open top terrarium) 

) : 

^actus 
! 'lant 

| >iulents (Sedums, Haworthias, Crassula, etc.) 
c lorbias 
' itanthus 
) -rus (sedges) 

c up IV (Native plants which thrive in 

( rrarium) 

i is Fly Trap 

] inds of mosses 

5 sewa (Striped Wintergreen) 

t esnake Plantain 

) tica 

:* idge Berry 

I inella (Club Moss) 

I y Spleenwart Ferns (and other small ferns) 

K Ginger 




Start with the pebbles, then add a bit of dirt. 




It's best to start with small plants first, unless you have one you 
especially want to emphasize. 

Terrariums come in all shapes and sizes, filled with a bewildering 
variety of plants. They need not be expensive. 




n 



Midlife 
'rofiles: 



-/ 



rappie 







by Aaron Pass 



Crappie fishing in Georgia is really pretty 
)d. Each spring hundreds of fishermen gather 
fish for this popular panfish during the spring 
wning run. The action gets fast and furious 
\f en a school moves in and the result is usually 
ringer of one of the finest tasting fish in fresh 
ter. 

There are two species of crappie native to 
3rgia. the white (Pomoxis annularis) and the 
:k (Pomoxis nigromaculatus). The black is 
: most common, and the only sure way to dif- 
mtiate is to count the spines in the dorsal fin. 
ite crappie have six or less, black crappie 
<e seven or more. These two species collec- 
ly share a whole host of local names such as 
:o bass, speckled perch, specs, bachelor 
:h, paper mouth. Whatever they are called 
' are certainly a favorite species in the early 
ng- 

< 'rappie. both black and white, spawn in the 
y spring in water three to eight feet deep at 
vWm- temperatures between 58° and 68°. The 
hi fish guards the nest (hence the name 
:helor perch"). The eggs hatch in seven to 
lays, depending on water temperature, 
rappie are carnivorous fish, feeding on 
la ler bait fish, crustaceans, and insects. Their 



1 



preferred habitat is the larger reservoirs and 
rivers. Crappie are often found near debris, such 
as tree tops, in the water and other obstructions 
such as pilings and rocky ledges. 

Crappie are one of the larger panfishes, aver- 
aging up to 2-3 pounds. Sought as both a food 
and a sport fish, they can put up a respectable 
struggle when caught on light equipment. Light 
spinning tackle is made to order for crappie fish- 
ing. Minnows are preferred as bait, but artificial 
lures often produce just as well. Yellow and 
white doll flies, spoons and spinners are the 
usual choices. 

One of the best tasting of all fresh water fish, 
crappie are great eating. Roll the fish in flour or 
cornmeal, fry in cooking oil to a golden brown, 
and the sweet white meat will make a feast fit 
for a king. 

Since there is no shortage of suitable habitat 
(large reservoirs) in this state, the best conser- 
vation practice is fishing. Crappie are prolific 
breeders and can quickly overpopulate, result- 
ing in stunted fish. To attract crappie an old 
treetop or bale of hay may be sunk in an appro- 
priate place. Check local regulations, as on 
some public waters this might be construed as 
littering. 



Georgia's 



Geologic Showplaces 



In an idyllic selling of striking beauty, Coheelee Creek in southwest Georgia flows over a series 

of deeply notched falls composed of impure limestone. 




By Dick Davis 

Photos by the Author 



Hiey say history is written in the 
rs. Perhaps so, but much of Geor- 
I s history is written in the earth — 
i! :he rocks and minerals and strata 
let make the state a 37-million-acre 
(|i;sroom and laboratory for study- 
i| geologic history. 

-lighways and byways and foot 

jt|ils from the north Georgia peaks 

he Tybee sands, from the Carolina 

he Florida borders, from east to 

t, bring the traveler or the edu- 

>r or the student to numerous sites 

:h dramatically portray the story 

< ur state from the time of creation. 

>mid the classical beauty of Bear 

: ;k Falls in Cloudland State Park, 

can look back millions of years 

\ eologic time to the Pennsylvanian 

od. As Bear Creek tumbles down 

western slope of storied Lookout 

intain impressive falls cascade 

exposed strata of shale under- 



let 5 sandstone. The soft shale has 
b< worn away under the sandstone 
altg the rim of the canyon. 

It towering, magnificent, thunder- 
Amicalola Falls in the Georgia 
Park near Juno in Dawson 
lty is the dramatic, abrupt tran- 
i from the Georgia Blue Ridge 
3 Piedmont Plateau. Here as the 
;alola River tumbles over the 
Ap • edge of the Blue Ridge Front, 
ashing white water cascades off 
] Hue Ridge escarpment. The flow 
M lrop are over granite rocks which 
fujl ighly resistant to erosion and the 
*"¥ ' has not cut back very far. 
\ ep in the heart of Southwest 
B»|i?ia the story of the geologic 
l»gj is told in such inviting, but off- 
|hll eaten -path, heavy-boot and 

imp -bite-kit places as Froggybottom 
|:1 , Towns Creek, Kolomoki Creek 
m < bheelee Creek, in the limerock 



quarries of Perry and Clinchfield, and 
in the colorful and towering "cathe- 
dral spires" of Providence Canyons. 

And along Georgia's picturesque 
75-mile coastline, from the Savannah 
River in the north to the St. Mary's 
River in the South and embracing 
Georgia's matchless chain of coastal 
islands and the state's offshore areas, 
geologic study areas abound. 

Within sight of the skyscrapers of 
metropolitan Atlanta are such geo- 
logic storybooks as Stone Mountain 
and Soapstone Ridge and Panola 
Mountain which is being developed 
as a Georgia State Park. 

World-famous Stone Mountain in 
the DeKalb County suburbs of At- 
lanta is the largest single piece of ex- 
posed granite and is in itself a vast 
arena for exploring the geologic past 
and present. 

Soapstone Ridge just south of the 
city in DeKalb and Clayton Counties 
provides an "outdoor museum" look 
at a three-mile wide by seven-mile 
long ridge of serpentine-like rock 
which is not true soapstone. The 
rocks of Soapstone Ridge are gen- 
erally dark green and weather to 
brown. The rocks are resistant to 
erosion and weather unevenly. 

The ridge, a prime area for preser- 
vation by the Georgia Heritage Trust 
and for the development of a park 
near the metropolitan Atlanta area, 
has not been overspread by homes 
or industrial buildings because of 
the many boulders and the steepness 
of the grade. The sprawling city has 
grown around the Ridge and has en- 
compassed it. 

Travel a few miles north of Lump- 
kin in Stewart County in Georgia's 
iron ore mining area. On the north 
side of Froggybottom Creek the Prov- 



idence Sand overlies the Ripley For- 
mation. Both were deposited in the 
Cretaceous era and in the Ripley gray 
silty clay can be found four different 
species of oysters and other shells 
75 million years old. 

Nearby, also in the Stewart iron 
ore district, Providence Canyons State 
Park offers an unequalled study in 
strata of Clayton red clay overlying 
the white, coarse Providence Sand 
with a lignitic clay at its base. Plant 
fossil fragments can be found in the 
lignite, which is one step in the for- 
mation of coal. Providence Canyons 
are there to awe the visitor because 
the Clayton Formation (nearly pure 
limestone) which forms a high plateau 
is highly resistant to erosion. The 
Canyon's growth rate is dramatized by 
the fact that the nearby historic church 
has been moved several times to es- 
cape the reach of the abysses, and by 
a tree which can be seen growing 
suspended by its roots as much as 10 
feet over the canyon's edge. 

Towns Creek, and its high-rising 
side walls, is a garden spot in Early 
County and is one area selected for 
preservation by the Georgia Heritage 
Trust Commission. The Creek runs 
in chasms left by the collapse of a 
large cave system. The caverns were 
in Paleocene limestone, formed some 
60 to 70 million years ago, of the Clay- 
ton Formation, and the limestone is ex- 
posed in the sheer walls of the creek. 
The upper reaches of the creek's walls 
and the approaches to the area are a 
botanical showplace also. The lime- 
stone walls are exposed by erosion 
and there are intriguing sinkholes 
filled with fossil trees, lignite and 
sand. A picturesque eight-foot water- 
fall adds even further to the attrac- 
tions of the beauty spot. Overlying 




On the western slope of Lookout Mountain in Cloudland State Park in 

northwest Georgia, Bear Creek tumbles over picturesque falls of exposed strata of shale 

underlying sandstone. 



! Q 



<> 






VKi 



>•«*• 



the limestone is grey marl Wilcox 
Formation of Lower Eocene, formed 
about 60 million years ago, time 
with abundant fossil shells, corals and 
fish teeth. 

Kolomoki Creek in Clay County 
flows over Wilcox Formation (dark 
grey, silty clay) with many white water 
rapids. Unusual, round calcite nodules 
as large as automobile tires abound 
along the creek and there are numer- 
ous leaf and twig plant fossils. 

Coheelee Creek, two miles north 
of Hilton in Early County, is inviting 
enough to make you want to pitch 
camp and stay a week. The pictu- 
rescue creek flows over a series of 
deeply notched waterfalls of impure 
limestone. This Middle Eocene Lis- 
bon Formation, imp are limestone 
formed about 50 million years ago, 
abounds with small fossil oysters in 
solid rock. This outstanding area is 
also tabbed by the Georgia Heritage 
Trust Commission for preservation 
and recreation development. 

Like to make a geologic journey 
through parts of the state? Here are 
some suggested routes and points to 
view, starting from various cities 
across Georgia. For information as 
to exact locales of geologic interest 
on each trip contact the Earth and 



Water Division, Department of Nat- 
ural Resources, 19 Hunter St., At- 
lanta, Ga. 30334, Tel. (404) 656- 
3214. 

• From Atlanta to Stone Mountain 
to Tate to Amicalola Falls State Park 
to Dahlonega. 

• From Atlanta to Dalton and 
Rocky Face Mountain to Ringgold 
to Cloudland State Park. 

• From Atlanta to Stone Mountain 
to Dahlonega to the Richard B. Rus- 
sell Scenic Highway to Tallulah 
Gorge. 

• From Macon to Clinchfield to 
Huber. 

• From Augusta to Dan River 
Quarry to Dixie Mountain and to 
Graves Mountain at Lincoln. 

• From Augusta to Shell Bluff to 
Griffins Landing to Blue Springs. 

• From Albany to below Mucka- 
foonee Creek Dam to East Albany 
and to -Radium Springs. 

• From Columbus to Cusseta to 
Lumpkin. 

• From Valdosta to Twin Lakes 
to Lake Park. See limesinks at Twin 
Lakes. 

• From Brunswick to Jekyll Island 
to Folkston to Trail Ridge to Camp 
Cornelia. 



' P 



«v-V 



Near Froggybotton Creek in 
S ewart County's iron ore mining area, 
many fossils are found in Ripley 
Formation on roadside bank. 




furkey Forecast 



Aaron Pass 



Each year, as the dogwoods bloom, a very 

cial group of Georgia hunters takes to the 

d. Spring turkey hunters after a gobbler are 

ing one of the most challenging adversaries 

eastern hunter can face. Using special equip- 

it, special knowledge, and a large share of 

:xiscraft, they hunt a very special game bird. 

'Spring gobbler hunting is where you sep- 

Ae the real turkey hunters from all the rest," 

>s Hubert Handy, Chief of Game Manage- 

:it for the Game and Fish Division, Georgia 

: )artment of Natural Resources. "The birds 

: no longer in flocks, and only the gobblers 

be legal game. Anyone who calls and kills a 

i ure turkey gobbler can figure that he earned 

|i trophy," Handy added. 

Spring turkey hunting is usually done by 

lg a call to imitate the turkey hen and entice 

: gobblers to the hunter. This makes the sport 

\i difficult, as the hunter is dealing with the 

mature males. 

he spring hunts are scheduled to coincide 
A 1 the latter part of the breeding season. This 
::>mplishes two important things for the tur- 
i) hunter. By this time most of the hens have 
i<ady taken to the nest, and the gobblers will 
pie more readily to the call. It also insures 
th the hens are incubating fertile eggs, and are 
3t of the hunter's way. At this time some older 
irf^lers can be harvested without impairing 
I: total population. 



lo 5y Jim Couch 



This season should be good for turkeys, and 
for turkey hunters, according to Handy. "We've 
had good reports on the population over the 
state, but a sudden cold snap or rainy weather 
during the gobbling season could make the hunt- 
ing difficult," he said. The best area this year 
will probably be in the central portion of the 
state around Clark Hill Management Area, and 
the northern mountain areas will also offer good 
hunting. "The state's turkey population is im- 
proving slowly, and we hope to give it a boost 
with a large scale turkey stocking program," 
Handy said. 

Sapelo Island is used as a wild turkey rearing 
area, where the surplus birds can be trapped and 
stocked in other portions of the state. The island 
habitat has been improved for the turkeys, and 
wild birds have been trapped and stocked there. 

Since only the male birds are legal on the 
spring hunts, hunters should take care to identify 
their target as a gobbler before pulling the trig- 
ger. The gobbler has a whisker-like growth, 
called a beard, which dangles from the center of 
his chest and he is larger than the hen. The 
male's feathers have a metallic green-black 
sheen, and he appears almost black beside the 
dull brown colored hen. It is very important that 
the hens are safeguarded during the spring hunts 
because they represent a potential of 10 to 14 
young birds at this time of year. 

Turkey hunting is tough, there's no doubt 
about it. It presents quite a challenge to one's 
ability and woodscraft. The wild turkey has been 



21 



called the wildest form of wildlife, and any tur- 
key hunter will tell you that there are few ani- 
mals smarter or more wary than a long-bearded 
old torn. This fine game animal is considered 
trophy game, and a successful turkey hunter can 
be proud of his accomplishment. 

This year's outlook is pretty good over the 
state and the turkey hunters have a pick of 
several good bets. Keep in mind that turkey 
populations are isolated and widely scattered. A 
"good" rating would not apply to a region as a 
whole but only to those areas which favor tur- 
keys. Increasing urbanization, excessive timber- 
ing, and various forms of outdoor recreation 
can quickly push turkeys on to more favorable 
habitat. 



North Georgia reports an "improved" turl 
situation. Established flocks evidenced good 
production and there is reason to hope that 
stocking program is working out on some n 
areas. All in all, the turkey hunter should h; 
a fair chance over most of the northern secti 
of the state. Blue Ridge. Chattahoochee, Coh 
ta, and John's Mountain Wildlife Managem 
Areas will all hold spring turkey hunts. 

For specific seasons, in both county s 
WMA please see Sportsman's Calendar in t 
issue. Hunters should remember that turl 
hunting requires a big game license in additi 
to a regular hunting license. All 1972- 
licenses will expire on 31 March 1973 and 
hunter will need a 1973-74 license on 1 Ap 








^ 




Review 



THE COMPLETE WALKER 

By Colin Fletcher, Alfred A. Knopf, 
350 pages. 

THE HIKERS AND 
BACKPACKER'S HANDBOOK 
By Bill Merrill, ARCO Publishing Co., 
305 pages, $2.95 (paperbound). 

PLEASURE PACKING 

By Robert S. Wood, Candor Books, 

215 pages, $3.95 (paperbound). 



As backpacking grows more popu- 
lar, books to help, guide, counsel, en- 
courage, or protect the novice hiker 
spew forth in mind-boggling profu- 
sion. Anyone, it seems, who has set 
foot on more than one trail, or on the 
same trail more than once, is quali- 
fied to belabor the rest of us with his 
"thoughts" on the subject. 

Now some thoughts are more 
thoughtful than others, and some 
among this gaggle of books are more 
useful than the others. These three 
should help anyone interested in hik- 
ing and backpacking, although they 
certainly will appeal to different tastes. 

The subtitles reveal their differ- 
ences: Fletcher's book is about "The 
joys and techniques of hiking and 
backpacking;" Merrill's claims to in- 
clude "Practical advice for every kind 
and length of trip — planning, com- 
plete equipment, major trail maps, 



menus, safety, and first aid;" while 
Wood's explains "How to backpack 
in comfort." 

Merrill's effort can be discussed 
quickly: he tries to do too much too 
quickly, and succeeds only in compil- 
ing a set of useful lists. Although he 
probably would be a great friend and 
fine teacher on the trail, Merrill's long 
years as a federal Park Ranger have 
dulled his style and made him more 
aware of the tribulations that face 
novice backpackers than of the joys 
that beckon them into the woods. 

Like the parent that tries too hard 
to protect his child from learning 
through error, Merrill tends to warn 
rather than encourage, belabor rather 
than suggest, compile rather than 
evoke. But compilations occasionally 
have their uses, and his brief discus- 
sions of trails, wilderness areas, sup- 
pliers, and his set of checklists could 
be very useful in planning a trip. 

His desire to be encyclopedic, how- 
ever, hinders him from providing 
enough information on any single 
subject. 

Wood admirably fills these gaps in 
his PLEASURE PACKING. Care- 
fully detailed chapters explain the in- 
tricacies of pack, boot, tent and sleep- 
ing bag from the perspective of a 
skilled and interested observer/par- 
ticipant. 

The first paragraph sets his tone: 

I see backpackers staggering 
toward the wilderness loaded 
down with suitcases, duffel bags, 
gunny sacks, satchels, baskets, 
boxes, laundry bags, ice chests 
and hampers. I have seen Boy 
Scouts carrying stretchers heaped 
with gear, families pushing 
wheelbarrows, even ladies drag- 
ging shopping carts. 
No man who starts his book that 
way can fall into the grim recitations 




that burden Merrill's effort. Wood's 
translation of backpacking esoterica is 
straightforward and easily understood; 
he never lapses into the jargon that 
seems to clutter any endeavor these 
days. 

He lucidly explains why fats and 
carbohydrates may be more important 
to the hiker than protein, why an im- 
poverished walker will want to invest 
in a good frame before worrying about 
a top rate pack bag, how to distin- 
guish quality products from their in- 
feriors, and how to do a little prior 
conditioning to ease the agony of the 
first few days of any trail. And much 
more . . . 

While Wood suggests hiking tech- 
niques and provides tips on setting up 
and living in camp, I found his earlier 
chapters on gear more interesting. 
Buying equipment is a major chore — 
and investment — for both new and 
old backpackers because the state of 
the art is in terrifix flux; but Wood's 
ideas promise to be good for at least 
a few years. And these ideas make the 
book a necessity for serious back- 
packers. 

My odds on favorite among these 
books — and among all walking books 
—is Colin Fletcher's THE COM- 
PLETE WALKER. It was the first 
book I ever read on the subject, and 
it is the one I always return to for 
refreshment. 

I followed Fletcher's footsteps to 
his hillside over San Francisco and 
traced a tiny portion of his path in the 
Sierra Nevadas, always finding that, 
as he promised, walking "is an alto- 
gether delectable addiction." And, al- 
though I've disagreed with him, I've 
never yet proven any statement of his 
flatly wrong. 

Although crammed with informa- 
tion on "what to" and "how to" and 
"where to," this book is, indeed, about 
the joys of hiking and backpacking, 
for Fletcher always fights the tyranny 
of equipment that faces us all: 

The important thing, then, 
about running your tight little 
outdoor economy is that it must 
not run you. You must learn to 
deal with the practical details so 
efficiently that they become sec- 
ond nature. Then, after the un- 
avoidable shakedown period, 
you leave yourself free to get on 
the important things- 
watching cloud shadows race 
across a mountainside or passing 



the time of day with a humming- 
bird or discovering that a grass- 
hopper eats grass like spaghetti 
or sitting on a peak and thinking 
of nothing at all except perhaps 
that it is a wonderful thing to sit 
on a peak and think of nothing 
at all. 

He understands, then, (as does 
Wood, in a less explicit way) that 
equipment and technique are only 
means to an end, not an end in them- 
selves. And he realizes his own eccen- 
tricities: 

Naturally, your opinions on 
equipment and technique must 
fossilize into dogma. . . . But I am 
not altogether convinced that... 
when you have at last succeeded 
in mastering most of the busi- 
ness and people have begun to 
call you an expert and someone 
may even ask you to write a 
book on the subject— I am not at 
all sure that it is then possible to 
avoid the sobering discovery that 
you have become, ex officio, a 
very tolerably accomplished 
fuddy-duddy. 

Fletcher is a very tolerably accom- 
plished hiker: he's walked the length 
of California (THE THOUSAND- 
MILE SUMMER) and through the 
Grand Canyon of the Colorado River 
(THE MAN WHO WALKED 
THROUGH TIME). But fuddy- 
duddy he isn't: a wry and ironic sense 
of humor flashes at every turn. 

Much of his experience finds its 
way into this book. There are points 
to quibble, arguments that can be 
made against a few of his choices. 
Few of the rest of us, for example, 
will want to move in solitary splendor 
through the wilderness. I personally 
find that I enjoy a trip much more 
when my wife is along, for we can talk 
about the things we see, and she fre- 
quently notices things that completely 
escape me. But this still is the book to 
turn to. 

These three books, then, all can be 
useful to backpackers, and the rea- 
sonably dedicated hiker probably 
should own all three. Merrill's HAND- 
BOOK is a good source for addresses 
and concise "how to" information; 
Wood's PLEASURE PACKING is 
important for his chapters on equip- 
ment; and Fletcher's COMPLETE 
WALKER explains why one might 
want to hike in the first place. 



the 

outdoor 

world 




Wildlife Federation to Mee 

The Georgia Wildlife Feder 
(formerly Georgia Sportsmen's 
eration) has announced that its 
Annual Convention Awards D 
will be held March 24 and 25 am 
for the first time be located in At 
at the Executive Park Motor Ho 
1-85 and North Druid Hills 1 
The announcement was mad 
Charles Ingram, president. 

According to Ingram, plans c; 
registration to begin at 8:30 a. mi 
urday, March 24, with a lunchec 
informational meetings durin; 
day. Speaker for the luncheon v 
4th District Congressman Ben ]i 
burn. 

Each year the Federation, j 
the sponsorship of Sears Re: 
Co., conducts a program to reo j 
Georgians who have been partic J 
active or influential in the eff) 
conserve and protect the j 
natural resources. This year the 
ernment's Conservation Award I 
ners will be named at a 7:00 p.n. 
ner with Governor Jimmy Car < 
hand to present awards to 1 1] 
cipients. The annual meeting fc i 
duct of business and election < i" 
cers will begin at 10 a.m. Ju 
morning, March 25. 

The theme of the convention * 
"Georgia's Wildlife and The I m 



ortsman" with emphasis on the 
)rtsman's active role in preservation 
Georgia's natural resources. 

— Earl Martin 



jtional Wildlife Week 

TTie vveek of March 18-24 has been 
for the 36th annual observance of 
tional Wildlife Week, sponsored 
:h year by the 3Vi million member 
tional Wildlife Federation and its 
liates, including the Georgia Wild- 
Federation (formerly Georgia 
>rtsmen's Federation). 

The theme of the 1973 Wildlife 

|ek is "DISCOVER WILDLIFE 

IT'S TOO GOOD TO MISS." 

) :us of week will be on the simple, 
I exciting joys that can be found by 
- icricans of all ages in the outdoor, 
i jral world. 

Tie poster symbol for wildlife is a 
i ng wood duck shown poised on 
: edge of its nest. According to 
l >mas L. Kimball, executive vice- 
k iident of the NWF, "all that newly- 

:hed duck has to do to break out 
the natural world is take the first 
out of the nest; and it's nearly as 

f' for people to take that same step 

reak out into nature and see what 

Jty it has to offer." 



jtieorgia Wildlife Week Chairman 
i ' Martin of Tucker said that plans 
. for the emphasis in Georgia to be 
I nformation and education, urging 
I'i families "not only experience 
| life and the rest of the natural 
u Id through attractive magazine 
>ji ares but also get outside and real- 
lb ljoy our wild resources." 

jf ccording to Martin, each school 
It :m superintendent in Georgia will 
> ;ent Wildlife Week materials and 
i ' d to involve one elementary class 
j 'ildlife projects during National 
J life Week. Each of the Georgia 
M life Federation's affiliate clubs 
vl llso be sent posters, news releases 
i'i other materials for use during 
!i life Week. 

Aiyone wanting Wildlife Week 
spier's materials for elementary 
w )1 classes should contact Earl 
mm, 2766 Goodfellows Rd., 
t|l er, Ga. 30084. He will send them 
« i >ut charge as long as the supply 
a|s 

— Aaron Pass 



Sportsman's 
Calendar 



SPRING TURKEY SEASON 

NORTH GEORGIA: March 24- 
April 28, 1973 /bag limit one (1) tur- 
key gobbler. In the following Coun- 
ties: Banks, Chattooga, Dawson, Fan- 
nin, Floyd, Franklin, Gilmer, Gordon, 
Habersham, Lumpkin, Murray, Ra- 
bun, Stephens, Towns, Union, Walker 
(east of U.S. Hwy. 27), White and 
Whitfield. 

Management Areas: Blue Bidge 
WMA— April 23-28, 1973— one (1) 
turkey gobbler. Cohutta WMA — April 
23-28, 1973— one (1) turkey gobbler 
(no permit required). John's Mountain 
WMA— March 24- April 27, 1973 — 
one (1) turkey gobbler (no permit re- 
quired no check-in). 

EAST -CENTRAL GEORGIA: 

March 24-April 28, 1973/bag limit 
two (2) turkey gobblers. In the follow- 
ing counties: Columbia, Greene, Han- 
cock, Houston, Lincoln, McDuffie, 



Oglethorpe, Taliaferro, Warren, 

Wilkes, and Wilkinson. 

Management Areas: Clark Hill 
WMA— April 9-14, 1973— one (1) 
turkey gobbler. Piedmont Natural 
Wildlife Refuge (Federal) April 16- 
21, 1973 — one (1) turkey gobbler. 
(Permit required, application must be 
made in writing to Refuge Manager, 
Piedmont National Wildlife Refuge, 
Round Oak, Georgia 31080. Dead- 
line, March 28, 1973. 

WEST-CENTRAL GEORGIA: 

March 24-April 28, 1973/bag limit 
one (1) turkey gobbler. In the follow- 
ing counties: Chattahoochee, Marion, 
Muscogee, Talbot and Stewart. 

SOUTH GEORGIA: March 17- 
April 14, 1973/bag limit one (1) tur- 
key gobbler. In the following counties: 
Ben Hill, Brantley, Camden, Coffee, 
Charlton, Dodge, Pierce, Telfair, Wil- 
cox and that portion of Clinch and 
Echols Counties east of U.S. Highway 
441 and south of Ga. Highway 94. 

Management Areas: Bullard Creek 
WMA— March 28-31, 1973 and 
April 4-7, 1973, (separate hunts), 
hunters may take one ( 1 ) turkey gob- 
bler on each hunt. Hunting from 30 
minutes before sunrise until 12 noon. 
No check in or out, but all turkeys 
killed must be reported at check sta- 
tion. No pre-hunt scouting allowed. 



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Fishing Regulations Edition 




Jimmy Carter 
Governor 

Joe D. Tanner 

Commissioner 

Department of Natural Resources 

George T. Bagby 

Deputy Commissioner 

for Public Affairs 

STATE GAME AND FISH 
COMMISSION 

James Darby 

Chairman 

Vidalia-lst District 

William Z. Camp, Sec. 
Newnan— 6th District 

Leo T. Barber, Jr. 
Moultrie— 2nd District 

Dr. Robert A. Collins, Jr. 
Americus— 3rd District 

George P. Dillard 
Decatur— 4th District 

Rankin M. Smith 
Atlanta— 5th District 

Leonard E. Foote 
Marietta— 7th District 

Wade H. Coleman 
Valdosta— 8th District 

Clyde Dixon 
Cleveland— 9th District 

Leonard Bassford 
Augusta— 10th District 

Jimmie Williamson 
Darien— Coastal District 



EARTH AND WATER DIVISION 
Sam M. Pickering, Jr., Director 

ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION DIVISION 
R. S. Howard, Jr., Director 

GAME AND FISH DIVISION 
Jack Crockford, Director 

PARKS AND RECREATION DIVISION 
Henry D. Struble, Director 

OFFICE OF PLANNING AND RESEARCH 
Chuck Parrish, Director 

' 0*AINISTRATIVE SERVICES 
H. Pittman, Director 

LATIONS AND 
•ON SECTION 
H. l Orden, Chief 



FEATURES 

Boost For Boots T. Craig Martin 

A Trout Trilogy Aaron Pass 

Getting It Together T. Craig Martin 

Georgia Fishing Regulations 

Trout Regulations 

Sportsmen's Knives Bob Wilson 

DEPARTMENTS 

Book Reviews 

Outdoor World 

Sportsman's Calendar 



ON THE COVER: Catch a real crappie from Lake Jackson, coat it with ink, bl 
with rice paper, and you have this month's front and back cover for Outdoo 
Georgia. The crappie was caught by Tim and Joe Kersey, sons of Ranger Ge 
Kersey of Butts County. The ink rubbings are by Liz Carmichael Jones. 



Outdoors 



h) georgia 



April, 1973 



Volume II 



Numbe 



Outdoors in Georgia is the official monthly magazine of the Georgia Depart 
of Natural Resources, published at the Department's offices, Trinity-Washir ! 
Building, 270 Washington St., Atlanta, Georgia 30334. No advertising acce 
Subscriptions are $3 for one year or $6 for three years. Printed by Wil i 
Printing Company, Atlanta, Ga. Notification of address change must include 
address label from a recent magazine, new address and ZIP code, with 30 I 
notice. No subscription requests will be accepted without ZIP code. Articles ( 
photographs may be reprinted when proper credit given. Contributions are * 
come, but the editors assume no responsibility or liability for loss or dama; s 
articles, photographs, or illustrations, Second-class postage paid at Atlanta ' 





MAGAZINE STAFF 






Phone 656-3530 






H. E. (Bud) Van Orden 






Editor-in-Chief 






Bob Wilson 






Editor 




Staff Writers 


Art Director 


Staff Photographers 


Dick Davis 


Liz Carmichael Jones 


Jim Couch 


Aaron Pass 




Bob Busby 


T. Craig Martin 


Linda Wayne 
Circulation Manager 





EDITORIAL 



here's A Reason 




The waters tumbled down the clear brilliant 
mountain stream and foamed as they gushed 
past rocks and boulders on the stream bed. 
Trout flashed back and forth in the shadows 
created from the trees lining the banks. Years 
ago, fishermen caught what fish they needed for 
supper in the streams and lakes and came back 
when they needed more, and there was always 
an abundant supply. There was no need for 
rules and regulations or even creel limits. 

There was a storage problem then, and the 
fish could only be kept for short periods of 
time. But today, we have no storage problem. 
When we fish, we fish with the thought of an 
empty freezer at home and so we try to stock up 
for the year, and there's nothing wrong with this. 

But because of these changes in how we fish 
today compared with yesteryear, we must set 
limits on the number of fish that can be taken 
on any given fishing trip. These creel limits are 
set so that Georgia's fisherman can go back 
again and again to his favorite spot and be 
assured that with his fishing skill, coupled with 
weather conditions and, oh yes, a little luck, he 
can bring home the one that got away last time. 

There's a good reason for Georgia's trout and 
fishing regulations, and if heeded, Georgia's 
reputation as one of the south's great fishing 
states will not be challenged. There were over 
700,000 trout restocked during the past year 
and over 8,000,000 warm water fish including 
bass, bluegill. channel catfish and striped bass. 

That's reason enough for good fishing. 



*Lc/^ ^^ (&/c*y 




By T. Craig Martin 

Photos by the Author 



Those boots may be "made for walkinV but 
you're not going to walk over very much if you 
don't take proper care of them. Like any leather, 
boot leather must be cared for or it will de- 
teriorate very rapidly, carrying your investment 
into that back corner of the closet that seems to 
be the limbo of old boots. 

Good boots cost a lot, but protecting them 

against the water, rocks, and snags that are their 

itional enemies is quite simple. All it takes 

die soap, a high quality oil, and a good wax 

for occasional heavy duty water- 

i should be waterproofed before 
they >rn outside the house, oiled once a 



week or so during heavy use periods, and w i 
once again before retirement at the end o 
season. If you look forward to a lot of wadii 
trekking through snow, your boots' seams 
need special care, perhaps treatment with 
of the special epoxy seam sealants. 

Your regular care program should in< 1 
saddle soaping and a good dose of a lubric t 
oil, such as Huberd's Shoe Oil. Once or twi< 
season you should substitute a wax such as J 
Seal for the oil. 

A good pair of boots will last through ;J 
resolings if they get the proper care. If no , 
uppers will dry and crack before the sole; 
hardly scuffed. 



-: 



The best way to clean your boots, of 

, is to have your wife or child do it. 

Failing that, begin with a thorough 

brushing to remove grit and mud. 



i n clean the boots with a high quality 

■ soap, following the manufacturer's 

instructions. A small brush helps 

' around the seams and near the sole. 



Wipe off the saddle soap with a 

'■ np sponge, then put the boots aside 

c oermght. Don't try to speed up the 

process by setting them in front of 

If' ' heater or other direct heat source. 





Once the boots are completely dry, hem 
them slightly over the range or cami 



Then apply a good coat of quality 
shoe oil. Oil will he fine if the boots c 
to be used for really wet work, and for 
occasional touch-tips during heavy u 



For slogging through streams or sno ', 
however, a heavy wax product probe ' J 
best. Again, heat the boot, then 
apply the wax. 



Be sure to put extra wax on the hard 

use areas: on all seams, around the sole, at 

the toe and heel. 



The wax will melt on 
, e warm leather, then it can be rubbed in. 



Leather will absorb vast amounts 

of the wax or oil during the initial 

>l lication, but for best results you should 

t 't the boots stand overnight, then rub in 

more oil. If you care for your boots, 

they'll care for you. They'll last longer 

i nd be infinitely more comfortable if you 

follow these simple instructions 

once or twice a season. 











♦•*j*S» • • ♦ * 



• » • . ♦ 







.•V.:. 






;f& 






[Rainbow cJrout 





C / 

rown cJrout 





W r 

rook cJrout 



G. L. Aten 



RAINBOW TROUT (Salmo 
irdneri) are a favorite with Geor- 
i trout fishermen. The fish has a 
;en back liberally speckled with 
ick dots, a white belly, and a broad 
lk lateral band, extending from 
ad to tail. This coloration accounts 

■ the name "Rainbow." Originally 
tive to the Pacific Coast, this spe- 
s was established in Georgia 
>und the turn of the century. Look 

■ them right out in the current of 
! larger trout streams, for this fish 
>ws a decided preference for strong, 
ift currents and big water. They 
libit a flashy and exciting fighting 
le when hooked which often hi- 
des spectacular jumps and long 
is. Because of this fighting ability, 

rainbow is very popular with fish- 
len who take them on flies, spin- 
s, and baits such as worms and 
i :kets. 

3ROWN TROUT {Salmo trutta) 
i the wariest and hardest to catch 
Jie mountain trout. Imported from 
I Old World in the 1880's, brown 
: it have spent centuries learning 
» v to outwit fishermen. This hand- 
i le fish is dressed conservatively 
>rassy brown, and is speckled over- 
. with brown and red spots. The 

< wn trout prefers a somewhat slow- 
•urrent than the other species. The 

i lion of the brown is legend, and 
provides a real challenge for the 
I it fisherman. Because he is so 
|i y, the brown stands up well under 
rang presure and is found in most 
I he trout streams in north Georgia. 
t ;n he can be induced to strike, 
h brown will take flies, spinning 
f s, and live bait. 
1 ROOK TROUT (Salvelinus fron- 

< Us) is Georgia's only native trout, 
it they're not really a trout. They 
|fng instead to a closely related 
| ip of salmonids which includes the 
I c char of the far north. Beauti- 
I colored, with a dark back, red 
I green spots, and white belly high- 
ii ed with orange fins, they are 
i;l ly prized by fishermen. Brookies 

considered more easily caught 

the other trout, and they also 

colder cleaner water than the 

>'< rs. Their modern range in Geor- 

s consequently restricted to the 

5 accessible small streams, and 

h waters high in the mountains. 

fe • will readily take artificial flies, 

up I spinning lures, and a variety 

1 1 iits. 



h 



A Trout 

Trilogy 



By Aaron Pass 



Th: 



.hree species of trout are found in 
the cold mountain streams and tail- 
race rivers of Georgia. Taken collec- 
tively these three species comprise a 
highly valuable fishery and a unique 
natural resource. They are a highly 
desirable sportfish pursued by thou- 
sands of anglers annually and are 
limited to a relatively small geographi- 
cal section of the state. 

Over their whole range, the trouts 
are a favorite among anglers due to 
their excellent sporting characteristics. 
They readily take artificial lures, put 
up a spirited fight and usually are 
quite worthy adversaries of the fisher- 
man's ability. Georgia fishermen are 
no exception to the rule and each year 
opening day dawns on a multitude of 
hopeful anglers. 

Trout are somewhat unique in 
Georgia due to their habitat needs and 
preferences. Trout are classed as a 
cold water fish and require water tem- 
peratures under 70° for survival. They 
also require relatively pure and well 
aerated water. This combination of 



cold, pure water is found naturally 
only in the mountains of north Geor- 
gia, where spring-fed creeks stay 
cold even in summer. The mountain 
streams of Georgia are the southern 
terminus of natural trout water on the 
east coast. Low level water releases 
from several large impoundments, 
such as Lanier and Hartwell, provide 
cold water trout fishing south of the 
mountains. 

Trout are quite sensitive to changes 
in their habitat, and, in Georgia, some 
changes can literally destroy a trout 
stream. Critical factors are water tem- 
perature and water quality. Any al- 
terations which raise water tempera- 
ture such as small impoundments or 
removal of bank vegetation, or de- 
grade water quality, such as siltation, 
will have a negative impact on trout. 
The best trout conservation measures 
are those which protect the natural 
qualities of the watershed to main- 
tain water quality. 

Georgia's three species of trout are 
shown on the opposite page. 



getting it . . 




together ! 



By T. Craig Martin 

Photos by the Author 






All this gear must be packed into — or hung onto — the 
relatively constricted confines of a pack and frame. Besides 
managing to cram it all in, a major goal in packing is to be s a 
that heavy items fit in high and near the frame. 



Detailed contour maps make any 
trip easier and safer. Combined with a 
compass and some practice, these maps will 
make any hiker "lost-proof." These and 
books go in an outside flap pocket. 



First aid kit, snake kit, 1 1 

repellent, and matches are impcr 

while mirror, medicines, and halazon* 

advisable. These and other po> 

of the personal kit go in the 

accessible outside back pn 





I stove and its fuel go in one large 
tide pocket, the utensils, cup, towel and 
ches in another. The cook kit fits into the 
of the main pouch. 



Freeze dried foods make camping a lot 

easier. We'll carry a detailed look at them 

in the May issue of Outdoors in Georgia. Food 

generally goes in the main pocket, unless you 

keep some snacks handy in an outside pouch. 




i* won't need many extra clothes on a short trip: a heavy shirt or sweater for the evenings, a change of socks and underwear, camp 
p:s, and a rain shirt or poncho. Since these are light, they can go into the bottom of the main pack. 




The light nylon cord and "visklamps" (the 
rubber balls and things that look like shower curtain 
hooks) fit in a small outside pocket, while the tarp, ground 
sheet, and pegs go in the lower pocket of the pack. 
With these tools, pitching the tarp becomes a creative 
endeavor. If you carry a heavy tarp or a tent, it 
might be best to put strings on the top flap and carry 
the tent on top. 




kCKPACKER'S CHECKLIST 



his checklist covers gear carried by most 
iple for trips of up to a week during the 
lmer. Longer trips may require more backup 
tipment, as will cold weather camping. If 
> people are going, each should check off his 
n gear, then surplus equipment can be con- 
idatrd. 

:k 

it (with poles and pegs) 

>r 

P 

v/tarp: 
jroundcloth 
/isklamps 

:ord (various lengths) 
Jegs 

eping bag (stuffed) 
im pad 
ing stick 

Ion cord (50 feet) 
thing to be worn: 
hirt 
>ants 

inderwear 
ight socks 
leavy socks 
jandana 
at 



Clothing to be carried: 
flannel shirt or sweater 
underwear 
light socks 
heavy socks 
poncho or rain shirt 
bathing suit 
bandana 
camp shoes 

Cook kit 
pot(s) 
teakettle 
skillet 
pot holder or tongs 

Stove 

Fuel 

Matches (two waterproof containers carried 
separately) 

Cup 

Knife 

Fork & Spoon set 

Wire Whip 

P-38 (can opener) 

Salt & Pepper 

Sugar 

Teabags or instant coffee 

Water bottle 

Plastic scouring pad 

Towel 



First aid kit 

moleskin 

needle & thread 
Insect repellent 
Snake bite kit 
Kleenex or toilet paper 
Nail clippers 
Toothbrush 
Soap (biodegradable) 
Medicines 

aspirin 

decongestant 

antiacid 

other 
Comb 
Mirror 
Map 

Compass 
Book 

Flashlight 
Candle lantern 
Canteen (if necessary— water bottle should 

serve) 
Fishing gear 

rod 

reel 

lures or flies 

filleting knife 
Camera 

lenses 

film 

lens tissue 

brush 



ENU PLANNER 



1ST DAY 

ikfast 
h 

:ks 
> er 

i OND DAY 

kfast 

iks 
it 

ID DAY 

B c (fast 

I 
S 



FIFTH DAY 

Breakfast 
Lunch 
Snacks 
Dinner 

SIXTH DAY 

Breakfast 
Lunch 
Snacks 
Dinner 

SEVENTH DAY 

Breakfast 
Lunch 
Snacks 
Dinner 



IRTH DAY 

rBfc fast 



Mies 



1973 
1974 

GEORGIA FISHING 



REGULATIONS 



TROUT SEASON 

The Georgia mountain trout season runs from March 31, 
l "■> 7 3 through October (■>. 1973, except in wildlife manage- 
ment areas of the dame aiul Fish Division of the Depart- 
ment oi Natural Resources, where the season begins April 
28th and ends September 3rd on 1 abor Day. with fishing 
onlj on designated days outlined in the Trout Schedule. The 
schedule can be obtained b\ writing the Department of 
Natural Resources at I'nnitv -Washington St. Building, 270 
Washington St . S.W., Atlanta. Georgia 30334. 

Except for the management areas, the season applies to 
all of the streams in the 1 1 Northeast Georgia mountain 
counties oi Dawson, Fannin, Gilmer, Habersham, north of 
Ga. #115, 1 umpkin, north of Ga. #52, east of Dahlonega 
and northwest of l S ~i l) west ol Dahlonega. Murray, 

Pickens. Rabun, towns. I mon and White, north oi Ga. 

#115, plus the Chattahoochee River and its tributaries to 
the high water mark from the Buford Dam below 1 ake Sid- 
no 1 .unci downstream ; i miles to the Roswell Highway 

l S #19 budge between Roswell and Sand) Springs north 
ot Atlanta Othei Streams in the counties of Bartow, (,'a- 
toosa, Cherokee, FloyL, Gordon, Paulding. Polk. Haralson, 
and Walker aie closed when posted as trout water by the 
v iame and Pish Di\ ision. 

The March 31 -October t> season applies to only one lake 
in the above counties located on trout waters. Dockcrv 
1 ake. and does not applv to an\ other lakes in these coun- 
ties 

Creel I imit light trout of all species per person per 
da\ Possession limit 8 trout 

Fishing Hours — 30 minutes before sunrise to 30-min- 
utes after sunset on all trout streams which open and close 
with the state or Wildlife Management Area trout seasons 
Night fishing is allowed in lake Lanier and other large 
reservoirs stocked with trout, and on those streams or por- 
t hereof designated as "\ ear-round" trout streams 

MINIMUM SIZE IIMIT 

.ikes 1 aniei. Hartwell. Clark Hill, Burton, Rabun. Seed. 

■alls. .w^\ Blue Ridge and the tributarv streams ot 

irtwell. and Clark Hill for a distance of three (3) 

am from backwater shall have a minimum size 

ches on all species of trout from December 1 

to ich vear. 



TROUT SCHEDULE 

Complete information on Georgia trout regulati j. 
directions to fishing areas and management area regulat << 
are contained in a folder which can be obtained by wi :; 
the Department oi Natural Resources. TrinityAVashin I 
Street Building. 270 Washington St.. S.W.. Atlanta, I 
30334 Due to the complexity of trout management reji- 
tions. trout fishermen are ad>ised to study Georgia 1 I 
Regulations — 1973. 

LICENSE REQUIREMENTS 

All fishermen 16 years of age or older in the Stat!* 
Georgia are required to have a valid current State fin| 
license in their possession while fishing in fresh water. I 
the exception of landowners and members of their imr ii- 
ate family who may tish without a license on their Clj 
property. No license is required for fishing in saltwater 

Residents 65 years of age. or over, blind persons, ;A 
total!) disabled veterans may obtain a permanent horn P 
fishing license free oi charge by personal or mail applic la 
to the Came and Fish Division's office in Atlanta. 

TROUT STAMP 

All non-resident fishermen and all resident fishemie .> 
tween the ages of lo and c>> must have a trout stan r:o 
catch and keep trout. Resident anglers holding hon P 
licenses and resident anglers under 16 years of age ar N 
required to have a trout stamp A season trout stamp ' 
S 2 . 2 > for residents and $10.25 for non-residents, a r^ 
resident 5 day stamp is $3.25. 

LICENSE FEES 

Resident Pushing 1 icense $3 2 

Resident Combination Hunting and Fishing ..72 

Non-Resident Fishing (5 day trip) 3 i 

Non-Resident Season Fishing license . . . .10." 

Resident Georgia fishing licenses are available in all [f 
of the State from more than 2000 license dealers in I ' 
hardware stores, sporting goods stores, bait dealers, m: i& 
etc Many license dealers also sell non-resident 1 S 3| 

licenses. 



i i 



All licenses may be purchased in person or by mail from 
• Department of Natural Resources, Trinity-Washington 
Building, 270 Washington St., S.W., Atlanta, Georgia 
334. 

Orders by mail should include the complete physical 
;ciiption and address of the applicant, with the proper 
/ment. All licenses purchased during the 1973-74 season 
)ire on March 31, 1974. 

FISHING WITHOUT PERMISSION 

[t is illegal for anyone to fish on the lands of another 
hout first obtaining permission from the owner or the 
son in charge. This problem is especially acute on trout 
:ams, which are all non-navigable. 

Dn such streams, the property owner on one side of the 
:am owns the stream bed to its center. Where one land- 
ner owns both sides of a non-navigable stream, he also 
ns the entire bed of the stream, and can bar any fisher- 
n or boaters from it. Wildlife rangers, sheriffs, deputy 
riffs, and all other peace officers of the State and of anv 
mty or city are charged with enforcing this law, which 
i misdemeanor like all violations of game and fish laws 
I regulations, with a possible $1,000 fine or a 12 months 
sentence. Fishermen are not required to have permission 
fish in lands of the Chattahoochee National Forest, in 
ilic fishing areas of the Game and Fish Division or in 
i e parks. 

SALE OF GAME FISH BY INDIVIDUALS 

1 ) Owners of private ponds may sell game fish taken 
i refrom by obtaining a permit to sell from the Game & 
S n Division. A permit is not required for the sale of chan- 

I catfish or flathead catfish. 

2) The sale of game fish from such ponds is prohibited 
i ;ss the seller shall have obtained a fish selling permit and 

e such permit posted in a prominent place at the pond 
: n which the fish are being taken. 

3) Persons selling fish are required to package the fish, 

I I the date, selling permit number, pounds and type of 
1 , and the seller's name affixed. 

4) Permits to sell fish may be obtained from any dis- 
1 1 office of the Game & Fish Division. 

5) No common carrier shall accept game fish for trans- 
[i tation for barter, sale, or purchase, unless such fish are 
( kaged and bear the information required by this regu- 

)n. 

6) Game fish transported into or through this State 
;t be accompanied by proof that they were taken outside 
he geographical boundaries of this State. 

SEASONS 

. Jl streams, lakes, and ponds of Georgia are open to fish- 
l through the entire year with the exception of the moun- 
(i trout waters of North Georgia. See trout regulations for 
■ ils. Sunday fishing is allowed. 

DAILY CREEL LIMITS 

1 ream (Bluegill, Red Breast, 

and other species of Bream) 50 

( rappie 50 

Vhite Bass 30 

I argemouth Black Bass, Smallmouth Bass, Red- 

! eye Bass, and Spotted Bass or Kentucky Bass 15 

ft riped Bass or Rock Fish 5 

A 'hite-striped Bass Hybrid 10 

Chain Pickerel or Jack 15 

I rook or Speckled Trout, Rainbow Trout 

and Brown Trout 8 

V r hite Shad, Hickory Shad 8 

p tuger. Walleye 8 

p uskelunge 2 

( hannel Catfish No Limit 



Flathead Catfish No Limit 

(See section on reciprocal agreements for creel limits on 
waters adjoining other states.) 

POSSESSION LIMITS 

It is unlawful for any person to possess at any one time 
more than 50 fish in the aggregate (total) of all species 
named, except channel and flathead catfish. No more than 
a total of 15 largemouth, smallmouth, redeye or spotted 
bass can be possessed. No more than 8 trout of any or all 
species can be possessed at any time. 

SPECIAL LIMITS 

There will be a special creel limit of 25 warmouth, bream 
or sunfish taken from the Suwannee River and the Oke- 
fenokee Swamp. On Lake Blue Ridge there will be a creel 
limit of 15 walleye. 

SIZE LIMITS 

There is a minimum size limit of twelve (12) inches for 
largemouth bass on all public waters in this State. It is a vio- 
lation of this regulation to take or have in possession large- 
mouth bass less than 12" in length, taken from public 
waters. 

There is a minimum size limit of 12 inches on all redeye 
bass taken from the Flint River. 

There is a minimum size limit of fifteen (15) inches for 
striped bass (rock fish) in all waters (fresh and salt) of this 
State. It shall be a violation of this regulation to possess 
striped bass less than 15" in length, taken from these waters*. 

TRIBUTARY STREAMS 

All tributaries to Lake Lanier, Clark Hill and Hartwell, 
except Chattahoochee, Chestatee, Little River, Broad River, 
Savannah River, Tugaloo River, are hereby closed for a dis- 
tance of three miles upstream from the point of entrance 
into the lake, as marked by the Department from December 
1 to April 1 of each year. 

PROHIBITED SPECIES 

It shall be unlawful for any person, firm, or corporation 
to import, transport, buy, sell, or have in their possession 
within this State, any of the following species of fish: Pir- 
ranha (Serrasalmo) , (Pygocentrus), (Rooseveltiella) and 
Walking Catfish (Clariaus) . White Amur or Grass Carp 
{Ctenopharyngodon idella) may be held only by permit of 
this Department. 

FISHING METHODS 

Holders of sport fishing licenses may take fish only with 
rod and line, or on trotlines or set hooks with a combination 
of 50 or less hooks. It is illegal to use any batteries, genera- 
tors, explosives, poisons, gigs, spears, firearms, etc. Fish 
may not be grabbed or captured by hand. Nets, baskets, trot- 
lines with more than 50 hooks, and other such devices may 
not be used to take rough fish without possession of a com- 
mercial fishing license or basket permit, except in private 
ponds. Dip nets may be used to take threadfin and gizzard 
shad for bait. Landing nets may be used to land fish legally 
caught. See also "Seines" elsewhere in these regulations. For 
information on commercial fishing regulations, or other 
fishing information, contact the Game and Fish Division of 
the Department of National Resources, Trinity-Washington 
St. Building, 270 Washington St., S.W., Atlanta, Georgia 
30334. 

BOW FISHING 

The taking of rough or non-game fish from the public 
waters of this State by means of bow and arrow shall be per- 
mitted under the following conditions: 

(a) Each person using such bow and arrow must have 
on his person a valid state sport fishing license. 

(b) All arrows used pursuant to this section must be so 
equipped with barbs or contain devices on the point to 
act as a harpoon for recovering fish and must be attached 
to the person or b m- by a rope, line, or cord, sufficient for 



L5 



recovering the arrow and rough fish. 

(c) Arrows with poisonous or exploding head are illegal. 

(d) Shooting from any bridge or public road shall be 
illegal. 

(e) It shall be illegal to discharge arrows into waters 
nearer than 150 feet to anyone engaged in any other means 
of legal fishing. 

(f) Legal hours for the taking of fish by bow and arrow 
shall be from sunup to sundown. 

(g) Any game fish, in the possession of a bow and arrow 
fisherman, shall be prima facie evidence of taking and pos- 
sessing fish illegally. 

SKIN DIVERS 

Skin divers may take rough fish in fresh water, provided 
the diver is completely submerged and uses a spear attached 
with a line to his body or weapon. A special spear fishing 



license is required in addition to the regular State fishin j 
license: $5.25 for residents, $25.25 for non-residents. Spec ; 
fishing licenses are available only from the Atlanta office c | 
the Game and Fish Division. 



SEINES 

No seines may be used for the taking of fish except i 
otherwise provided by law under commercial fishing fc 
shad and shrimp. Minnows for live bait may be taken b 
minnow seines from the streams of Georgia, except in trot 
streams and other waters closed by regulations of the Boan 
No seine shall be used that is longer than twenty (20) fe< 
in length and may not have a mesh larger than three-eight! 
of an inch in diameter. Any fish other than minnows take 
in such net shall at once be returned to the waters and r< 
leased, and it is hereby declared unlawful to retain any fis 
other than minnows so taken. 



;t 



PUBLIC FISHING AREAS 



ii* 



k 



The following regulations will apply to all public fishing 
areas operated by the Game and Fish Division of the 
Division of Natural Resources: 

Those persons fishing at Arrowhead Public Fishing Area 
will be required to leave his fishing license with the creel 
clerk who will return it when the fisherman completes his 
fishing and has his catch recorded by the creel clerk. The 
following regulations will apply to all public fishing areas 
operated by the §tate Game & Fish Division. 

(a) All fishermen 16 years of age through 64 years of 
age must have a fishing permit in addition to their regular 
sports fishing license. Permits will be available on the area 
at a cost of $1 per day. 

(b) Children under 16 years of age may fish free, but 
must be accompanied by an adult. 

(c) Fishing hours will be from 30 minutes before sunrise 
to 30 minutes after sunset. 

(d) Area managers shall determine which ponds will be 
open and will post notices accordingly. 

(e) Fishermen shall be limited to three poles and lines, 
no other gear permitted. 

(f) Only battery operated motors will be allowed. No 
boats will be allowed at the Arrowhead Public Fishing 
Area. 

(g) Camping will be allowed only in designated areas, 
(h) No firearms or alcoholic beverages will be allowed 

on the area. 

(i) No swimming will be allowed on the area. 

(j) Creel limits shall be as posted on the area. 

(k) Open dates will be posted on the area. 

(1) No unattended fishing gear will be permitted. 

No person shall use any live fish for bait in public fishing 
areas operated by the Game and Fish Division. 

McDJFFIE FISHING AREA 

The McDuffie Public Fishing Area consists of 15 ponds 
open for fishing as posted. The easily accessible ponds are 
well fertilized and heavily stocked with largemouth bass, 
bream, and channel catfish. Fishermen may use their own 
boats on the lakes, but only with electric motors. There is 
an admission charge of $1.00 per day for each fisherman 
between 16 and 65 years of age. 

Directions from Augusta: Go to Dearing, Georgia, turn 
it a caution light and travel 3 miles to Iron Hill Church. 
right at church, go to wooden sign, turn left on dirt 
avel .8 mile to checking station. 

from Thomson: East on U.S. 278, 5.2 miles, 
large wooden sign on sharp curve and travel 
->aved road to wooden sign. Turn right on dirt 
8 mile to checking station. 



BALDWIN STATE FOREST 

The Baldwin State Forest lakes are open for fishing 
posted on the area. 

Directions From Milledgeville: 

Travel south on U.S. Highway 441 approximately 
miles. Lakes are on the left. 

ARROWHEAD PUBLIC FISHING AREA 

The Arrowhead Public Fishing Area consists of twi 
ponds, one of which will be open for fishing as posted. Tr : 
easily accessible ponds are stocked with channel catfish an I 
some bass and bream, and are well fertilized. No boats ai I 
allowed for fishing on the area. There is an admissic i . 
charge of $1.00 per day for each fisherman between 16 ar I 
65 years of age. 
Directions from Rome: 

From traffic light at Floyd County Hospital go 7.1 mil<> • 
north on Highway 27 to Armuchee Post Office. Turn rig! t 
and go 4.5 miles to the Arrowhead Public Fishing Area. 
Directions from Summerville: 

Go south on Highway 27 to Armuchee Post Office. Tui i 
right and go 4.5 miles to the Arrowhead Public Fishir ; 
Area. 
Directions from Calhoun: 

Take Highway 156 west 13 miles to McKinney's Grocei n 
Store. Turn right and go one mile to the Arrowhead PuW : 
Fishing Area. 

WILDLIFE RANGERS 

Georgia's Wildlife Rangers are charged with enforceme t 
of all of Georgia's game, fish, and boating laws. In the pe ■ 
formance of their duties, rangers may search any proper 
outside buildings, posted or otherwise, and may confisca -' 
any wildlife taken illegally. Rangers may also confiscate at / 
vehicle, boat, animal, firearm, or light used to hunt deer t 
night, and the Director of the Division will sell the co - 
fiscated items at public auction. 

When making cases against game law violators, ranges 
will carry offenders to the officers of the county in who ! 
jurisdiction the violation took place. Violation of any gan ■ 
and fish law or regulation is a misdemeanor. Judges in sui ) 
cases may impose a fine of up to $ 1 ,000 or a sentence of I ' 
to one year in jail or both. Fines and forfeitures in wildli - 
cases are used first to pay court costs, with any remaind r| 
going into the county school funds. Wildlife rangers ai 1 
the State Game and Fish Division do not receive ai »' 
money from fines, and disposition of wildlife cases are t 
of their hands after being turned over to local court officia 

Sheriffs, deputy sheriffs, and other peace officers may al 3 
enforce the State's game laws and regulations. 

Ignorance of the law is not a legal excuse in wildli t 
cases. 






A Gutiktb 6eo/tgtoiS!'tiimti&,Rti/w cundReiwtm 



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RECIPROCAL AGREEMENTS 

Under reciprocal agreements between adjoining States 
and the Georgia Game and Fish Division, Georgia fish- 
ing licenses will be honored on all waters adjoining Ala- 
bama (with the exception of Lake Weiss), Florida, and 
South Carolina. In Lake Chatuge bordering North Caro- 
lina, Georgia anglers are permitted to fish only that por- 
tion of the lake under Georgia jurisdiction. Georgia 
fishing licenses are honored on the Alabama bank on im- 
pounded waters between the two states, with the exception 
of Lake Weiss. Only the main portions of the adjacent 
waterways are covered, not the tributary streams. 

Creel limits on adjoining waters are those of the in- 
dividual state having jurisdiction in that portion of the 
waterway, except that the Alabama creel limits and other 
regulations are the same as the Georgia regulations and 
creel limits. For a list of the creel limits and other regula- 
tions of North Carolina, South Carolina, and Florida, 
write the North Carolina Wildlife Resources Commission, 
Raleigh; South Carolina Wildlife Resources Commission, 
Columbia: Florida Game and Fresh Water Fish Commis- 
sion, Tallahassee. 

Georgia motorboat registrations are honored in all sur- 
rounding states; however, Alabama requires unregistered 
Georgia motorboats of 10 horsepower or less to display a 
decal which may be obtained free of charge from the Geor- 
gia Game and Fish Division's Atlanta, Calhoun, Manchester 
or Dawson offices. Georgia motorboats operating in Ala- 
bama also must obev more stringent Alabama safety equip- 
ment requirements. For a free copy, write the Alabama De- 
partment of Conservation, Montgomery. 



BOATING SAFETY 

Georgia boating safety laws and regulations require t 
all boaters keep at least one Coast Guard approved 
preserver on board for each person in their boat. Boats v 
motors over 10 horsepower in size must be registered v 
the Game and Fish Division. A free copy of the boat 
laws and regulations is available on request from the D 
sion's Atlanta office. 

RESERVOIR MAPS 

Maps of the eight U.S. Army Corps of Engineers re 
voirs in Georgia, including Allatoona, Lanier, Hartv 
Clark Hill, Savannah Bluff, Fort Gaines, Columbia, , 
Seminole, are available free of charge from the U.S. A j 
Corps of Engineers, South Atlantic Division, Lawyer's 1 1 
Building, Atlanta, Ga. 30303. 

Maps of reservoirs of the Georgia Power Comp; | 
including Sinclair, Jackson, Burton, Rabun, Seed, Tallu i 
Bartletts Ferry, Goat Rock, Oliver and Worth are avail ] 
free of charge in single copies only for specific lakes 
quested from the Game and Fish Division's Atlanta of i 
Also available are maps of TVA's Blue Ridge, Nottely, r 
Chatuge Reservoirs, along with the Crisp County Pc> 
Corporation's Lake Blackshear and the State Game 
Fish Division's McDuffie Public Fishing Area. 

For further information on state parks and their facili 
contact the Department of Natural Resources, 270 W 
ington St., S.W., Atlanta, Georgia 30334. For informa. 
on Lake Russell and other Chattahoochee National Fu 
recreation areas, contact the U.S. Forest Service, ] T. 
Peachtree Rd., Atlanta, Georgia 30309. 



TROUT REGULATION? 



REGILAR TROUT SEASON 

The Georgia trout season runs from March 31, 1973, 
through October 6, 1973, inclusive. This season shall apply 
to all streams in the eleven north Georgia counties of 
Dawson, Fannin, Gilmer, Habersham, north of Ga. #115, 
Lumpkin, north of Ga. #52 east of Dahlonega and north 
and west of U.S. #19 west of Dahlonega, Murray, Pickens, 
Rabun, Towns, Union, White, north of Ga. #115. It shall 
also apply to the Chattahoochee River and its tributaries 
upstream to the backwater level due to power generation 
from Buford Dam to the Roswell Bridge on U.S. High- 
way 19. 

Streams designated as trout water in the counties of 
Walker, Chattooga, Bartow, Floyd, Paulding, Gordon, Har- 
alson, Cherokee, Polk, and Catoosa open and close with the 
regular state trout season (March 31-October 6). These 
streams are designated by signs erected by the Game and 
Fish Division. 

WILDLIFE MANAGEMENT AREA TROUT SEASON 

The Wildlife Management Area trout season shall run 
from April 28, 1973, through Labor Day, inclusive. This 
season shall apply to those streams, and their tributaries, 
listed in the Managed Stream Schedule elsewhere in this 
brochure. All other streams on Wildlife Management areas 
will be open during the regular trout season (March 31- 
October 6). 

LAKES AND RESERVOIRS 

The regular state trout season shall not apply to any lake 

:servoir, except Dockery Lake where the season shall 

farch 31-October 6, and Rock Creek Lake and Ed- 

ond which are open as tributaries to Rock Creek 

aged Stream Schedule. 

tary streams to Lake Lanier, except the Chatta- 

hestatee, to Hartwell except the Tugaloo, and 

to Clark Jill, except the Savannah, Broad and Little Rivers 



are closed to fishing for a distance of three (3) mile; )• 
stream from backwaters from December 1 to April l>f 
each year. 

LICENSE REQUIREMENTS 

All resident fishermen 16 years of age or older ir ie 
State of Georgia are required to have a valid current ite 
fishing license and trout stamp in their possession ' 'le 
fishing for trout, with the exception of landowners id 
members of their immediate family who may fish with I a 
license on their own property. All non-residents, regat Iss 
of age, are required to have non-resident fishing licenst id 
trout stamp while fishing in designated trout waters. 

Residents over 65 years of age, blind persons, and t< fly 
disabled veterans may obtain a permanent honorary li <se 
free of charge by personal or mail application to the ( fie 
and Fish Division's Atlanta office. 

LICENSE FEES 

Resident Fishing License $ 3 2 

Resident Combination Hunting and Fishing. . 7 2 

Non-Resident Fishing (5 day trip) 3 2 

Non-Resident Season Fishing License .... 102 

TROUT STAMP FEES 

Resident Trout Stamp $ 2 2 

Non-Resident Trout Stamp (5 day) .... 32 

Non-Resident Season Trout Stamp 10 2 

Resident Georgia fishing licenses are available : iall 

parts of the State from more than 2000 license deal tin 

most hardware stores, sporting goods stores, bait d< ars. 

marinas, etc. Many license dealers also sell non-re int 

fishing licenses. 

All licenses may be purchased in person or by mail f»m 

the Department of Natural Resources, Trinitv-Washi ion 

St. Building, 270 Washington St., S.W., Atlanta, Ga. 'W 
Orders by mail should include the complete physic Jle- 

scription and address of the applicant with the prope i)' - 



:nt. All licenses purchased during the 1973-74 season 
sire on March 31, 1974. 

GENERAL TROUT REGULATIONS 

CREEL LIMITS 

Eight (8) trout per day (regardless of species) except 
otherwise provided in Special Regulations. Possession 
lit eight (8) trout (regardless of species). 

FISHING HOURS 
Fishing on trout streams open during the regular state 
ut season (March 31-October 6) will be permitted from 
minutes before sunrise until 30 minutes after sunset. No 
ht fishing on these streams is permitted. Trout fishing 
night is permitted on all impoundments except Dockery 
ke. Rock Creek Lake, and Edmundson Pond, where fish- 
is permitted from 30 minutes before sunrise until 30 
nutes after sunset. Night fishing is permitted on "year- 
md" trout streams. 

FISHING METHODS 
. Fishermen may take trout only with rod and line. 
>ut fishermen are restricted to the use of one rod and line 
! it must be held in hand. 

'.. Live bait-fish May Not be used in ANY trout stream 
he state. Seining of bait fish is not allowed in any trout 
am. 

. Trotlines, set hooks, jugs, nets, and bows and arrows 
; prohibited for fishing in all trout streams. 
1 . On those streams designated for "artificials only," 

I / artificial lures may be used. It is illegal for anyone 
• ing an "artificial only" stream to have any bait other 

I I artificial bait in his possession. 

. 'rtificial bait as used in these regulations shall mean 
i ny bait which is man-made, in imitation of or as a 
i tbstitute for natural bait, and shall include artificial 
) ies, NOT included and expressly prohibited are fish 
t ?gs, corn, or chemically treated or processed foods. 
f While fishing specially regulated waters with a mini- 
i n size limit, it will constitute a violation to possess trout 
:ss than the specified minimum size. 

RESERVOIRS AND LAKES 

here is no seasonal restriction on trout fishing in reser- 
i i and lakes, except Dockery Lake where the season runs 
Ji i March 3 1 -October 6, and Rock Creek Lake and Ed- 
Ji dson Pond which are open as tributaries of Rock Creek 
| e Managed Stream Schedule. 

NIGHT FISHING 
I ight fishing for trout is permitted on reservoirs and 
| ;, except Dockery Lake, Rock Creek Lake, and Ed- 
i dson Pond where fishing is permitted from 30 minutes 
| re sunrise until 30 minutes after sunset. 

CREEL LIMIT 
f ght (8) trout (regardless of species). Possession limit 
ft (8) trout (regardless of species). 

TRIBUTARIES CLOSED 
A 1 tributary streams to Lake Lanier, except the Chatta- 
m hee and Chestatee Rivers, to Lake Hartwell, except the 
ji loo River, and to Lake Clark Hill, except the Savan- 
y Broad, and Little Rivers, are closed to fishing for a 
ia ice of three (3) miles upstream from backwater from 
m mber 1 to April 1 of each year. 

MINIMUM SIZE LIMIT 
H kes Lanier, Hartwell, Clark Hill, Burton, Rabun, Seed, 
■'ilah Falls, and Blue Ridge shall have a minimum size 
Y of 14 inches on all species of trout from December 1 
Til 1 of each year. 

TROUT STAMP 

current state trout stamp affixed to the back of a valid 

fishing license is required to catch and possess trout. 

il, License Requirements — elsewhere in this brochure.) 

trout stamp is required to fish in those lakes where 



h 



jt are the only or the predominant species. These lakes 
L Dckery Lake, Amicalola Lake, Lake Trahlyta, Unicoi 
<s Rock Creek Lake, and Edmundson Pond. 



On all other lakes or reservoirs where trout are present, 
the trout stamp is required only if trout are in possession 
of the fisherman. 

SPECIAL STREAM REGULATIONS 

Certain streams and portions of streams have been set 
aside to be regulated under special management programs. 
The streams so managed will insure that a variety of fishing 
experiences are available to the sportsmen of the state. 
CHATTAHOOCHEE RIVER 

From Buford Dam downstream to Old Jones Bridge, open 
during regular state trout season (March 31-October 6). 
This section is restricted to "Artificial Only." The creel limit 
is 8 trout per day with a minimum size limit of 10 inches. 
Regulation applies to all tributaries upstream to the back- 
water level due to power generation. 

COLEMAN RIVER 

Upstream from confluence with the Tallulah River to 
U.S. Forest Service Bridge No. 54 on Coleman River Road. 
This section is open during the regular state trout season 
(March 31-October 6) and is designated "Artificial Only." 
The creel limit is eight (8) trout per day, with a minimum 
size limit of 10 inches on brown and rainbow trout and 7 
inches on brook trout. Regulation applies to all tributaries. 
JONES CREEK 

That portion of the stream on Blue Ridge Wildlife Man- 
agement Area is open as designated in Managed Stream 
Schedule from April 28-Labor Day. This stream is desig- 
nated "Artificial Only," with a creel limit of eight (8) trout 
per day. Fishermen must check in and out through checking 
station. Regulation applies to all tributaries. 
MOUNTAINTOWN CREEK 

That section upstream from S.C.S. structure #2 (Dam), 
on Cohutta Wildlife Management Area, is open during the 
regular state trout season (March 31-October 6). This sec- 
tion is designated as "Artificial Only." The creel limit is 
eight (8) trout per day. Regulation applies to all tributaries. 
NOONTOOTLA CREEK (Catch and Release Stream) 

That section on Blue Ridge Wildlife Management Area is 
open as designated in Management Stream Schedule 
(everyday) from April 28-Labor Day. This stream is desig- 
nated "Artificial Only," with a minimum size limit of 16 
inches on all species. All trout under 16 inches in length 
must be immediately returned to the stream unharmed. 
A voluntary creel census will be conducted on Noontootla 
this season. Fishermen are requested to fill out creel forms 
provided and deposit them in receptacles along the stream. 
Regulations apply to all tributaries. 

WATERS CREEK 

This stream is specially managed to provide anglers a 
unique wild, trophy trout fishing experience. This is an ex- 
perimental venture in trophy trout management jointly un- 
dertaken by the Game and Fish Division and the Chatta- 
hoochee Chapter of Trout Unlimited with the U.S. Forest 
Service cooperating. Waters Creek is open as designated in 
the Managed Stream Schedule — from April 28 through 
Labor Day — from its junction with Dick's Creek upstream 
on the Chestatee Wildlife Management Area. The stream is 
open for fishing by "artificial lures only — single barbless 
hook only." The barbless hook may be no larger than #6. 
Minimum size limit for trout taken from Waters Creek is 22 
inches on brown and rainbow trout and 18 inches on brook 
trout. It is evidence of violation to possess trout smaller than 
these limits while fishing on the creek. Creel limit is one 
trout, minimum size or larger. Anglers must check in and 
out of stream and pay a $1 .00 daily use fee for each day of 
fishing. Waters Creek will beclosed to fishing each day at 
6:30 p.m. EST. Regulation applies to all tributaries. 
STANLEY CREEK 

That portion of Stanley Creek on the Rich Mountain 
Wildlife Management Area restricted to artificial lures only. 
Stanley Creek is open during the regular state trout season 
(March 31-October 6) and has a creel limit of eight (8) 
trout daily. Regulation applies to all tributaries. 



WALNUT FORK AND HOOD CREEKS 

On Warwoman Wildlife Management Area open as desig- 
nated in Managed Stream Schedule from April 28-Labor 
Day. Fishermen must check in and out through checking 
station. 

MOCCASIN CREEK 

From Georgia Highway 197 downstream to Lake Burton 
is open during regular state trout season (March 31 -Octo- 
ber 6). This section is restricted to: fishermen under 16, 
holders of honorary fishing licenses, women and physically 
handicapped persons. That section from Georgia Highway 
197 to Dam (Lake Burton Hatchery Intake) is perma- 
nently closed. Upstream from the Dam, Moccasin Creek is 
open as designated in the Managed Stream Schedule. 

LOW GAP POOL 

A special pool on Low Gap Creek (Chattahoochee Wild- 
life Management Area) at road crossing is restricted to: 
fishermen under 16, holders of honorary fishing licenses, 
women and physically handicapped persons. This pool is 
open as a tributary of Chattahoochee River in managed 
stream schedule. 

CLOSED STREAMS 

The following streams will be closed for renovation and 
restocking during the 1973 trout season: 
Chattahoochee River 

(Upstream from Henson Creek) . Chattahoochee WMA 



Dick's Creek Lake Burton WMA 

Tuckaluge Creek Warwoman WMA 

Coleman River 

(Upstream from USFS 

bridge #54) Coleman River WMA 

Mill Creek Coleman River WMA 

Tate Branch Coleman River WMA 

Mill Creek on Blue Ridge WMA is permanently closed to 
fishing (water supply for Chattahoochee Forest National 
Fish Hatchery). 



id 
YEAR-ROUND TROUT STREAMS 

Night fishing for trout is permitted on all streams ot 
portions thereof designated as "year-round" .trout streams. 
The following streams are classified as year-round troul ( 
streams and are open for the taking of trout throughoul '■- 
the year: 
Amicalola River downstream from Steele's Bridge (Cov- '* 

ered Bridge — Dawson County) 
Cartecay River downstream from Stegal Mill Dam (Fannir 

County) 
Chattachoochee River (Upper Section) downstream frorr 

Nora Mills (Ga. Highway 17— White County) 
Chattahoochee River (Lower Section) downstream froir 

Roswell Bridge (U.S. Highway 19— Fulton County) 
Chattooga River, entire length between Georgia and Soutl : 

Carolina. 

TROUT STREAM 







WE RIDGE WMy W yj ,k ' 
/ 



LEGEND 



STATE IINES 
-COUNTY 1INES 



Cooiowoft«» 
US HIGHWAY 



O TOWNS 



PftMANENT IOOKOUT STATIOi 



o 

{) STATE I 

] FOREST SERVICE ROUTE NUMBER 

fX / COU 

i 

"F]" ROADSIDE PAP.K 

A PFCfff A1ION AREA 



kSpMne«/-A1o 



UNTY ROAD 
A DISTRICT RANGER HEADQUARTERS 
IPAHS 
S7 1IF PARK 
WUDUFS MANAGEMENT AREA STREAMS 



"H^. ~%Lyr \*L\ , ' r "" c '" r " 






s 



* 



I 










l 



: Fork Chattooga River, downstream from Three 
>rks (junction of Holcomb, Overflow, and Big Creeks) 
labun County) 

itatee River downstream from Tate Bridge (First bridge 
low Turners Corner, Damascus Church Road — Lump- 
n County) 

isauga River downstream from Alaculsy Valley Bridge 
jeorgia Highway 2 — Murray County) 
ly River downstream from mouth of Kells Creek (Gil- 
er C ?unty) 

tingtown Creek downstream from Georgia Highway 2 
idge (Fannin County) 

y Creek downstream from the Old CCC Camp (Mur- 
y County) 

s River downstream from Jacks River Bridge in Ala- 
lsy Valley (Murray County) 

Pendley Creek downstream from Cove Bridge (Pick- 
s County) 

ntaintown Creek downstream from bridge on U.S. 
ighway 76 (Gilmer County) 

ely River downstream from Nicholson Bridge (2nd 
idge below U.S. Highway 129-19 Bridge, on Shady 
■ove Church Road — Union County) 
her Creek downstream from mouth of Little Panther 
eek (Stephens County) 

e River downstream from Kings Bridge (Habersham 
>unty) 

4 GEORGIA 



Tallulah River downstream from Lake Burton Dam. 

Brasstown Creek downstream from bridge on U.S. High- 
way 76 and all tributaries below bridge (Byers Creek, 
Crane Creek, Crooked Creek) (Union and Towns Coun- 
ties) 

Chickamauga Creek downstream from bridge on Georgia 
Highway 255 (White County) 

Coosa Creek open entire length and all tributaries (Union 
County) 

Etowah River downstream from Jay Bridge (Lumpkin 
County) 

Hightower Creek downstream from bridge on U.S. High- 
way 76 (Towns County) 

Hiwassee River downstream from Brown Bridge (second 
bridge above U.S. Highway 76 on Georgia Highway 75 — 
Towns County) 

Ivylog Creek open entire length and all tributaries (Union 
County) 

Sautee Creek downstream from bridge on Georgia High- 
way Alternate 255 (White County) 

Toccoa River open entire length (Fannin and Union Coun- 
ties) DOES NOT INCLUDE ANY TRIBUTARIES. 

Youngcane Creek open entire length and all tributaries 
(Union County) 

Savannah River — Hartwell Dam, 10 miles downstream, and 
Clark Hill Dam to New Savannah Bluff Lock and Dam 



«»~ «■»» 



B)y G opj 

• «■■» «■■»* m 

>'lTolc C.l/31_ 

?! J 



/Plum 0,\hard Gop^ii. 



NANTAHAIA NA7IONAI FOREST 



>"° 



v**""- — s »_ ,^"V D ''*' - Vt'' G °° f 

VsWALLOW CREEK WMAy' '"^^^kj-^fe. 

^KE\BURTOrV-WM/i^^(i / s (J 

/'AddiWGop rJS ^y*V»_ I _^ «- 



^i 




Rabun B//fd~ 
)Robun Oop ^ . 



C'« fori, fo 



^ 



iRobun Be 



| S.td lole 



'Tolluloh lo«> 



, * A >Un C°>/ 



/J 




/>'/ /I Jwo.Vjio^loS 

S \ /J^r cooVp" n »' 


Gcot/c 
o)iuAgton 
C<vv.r 




'£'$ iS\//« 1 

f/Sy jf J U Bbrdv.ll.l 



1 



I 



GENERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS 

Firearms are allowed on management areas only during 
the spring gobbler hunts, fall organized deer hunts and 
small game hunts. Wildlife Rangers may remove any indi- 
vidual from a management area who is intoxicated or whose 
conduct or violation of laws and regulations warrants. 
Rangers may inspect cars of fishermen for illegal fish, 
game, or firearms. Violators of regulations will be immedi- 
ately taken to the county seat and turned over to officials 
of the respective county courts for prosecution. 

CAMPING, FOREST REGULATIONS 

Camping is allowed on all management areas, especially 
on designated campgrounds of the U.S. Forest Service in 
the Chattahoochee National Forest. On Forest areas, camp- 
ers must carefully extinguish all fires before leaving camp. 
Only dead wood may be used for firewood, and removal of 
any green or living material is prohibited. Entrance fees are 
charged at designated Forest Service Recreation Areas. A 

MANAGEMENT 

STREAM 

DIRECTIONS 

BLUE RIDGE WILDLIFE MANAGEMENT AREA 

(Lower Section) 

From Dahlonega: Travel 9 miles wert on Georgia High- 
way 52 to Grizzle's Store. Turn right and travel 2.4 miles, 
turn right and travel 2.4 miles more to checking station. 
Inquire. 
Streams: 

Jones Creek — See Special Stream Regulations 
Montgomery Creek — See Managed Stream Schedule 
Nimblewill Creek — See Managed Stream Schedule 
(Upper Section) 

From Dahlonega: Travel north on U.S. Highway 19 and 
turn left on county road #53 to U.S. Army training camp. 
At entrance to camp, turn right on U.S.F.S. road and travel 
to intersection with U.S.F.S. Road 42 and turn left. Turn 
right on U.S.F.S. road 69 for Rock Creek or proceed along 
U.S.F.S. 42 and turn right on U.S.F.S. 58 for Noontootla 
Creek. 
Streams: 

Rock Creek — See Managed Stream Schedule 
Noontootla Creek — See Special Stream Regulations 

BURTON WILDLIFE MANAGEMENT AREA 

From Clarksville: Travel north on Georgia Highway 197 
21 miles to Lake Burton Fish Hatchery. Inquire. 

Streams: 

Moccasin Creek — See Special Stream Regulations 
Wildcat Creek — See Managed Stream Schedule 

CHATTAHOOCHEE WILDLIFE 
MANAGEMENT AREA 

From Cleveland: Travel north on Georgia Highway 75 
to Robertstown and turn left across bridge. Take first dirt 
road right for Chattahoochee River or continue 2.3 miles 
and turn right for Duke's Creek. 
Streams: 

Chattahoochee River — See Managed Stream Schedule 
Duke's Creek — See Managed Stream Schedule 
Spoilcane Creek — March 31 -October 6 

IESTATEE WILDLIFE MANAGEMENT AREA 

FDom Cleveland: Travel north on U.S. Highway 129 ten 
Turner's Corner (Junction U.S. Highway 19). 
Fnquire. 

ims: 
3oggs Creek — See Managed Stream Schedule 
Chestatee River — March 31 -October 6 
Dick's Creek — See Special Stream Regulations 



list of fees and areas is available from the U.S. Fore t 
Service, Box 643, Gainesville, Georgia 30501. 

FISHING WITHOUT PERMISSION 

It is illegal for anyone to fish on the lands of anoth i 
without first obtaining permission from the owner or perse : 
in charge. This problem is especially acute on trout strean ; 
which are all non-navigable. On such streams, the proper ; 
owner on one side of the stream owns the stream bed to . 
center. When one landowner owns both sides of a no i 
navigable stream, he also owns the entire bed of the streai i 
and can bar any fishermen or boaters from it. Wildli i 
rangers, sheriffs, deputy sheriffs, and all other peace office \ 
of the State, and of any county or city are charged with e i 
forcing this law, which is a misdemeanor like all violatio i' 
of game and fish laws and regulations, with a possih ; 
$1,000 fine or a 12 months jail sentence. Fishermen are r? 
required to have permission to fish in lands of the Chat i 
hoochee National Forest, in public fishing areas of t i 1 
Game and Fish Division or in State Parks. 




i 



COLEMAN RIVER WILDLIFE 
MANAGEMENT AREA 

From Clayton: Travel west on U.S. Highway 76 for ei f 
miles to Tallulah River road (U.S.F.S. road 70). Turn ri ;| t 
and proceed 4.3 miles to road junction. Turn left to gc 
confluence of Coleman and Tallulah Rivers. 
Streams: 

Coleman River — See Special Stream Regulations 
COHUTTA WILDLIFE MANAGEMENT AREA 

From Chatsworth: Travel north on U.S. Highway • '. 
for 13 miles to Georgia Highway 2, turn right to ei t 
Cohutta area, (some roads to streams on this area are si 
able only for four-wheel drive vehicles.) 
Streams: 

Conasauga River — March 31 -October 6 
Jacks River — March 31 -October 6 
Mountaintown Creek — See Special Stream Regulati ), 
COOPER CREEK WILDLIFE MANAGEMENT AH* 
From Dahlonega: Travel north on U.S. Highway 19 f 
nine miles to junction of Georgia Highway 60. Take G ( 
gia Highway 60 north 19 miles, cross Cooper Creek br i 
and turn right on U.S.F.S. road 4. 
Streams: 

Cooper Creek — March 3 1 -October 6 
Sea Creek — March 3 1 -October 6 
Mulky Creek — March 31 -October 6 
Petty-Bryant Creek — March 31 -October 6 
Burnett Creek — March 31 -October 6 
COOSA WATTEE WILDLIFE MANAGEMENT AM 
From Ellijay: Travel south on Georgia Highway 5 1 1* 
miles io Coosawattee River and turn right to enter Co- 
wattee Area. 
Streams: 

Mountaintown Creek — March 31 -October 6 
Tails Creek — March 31 -October 6 
Deboard Branch — March 31 -October 6 
Fir Creek — March 31 — October 6 
Flat Creek — March 31 -October 6 
Worley Branch — March 31 -October 6 
JOHNS MOUNTAIN WILDLIFE 
MANAGEMENT AREA 

From Calhoun: Travel west on Georgia Highway 1.' i° 
junction with U.S.F.S. road 203. Turn right and proce c'o 
stream. 
Streams: 

Johns Creek — March 31 -October 6 



'f* 






CH MOUNTAIN WILDLIFE 
UNAGEMENT AREA 

"rom Ellijay: Travel east on Georgia Highway 52 for 3 

es or so to Turniptown road and turn left. 

Streams: 

Cartecay River — March 31 -October 6 

Big Turniptown — March 31 -October 6 

Little Turniptown — March 31-October 6 

SUnley Creek — See Special Stream Regulations 

Bi £ Creek— March 31-October 6 

Rock Creek — March 31-October 6 

KE RUSSELL WILDLIFE MANAGEMENT AREA 

7 rom Cornelia: Travel north on U.S. Highway 23 for 
ie miles. Turn right on U.S.F.S. road 61 and go 2 miles 
oad junction. Turn left on U.S.F.S. road 92 and travel 
miles to stream, 
treams: 
Middle Broad River — See Managed Stream Schedule 

ALLOW CREEK WILDLIFE 
NAGEMENT AREA 

Yom Helen: Travel north through Robertstown on 
>rgia Highway 75 and across Unicoi Gap. Pass junction 
l Georgia Highway 66 and cross Hiwassee River bridge, 
: first dirt road right for Corbin Creek, third dirt road 
t for Mill Creek, or proceed on Ga. #75 and turn right 
U.S. Highway 76 and proceed one and a half miles to 
I road right to Swallow Creek. 
: treams : 



Corbin Creek — March 3 1 -October 6 
Mill Creek— March 31-October 6 
Swallow Creek — March 31-October 6 

WARWOMAN WILDLIFE MANAGEMENT AREA 

From Clayton: Proceed east on County Road 5 (War- 
woman Road). Road crosses all streams. 

Finney Creek— See Managed Stream Schedule 
Walnut Fork/ Hoods Creek — See Special Stream 

Regulations 
Sarah's Creek — See Managed Stream Schedule 

MAPS 

Non-relief maps of the individual management areas are 
available free of charge on request from the Public Infor- 
mation Office, Department of Natural Resources, Trinity- 
Washington St. Building, 270 Washington St., S.W., At- 
lanta, Ga. 30334. Telephone 656-3530. 

Non-relief maps of individual counties showing roads, 
many smaller trout streams and boundaries of State Game 
and Fish Division management areas may be obtained 
for 25 cents each from the Georgia Highway Department, 
Room 354, 2 Capitol Square, Atlanta, Georgia 30334. A 
free map of recreational facilities in the entire Chatta- 
hoochee National Forest is available from the U.S. Forest 
Service, Box 643, Gainesville, Georgia 30501. Detailed 
topographical maps of individual North Georgia quad- 
rangles may be ordered for 50 cents from an index avail- 
able free on request from the Map Information Office, U.S. 
Geological Survey, Washington, D.C. 20242. 



agement 
Area 



Stream 



April 



May 



June 



July 



August 



September 



E RIDGE 


Jones Creek 


Sat. 28 
Sun. 29 


Sat., Sun. 
Mon. 28 


Sat., Sun. 


Sat., Sun. 
Wed. 4th 


Sat., Sun. 


Sat., Sept. 1 
Sun., Sept. 2 
Mon., Sept. 3 


Montgomery 


Sat. 28 
Sun. 29 


Sat., Sun. 
Wed., Thu. 
Mon. 28 


Sat., Sun. 
Wed., Thu. 


Sat., Sun. 
Wed., Thu. 


Sat., Sun. 
Wed., Thu. 


Sat., Sept. 1 
Sun., Sept. 2 
Mon., Sept. 3 


Nimblewill 


Sat. 28 
Sun. 29 


Sat., Sun. 
Mon. 28 


Sat., Sun. 


Sat., Sun. 
Wed. 4th 


Sat., Sun. 


Sat., Sept. 1 
Sun., Sept. 2 
Mon., Sept. 3 


Noontootla 


Sat. 28 
Sun. 29 


Every Day 


Every Day 


Every Day 


Every Day 


Sat., Sept. 1 
Sun., Sept. 2 
Mon., Sept. 3 


Rock Creek 


Sat. 28 
Sun. 29 


Sat., Sun. 
Wed., Thu. 
Mon. 28 


Wed., Thu. 
Sat., Sun. 


Sat., Sun. 
Wed., Thu. 


Sat., Sun. 
Wed., Thu. 


Sat., Sept. 1 
Sun., Sept. 2 
Mon., Sept. 3 


y TTAHOOCHEE 


Chattahoochee 


Sat. 28 
Sun. 29 


Sat., Sun. 
Mon. 28 


Sat., Sun. 
Wed. 


Sat., Sun. 
Wed. 4th 


Sat., Sun. 


Sat., Sept. 1 
Sun., Sept. 2 
Mon., Sept. 3 


Dukes 


Sat. 28 
Sun. 29 


Sat., Sun. 
Wed., Thu. 
Mon. 28 


Sat., Sun. 
Wed., Thu. 


Sat., Sun. 
Wed., Thu. 


Sat., Sun. 
Wed., Thu. 


Sat., Sept. 1 
Sun., Sept. 2 
Mon., Sept. 3 


E ITATEE 


Boggs 


Sat. 28 
Sun. 29 


Sat., Sun 
Wed., Thu. 
Mon. 28 


Sat., Sun. 
Wed., Thu. 


Sat., Sun. 
Wed., Thu. 


Sat., Sun. 
Wed., Thu. 


Sat., Sept. 1 
Sun., Sept. 2 
Mon., Sept. 3 


Dicks 


Sat. 28 
Sun. 29 


Sat., Sun. 
Mon. 28 


Sat., Sun. 


Wed., Thu. 
Sat., Sun. 


Sat., Sun. 


Sat., Sept. 1 
Sun., Sept. 2 

Mon.. Sept. 3 


Waters 


Sat. 28 
Sun. 29 


Sat., Sun. 
Mon. 28 


Sat., Sun. 


Sat., Sun. 
Wed. 4th 


Sat., Sun. 


Sat., Sept. 1 
Sun., Sept. 2 
Mon., Sept. 3 


I! BURTON 
- RUSSELL 


Moccasin 


Sat. 28 
Sun. 29 


Sat., Sun. 
Wed., Thu. 
Mon. 28 


Sat., Sun. 
Wed., Thu. 


Sat., Sun. 
Wed., Thu. 


Sat., Sun. 
Wed., Thu. 


Sat., Sept. 1 
Sun., Sept. 2 
Mon., Sept. 3 


Wildcat 


Sat. 28 
Sun. 29 


Sat., Sun. 
Mon. 28 


Sat., Sun. 


Sat., Sun. 
Wed. 4th 


Sat., Sun. 


Sat., Sept. 1 
Sun., Sept. 2 
Mon., Sept. 3 


Middle Broad 


Sat. 28 
Sun. 29 


Sat., Sun. 
Wed. 
Mon. 28 


Sat., Sun. 
Wed. 


Sat., Sun. 
Wed. 


Sat., Sun. 
Wed. 


Sat., Sept. 1 
Sun., Sept. 2 
Mon., Sept: 3 


W VOMAN 


Finney 




Wed., Thu. 
Mon. 28 


Sat., Sun. 


Wed., Thu. 


Sat., Sun. 


Sat., Sept. 1 
Sun., Sept. 2 
Mon., Sept. 3 


Sarahs 




Wed., Thu. 
Mon. 28 


Sat., Sun. 


Wed., Thu. 


Sat., Sun. 


Sat., Sept. 1 
Sun., Sept. 2 
Mon., Sept. 3 


Walnut Fork 


Sat. 28 
Sun. 29 


Sat., Sun. 


Wed., Thu. 


Sat., Sun. 


Wed., Thu. 




Hoods Creek 


Sat. 28 
Sun. 29 


Sat., Sun. 


Wed., Thu. 


Sat., Sun. 


Wed., Thu. 






Sportsmen's Knive, 



By Bob Wilson 



The sharp cutting edge, the hand- 
filling shape, the solid heft, the cold 
serious gleam of polished steel- 
whatever the cause, put a knife down 
in front of ten sportsmen and at 
least nine of them will pick it up. 
Various psychologists have had fun 
interpreting the meanings and sym- 
bolism behind this attraction, but 
let's just say that it exists. Moreover, 
sportsmen find various knives very 
useful in the enjoyment of their out- 
door activities. 

Knives come in literally thousands 
of shapes, sizes, and forms. Some 
are claimed to be suitable for every- 
thing; but the best ones are designed 
rather specific purposes. Some 
■ very little; and even the best 
expensive enough, considering 
used, the care with 
which they ere made, and the way 
they perfoi 



What type of knife to buy? How 
much to spend? Buy the knife best 
suited to the job or jobs that you 
plan to tackle with it. Spend as much 
as is necessary to get a quality knife 
and as much as you can afford to 
get one you can take pride in. The 
experts used to advise against stain- 
less steel for blades on any but fish- 
ing knives, and it may stil! be true 
that good carbon steel blades have 
a slight advantage over stainless ones 
in taking an absolute razor edge; but 
technical advances have produced 
stainless steel almost equal to car- 
bon steels in that respect, and stain- 
less does have some inherent ad- 
vantages. Many of the modern top- 
quality carbon steel blades approach 
stainless in ease of maintenance. 

A pen-knife can be used to dress 
out and skin a deer, and it's been 
done. Likewise, a good-sized fish 



can be filleted with a five-inch she J 
knife, but it's not something yc 
enjoy and the knife would have 
be really sharp. It's not likely 
would want to try either of tr '. 
experiences more than once, ■. 
there is little need to subject y ■ 
self to such an ordeal. A prop fl 
selected knife handles the job it \W 
designed to do in an efficient iB 
safe manner— if it is properly sh iV 
ened and used knowledgeably. 

A cheap knife is more likeh I 
break or chip under stress the 1 
quality blade. Cheap steel is r rt 
susceptible to pit or spot rusting i 
to flaws in composition. Poorly f "f| 
guards and handles may leac 
rusting in the tang (inside the I 
die), hidden from view. Perhaps j| 
important, a cheap blade, 
though properly sharpened, III 
easily— and a dull knife is dange 3 



FISHING KNIVES 

<nives for fishermen generally fall 
3 two categories, the ever-present 
:ket knife and the filleting knife, 
h is almost a necessity, and per- 
ms a specific range of tasks not 
ily handied by the other. High 
ility knives of both types are 
dily available at reasonable prices, 
'he ubiquitous pocket knife or 
i knife is a handy item for any 
erman. Short-bladed and safe 
sn closed, the small pocket knife 



is easy to carry in any pocket and is 
most useful in dealing with lines, cut 
baits, and various spur of the mo- 
ment cutting. The small size means 
that the springs must be relatively 
weak if the blades are to be easily 
opened, so care is necessary in using 
such knives, and really heavy work 
is out. Excellent pen knives such as 
those offered by Case and Buck are 
available at $7 or less. 

A knife designed for fish filleting 
is much like those used by chefs and 
butchers for boning out cuts of meat. 
The most common form is a fairly 
long blade, thin enough to be flex- 
ible, made of stainless steel to pre- 



vent rusting. Stainless steel is hard 
to sharpen, but with patience and 
the right equipment it can be done, 
and these knives are meant to slice 
through flesh, not to be used as 
cleavers. 

The handle on a filleting knife is 
almost as important as the blade. 
When you are using this type of 
knife, your hands are frequently 
wet, and often slimy as well. It is 
important that a filleting knife have 
a handle large enough to afford a 
good grip. Large slab-sided handles 
seem to work well, and the rough 
finish such as is found on Gerber 
knives is excellent. 



Photo by Joan Wi 




HUNTING KNIVES 
Hunting knives come in an amaz- 
ingly wide range of styles. From a 
three to even two and one-half inch 
caping knife to a seven-inch partially 
serrated survival blade, the number 
of types and styles is barely believ- 
able. Major categories include small 
game knives; skinning knives along 
with their derivative, the caping 
knives; traditional four to six-inch 
straight-bladed hunting style knives; 
the so-called survival knives; the in- 
creasingly popular folding knives 
with locking blades; and the so-called 
"all-purpose" knives. Most of these 
types are readily available in com- 
mercially produced makes of excel- 
lent quality and from custom makers 
in the same or higher quality. 

Small Game Knives 

Small game knives have rather 
short narrow blades, are rather light 
in weight, and are easy to manipu- 
late in close quarters. Pen knives 
work quite well for this purpose. 
One of the best knives of this type 
I have used is the Gerber "Trout and 
Bird" model. 

Skinning Knives 

Skinning knives are a fairly fa- 
miliar type of hunting knife. The 
four to six-inch blade is wide and 
curved, with an upswept tip. This 
design provides a small and easily 
controlled portion of the sharp cut- 
ting edge in contact with the area 
to be cut. The tip of the blade is 
often sharpened for a distance of an 
inch or two. Custom models some- 
times have a "gutting hook," a sharp- 
ened notch on the top of the blade 
near the tip. 




Caping Knives 

Caping knives are specialized 
skinning knives designed for skin- 
ning out trophy heads. Take an aver- 
age skinning knife of commercial de- 
sign with only the two or three 
inches of upswept point as a blade, 
and you have a caping knife. Woods- 
men with a good degree of experi- 
ence frequently use this short style 
of knife for all large game work. 
Unfortunately, few sheathed knives 




of this style are readily available 
from commercial manufacturers. 

Traditional Hunting Knives 

Traditional style, straight-bladed 
hunting knives with four to six-inch 
blades are the most common type 
of sheath knife encountered in the 
woods. Millions of these knives have 
been and are still being made by 
both domestic and foreign firms. 
They come in all imaginable degrees 
of quality and forms of decoration. 
Handle materials and designs found 
on many of these knives are inade- 
quate. The thick somewhat heavy 
blades can take a lot of pressure, 
and the handle and guard must be 
of good design to prevent accidental 
injury. It should be possible to get 
a firm grip even when the handle 
is wet; and it should be almost im- 
possible for the fingers to slip past 
the guard onto the blade. 

Survival Knives 

Survival knives are the big heavy 
modern successors to the venerable 
bowie knife. Although many experi- 
enced outdoorsmen used to regard 
such knives as the mark of a tender- 
foot, the tendency today is to simply 
accept the fact that different people 
like different things. In a true survival 
situation such a knife may be more 
useful than other types, but such situ- 
ations very, very rarely exist in Geor- 
gia. Many of the jobs for which these 
monster knives are alleged to be 
suited — such as getting in firewood 
or hacking through bone — are either 
done much more efficiently by 
another tool, or are not really neces- 
sary at all in the field. They do make 
attractive display pieces and can be 
useful for such non-hunting activities 
as skin diving. 



Folding Knives 

A growing number of outdooi 
men are turning to folding knive 
and more and more manufacture 
are responding by adding one or tv 
folding styles to their line. Even 
few custom makers are turning c. 
folding knives. Folding knives c- 
signed to be used by hunters featL 
locking mechanisms to keep the bla I 
from snapping shut accidentally. / 
good, firm but comfortable grip i 
especially important on such kni\ = 
due to the absence of a guard. , 
straight, smooth, round handle or 
folding knife is an invitation to cil 
aster. The nicest folding knife I j 
seen, excluding one custom knife 
the Buck Ranger model. 



All-Purpose Knives 

Clumped together in this categ"i 
are all types of knives used by spo 1 
men that do not fall into one of f 
categories above. Fixed blade li 
chen/camp knives, workmen's f< I 
ing knives of various designs, i r 
the Boy Scout/Swiss Army style 
folding knife are commonly used I 
sportsmen. Unfortunately, the?' 
knives are not really designed for 1 
uses to which they are put, and m i 
seem to be designed solely for <y- 
appeal with little regard to pract :• 
ity. 

Kitchen knives can indeed perf >n 
adequately as camp knives in f>i 
preparation, boning out big gam r 
filleting fish. They are usually too 1 
and awkward for dressing out s V 
game, and many do not have ;- 
ficient strength for safely dressinc <t 
big game. They certainly canno - 
used for chopping carrying pole.r 
makeshift tent pegs. 

Some types of workmen's fol Ii3 
knives may prove useful to sp> ; - 



>.fi 



en, but they also offer potential 
izards. The convenience of carrying 
small folding knife as a "second" 
life cannot be denied, and this type 
knife is readily available and in- 
pensive. With few exceptions, 
iwever, the blades of these knives 
i nof lock open, with the possibility 
the blade snapping shut on the 
gers if used in a careless fashion, 
rther, most krives of this type have 
100th grips which are apt to be- 
ne slippery. Blades found on utili- 
ian working knives are not likely 
be of superior quality. 
The Swiss Army type of knife with 
een or so fold-out blades, imple- 
ints, and utensils is almost in- 
'iably inadequate for the job the 
xtsman has in mind. These marvels 
gadgetry seldom have locking de- 
es to hold blades and tools open. 
3 quality of materials used in their 
nstruction is usually poor or even 
■ >rse. Bulky and unwieldy, these 
' ves are generally effective only for 
ng an empty pocket and adding 
> isiderable weight. 
<nives for sportsmen come in all 
: erent forms, shapes, sizes and 
. a I ity . Although the types described 
: >ve are primarily of use to hunters 
i J fishermen, sailors, horsemen, and 
I ers all have knives especially de- 
: ned for their specific activities. 
r ves are not made for prying, chop- 
I g, digging or throwing (except for 
j> daily designed throwing knives). 
n ;y are also not meant to be used as 
openers, although the last day 
c d) I spent in a duck blind we used 
|1 siding Buck to open a can of stew 
k "id the blade was sharp enough 
jt awards to shave hair. 
I ligh quality knives of modern 
piufacture are very good. The 
f des are strong and will take a fine 
|jf- g-lasting edge. A full-sized hunt- 
E knife of good quality will cost be- 
l»en ten and fifty dollars. Inferior 
lives can cost less and custom 
l(i 'es can cost more. 
;<>nce you have a good quality 
|i e that is suitable for the job you 
if' nd to tackle, it is up to you to 
|« 3 it in good shape. It should be 
p clean and free of rust and nicks 
|c should have a keen edge. 
|» lern steels are very hard, and 
V ■ a good edge is put on such a 
lj e, very little care will keep the 
IS* sharp and smooth. 



Bool 



Reviews 



WILDERNESS Pocket 'n Pak Li- 
brary, Life Support Technology, Inc., 
Five Pamphlets, $4.95. 

There's a certain irony to the cur- 
rent wilderness craze. Now that we've 
finally ravaged nature — game sur- 
vives in carefully delimited areas, 
freshwater fish are bred in hatcheries 
instead of wild streams, hardly a 
stream remains that will provide a 
clean drink — survival in the wild has 
become the great fad. 

The fact that there are very few 
places in the continental U.S. that 
require any survival skills at all (at 
least not the skills romanticized by 
those who forget that Boone and 
Crockett might have preferred easier 
lives) seems no deterrent. Books and 
pamphlets, knives and guns, gadgets 
and gimmicks proliferate, only a few 
of them displaying any redeeming 
social value. 

All of which is too bad, for it 
cheapens the efforts of those few 
who do attempt to provide rational 
advice for outdoors emergencies. A 
few of us do need this advice: fliers, 
particularly those who traverse wild- 
erness areas; fishermen and hunters 
who insist on chasing their quarry 
into Canada and Alaska; campers or 
travelers who venture into the Mexi- 
can wilds; but sorting through the 
junk to find a good guide can be 
frustrating. 

The WILDERNESS Five Manual 
Series provides a readable and com- 
pact introduction to survival tech- 



niques. It is not, as they suggest, 
appropriate for backpacking — it's too 
heavy, and most backpackers won't 
need the information anyhow. But 
all pilots should have a copy, and 
those who are going to venture into 
real wilds (as opposed to our more 
or less tame wilderness areas) should 
make some plans to take this handy 
little guide along. 

—TCM 



TACKLEBOX LIBRARY, Outdoor 

Life/Harper & Row, 5 volumes, 
$5.95. 

The Outdoor Life people deserve 
about 3!/2 out of a possible 5 points 
for their TACKLEBOX LIBRARY. 
Each of the volumes contains some 
interesting material, but one is too 
simple for anyone but the newest 
inductee to the fishing ranks, and two 
other volumes are weak when it 
comes to fishing in the South. 

Freshwater Tackle (by Baird Hall) 
is all right as introductory texts go, 
but it won't be of much use to any- 
one who has fished seriously. The 
problem is that much of what we 
learn in one style of fishing is appli- 
cable to any other style, and anyone 
who has spent much time around the 
water has picked up enough of the 
lore to be impatient with very basic 
instruction. 

Which is not to say that a book 
like this doesn't have its uses. It is 
a perfect introduction for wives and 




children, particularly for the wife who 
feels lost in the profusion of gear and 
jargon that accompanies the sport. 
And it might help the novice gain 
some understanding of the differences 
in fishing styles, although he'd do 
better to consult more complete ac- 
counts if he's really interested. 

Lures, Flies, and Baits for Fresh- 
water Fish (by F. Philip Rice) pro- 
vides a concise summary of the vari- 
ous enticements offered to freshwater 
fish in this country. The section on 
"Recommendations for Different 



Fishes" will be very useful to those 
venturing into new territory or after 
a new species. It slights the very 
popular "soft plastic lures," mention- 
ing them only in passing, but seems 
fairly complete otherwise. 

The book might have been even 
more helpful, however, had Rice 
spent less time naming lures and flies 
and more time explaining their use. 
It's fine to know, for example, that 
both the Creek Chub Injured Minnow 
and Arbogast's Jitterbug (frog/ white 
belly) are recommended plugs for 



OUTDOOR WORLD 

LIMITED EDITION OF OCTOBER COVER AVAILABLE 



Artist Bob Christie of Atlanta has 
announced that he is bringing out a 
limited edition of prints of his paint- 
ing that appeared on the cover of the 
October issue of Outdoors in Georgia. 
The painting shows a pair of pointers 
in action in a south Georgia setting. 

Christie reports that the prints will 



be 18x22 inches and only 1000 of 
them will be produced. The signed 
and numbered prints will be priced 
at $35 and will be available directly 
from the artist — Bob Christie, 3133 
Maple Drive, Atlanta, Georgia 30305. 

—Bob Wilson 



WHO NEEDS A TROUT STAMP? 

January, a 1 6 month old golden re- 
triever is safely under the legal mini- 
mum age of 16 years. January's real 
specialty is ducks but when the ducks 
aren't flying and everyone else goes 



fishing, why not? January's owners 
are Inman Allen and his wife Tricia 
and this fishing trip took place on 
Allen's farm. 

— Aaron Pass 



JS^ 




■ 



panfish, but it would be really 
teresting to see what he has to 
on the different ways of using 
two lures. Or the differences, if ; 
he sees between using topwater p 
for panfish or for bass. 

Reading the Water (by Joseph 
Bates, Jr. ) will be fine for Georg 
interested in cold water fishing, 
won't tell them very much about 
more common warm water fisht 
in our state. It will be useful for 
trout fishermen, and the chapter 
water temperature may help tl 
who fish the northern lakes. 

Angler's Safety and First Aid 
Mark Sosin) adopts the very rea 
able approach that it's better to a 
accidents than know how to re: 
the damage. So 97 of its 135 p, 
suggest ways to avoid trouble vl 
fishing. Again, its appeal to Gee: 
fishermen will be limited, for 
major interest is in protecting t 
who wade or must hike in to II 
fishing spots. Most Georgians 
seems, fish from boats or from 
banks of readily accessible lakes i 
ponds, and few if any will ever ] j 
a bear or moose near a favorite i 
ing hole. But helpful tips are ( 
tered throughout the book, an] 
would be an error just to skim 
pages on boating and first aid. 

Fish Cookery (by Mel Mars! ; 
is, perhaps, the most intriguing o 
five volumes. Marshall's task is a 1 
more straightforward than that o f 
others : while there are few set fo n 
lae for catching fish, there are 1 
nite recipes for preparing the fish J 
caught. 

Some variation does exist i 
methods of filleting fish, for exai a 
and almost every recipe has a nu ■ 
of variants floating around), i 
trout au bleu is trout au bleu an< n 
be prepared in only one way. m 
shall takes the time to explain « 
trout can't be cooked in the same n 
as bass, and why some fish can m 
pete with robust sauces while c Jrs 
would be lost. 

His ingredients are availab M 
most amateur cooks, and the < ic- 
tions can be followed by anyone 'io 
can read. Besides, if a stringer c a 
is lost during an epicurean e: p" 
ment it only serves as an excuato 
try for more. Right? 

All in all, the TACKLEBO? I- 
BRARY represents six bucks -U 
spent. It won't tell you all you vnt 






know about most topics, but it is 
helpful and convenient guide to 
ny of the more common fishing 
iblems. _ TCM 

[E WORLD OF THE WILD 

IRKEY, James C. Lewis, J. B. 

>pincott Co., 145 pages, $5.95. 

Reading this book is not guaran- 

d to make you a successful turkey 

iter, but there's little doubt it will 

ke you a better one. In fact, a rela- 

;ly small portion of the book is 

'Oted exclusively to actual hunt- 

. Rather it is devoted to the other 

ee-fourths of the wild turkey's 

ural lifestyle when he is not serv- 

as the gamebird extraordinaire 

North America. From the first pip 

the shell, the book outlines the 

igs and comings of this regal bird 

nigh the changing seasons of the 

r. Preferred foods, habitat selec- 

, mating, incubating and rearing 

its are all discussed by author 

/is in order to give the reader an 

nate glimpse into the world of 

wild turkey. 

. vs a turkey expert, Lewis' cre- 
tials leave little to be desired. A 
led wildlife biologist who did 
i luate work specifically on tur- 
\ >, he presents the best available 
t wledge on this reclusive wilder- 
5 dweller. 

1 1 the chapters on turkey manage - 
■ t and its future he points out that 
' the scientific management tech- 
! es are for naught if the unique 
it tat of the turkey is not more 
'' fully husbanded. Pointing out 
t direct threats to the future of this 
|c : intensive agriculture, high yield 
fc»try, pesticide poisoning, etc., 
p is makes his point rather sharply, 
I en the brush and trees go, so 
'll the turkey." 

the section covering turkey 
9 ing, it quickly becomes apparent 
lit Lewis has scraped out a yelp or 
f He very succinctly sets forth the 
1 i principles of successful turkey 
f ng, made all the more convinc- 
r y his wealth of practical knowl- 
l -t of the hunting situation. 
* ading this book will not make 
( i calls come out perfect or your 
lr cy sense" infallible. It will give 

a thorough knowledge of the 
<ptions which shape the turkey 

i darn good start. 

— AFP 



Sportsman's 
Calendar 



SPRING TURKEY SEASON 

NORTH GEORGIA: March 24- 
April 28, 1973/bag limit one (1) tur- 
key gobbler. In the following Coun- 
ties: Banks, Chattooga, Dawson, Fan- 
nin, Floyd, Franklin, Gilmer, Gordon, 
Habersham, Lumpkin, Murray, Ra- 
bun, Stephens, Towns, Union, Walker 
(east of U.S. Hwy. 27), White and 
Whitfield. 

Management Areas: Blue Bidge 
WMA— April 23-28, 1973— one (1) 
turkey gobbler. Cohutta WMA — April 
23-28, 1973— one (1) turkey gobbler 
(no permit required). John's Mountain 
WMA— March 24-April 27, 1973 — 
one (1) turkey gobbler (no permit re- 
quired no check-in). 

EAST -CENTRAL GEORGIA: 

March 24-April 28, 1973/bag limit 
two (2) turkey gobblers. In the follow- 
ing counties: Columbia, Greene, Han- 
cock, Houston, Lincoln, McDuffie, 



Oglethorpe, Taliaferro, Warren, 
Wilkes, and Wilkinson. 

Management Areas: Clark Hill 
WMA— April 9-14, 1973^ne (1) 
turkey gobbler. Piedmont National 
Wildlife Refuge (Federal) April 16- 
21, 1973— one (1) turkey gobbler. 
(Permit required, application must be 
made in writing to Refuge Manager, 
Piedmont National Wildlife Refuge, 
Round Oak, Georgia 31080. Dead- 
line, March 28, 1973. 

WEST-CENTRAL GEORGIA: 

March 24-April 28, 1973/bag limit 
one (1) turkey gobbler. In the follow- 
ing counties: Chattahoochee, Marion, 
Muscogee, Talbot and Stewart. 

SOUTH GEORGIA: March 17- 
April 14, 1973/bag limit one (1) tur- 
key gobbler. In the following counties: 
Ben Hill, Brantley, Camden, Coffee, 
Charlton, Dodge, Pierce, Telfair, Wil- 
cox and that portion of Clinch and 
Echols Counties east of U.S. Highway 
441 and south of Ga. Highway 94. 

Management Areas: Bullard Creek 
WMA— March 28-31, 1973 and 
April 4-7, 1973, (separate hunts), 
hunters may take one ( 1 ) turkey gob- 
bler on each hunt. Hunting from 30 
minutes before sunrise until 12 noon. 
No check in or out, but all turkeys 
killed must be reported at check sta- 
tion. No pre-hunt scouting allowed. 



Outdoors 

in gecrgia 

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4/73 



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Outdoors 

\t) georgia 

May, 1973 






Jimmy Carter 
Governor 

Joe D. Tanner 

Commissioner 

Department of Natural Resources 

George T. Bagby 

Deputy Commissioner 

for Public Affairs 

BOARD OF 

NATURAL RESOURCES 

James Darby 

Chairman 

Vidalia— 1st District 

William Z. Camp, Sec. 
Newnan— 6th District 

Leo T. Barber, Jr. 
Moultrie— 2nd District 

Dr. Robert A. Collins, Jr. 
Americus— 3rd District 

George P. Dillard 
Decatur— 4th District 

Rankin M. Smith 
Atlanta— 5th District 

Leonard E. Foote 
Marietta— 7th District 

Henry S. Bishop 
Alma— 8th District 

Clyde Dixon 
Cleveland— 9th District 

Leonard Bassford 
Augusta— 10th District 

Jimmie Williamson 
Darien— Coastal District 



Wade H. Coleman 
Valdosta— State at Large 



— • 



EARTH AND WATER DIVISION 
Sam M. Pickering, Jr., Director 

ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION DIVISION 
R. S. Howard, Jr., Director 

GAME AND FISH DIVISION 
Jack Crockford, Director 

PARKS AND RECREATION DIVISION 
Henry D. Struble, Director 

TICE OF PLANNING AND RESEARCH 
Chuck Parrish, Director 

F ADMINISTRATIVE SERVICES 
s: H. Pittman, Director 

) IONS AND 
FCTION 
t. Chief 



FEATURES 

Big Fish Contest Bob Wilson I 

Lake Sinclair Dick Davis ) 

Backpacking Foods & Stoves . . T. Craig Martin 1' 

Wildlife Profiles: Bream Aaron Pass "! 

Springtime Flowers . . . Donald C. Pendergrast I 

Ocmulgee WMA Dick Davis !| 

Georgia Wildlife Federation Awards .Aaron Pass 

DEPARTMENTS 

Sportsman's Calendar i 



ON THE COVER: Frog, by Bob Busby 

ON THE BACK COVER: A Barn Owl, one of four species of owl native to Geoi | 
from the studio of Atlanta artist Mark Hopkins. Hopkins plans to produce a si • 
of Georgia hawks and owls, all scientifically and anatomically correct. Numb ij 
and signed silk screen prints, 16x20 inches in size, from a limited edition of 1 I 
are available directly from the artist at 45 Druid Hills Court, Decatur, Gee ( 
30033 . . . (404) 373-5412, at a cost of $18 each. 



Outdoors 



it? georgia 



May, 1973 



Volume II 



Numb i5 



Outdoors in Georgia is the official monthly magazine of the Georgia Depar 
of Natural Resources, published at the Department's offices, Trinity-Washi 
Building, 270 Washington St., Atlanta, Georgia 30334. No advertising acc< 
Subscriptions are $3 for one year or $6 for three years. Printed by Wi 
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MAGAZINE STAFF 
Phone 656-3530 

H. E. (Bud) Van Orden 
Editor-in-Chief 

Bob Wilson 
Managing Editor 



rt 

E n 
>l. 
ii s 
,|d 

C'l 

d 



Staff Writers 

Dick Davis 

Aaron Pass 

T. Craig Martin 



Art Director 

Liz Carmichael Jones 



Linda Wayne 
Circulation Manager 



Staff Photographers 

Jim Couch 
Bob Busby 



}reen Is Beautiful 



EDITORIAL 



And why shouldn't it be. For the beauty of 
; green that I am referring to goes much 

^per and beyond the aesthetic appreciation 

it we as lovers of nature have for the outward 

auty of the green that covers the outdoor 
idd with a multitude of radiant hues all 
lerent from each other. 

We owe a debt of gratitude to this apparent 
• ending, inexhaustible green that can remain 

istant or disappear in the fall only to return 
; rin in early spring. Its purpose is many fold. 
[ the majority, the breathtaking beauty and 
ra of a green forest spreading beyond the 
I >pe of vision and which stirs the imagination 

vonder what mysteries it beholds is what 
i i sees at first glance. But there is much more 

behold than the appreciation of mere beauty 

sve look upon such a scene. 

The fun and enjoyment to be found in all 
1 ms of outdoor recreation are held within this 
t en cover. Camping beneath the giant trees, 
1 ing on trails our ancestors made, swimming, 
> iting and picnicking are a result of the 
i mity or back to nature awareness that is 
| s because of this green. 
1 iecause of the natural growth cycles within 
I >rest, wildlife are provided a habitat that 
i ires their survival in nature's orderly process. 
I n has learned much about the importance 
3 he forest floor and how this cover changes as 
% trees grow, feeding the deer, quail, turkey 
ic other wildlife as the cycle changes. The 
P tsman knows far too well that the quality of 
£p forest habitat has a direct result on the 
-;lity and abundance of game in the forest 
[i ;erves. 

1 fo greater contributor to conservation and 
t p preservation of our natural resources can 



be found than our forests green, for they control 
with great dignity the erosion of soil through 
their protective floor covering and root system. 
Nutrients from this emerald umbrella are 
washed into the streams and ponds and form 
part of another ecosystem providing habitat for 
fish while at the same time providing for our 
complex watershed system. 

Now we come to perhaps the most 
astonishing factor in this world of green, a 
factor that involves you and me. While reading 
about the green that surrounds us, involuntarily, 
without conscious knowledge, you have 
breathed life-sustaining oxygen and released 
carbon dioxide with each breath. Each acre 
of forest annually converts six tons of carbon 
dioxide into four tons of oxygen providing 
1 8 people their yearly supply. 

What do you see when you look at the 
shimmering green of a forest? What will you see 
the next time you look? Will it be the breath- 
taking beauty, wild game at play, a recreation 
paradise of untold potential, or a life sustaining 
freshness in the air? Is what you see smaller or 
bigger than it was the last time you looked? 
That matters to us now in this process of 
diminishing returns as we see our forests dwindle 
in size. 

One thing is certain, however, when I look at 
the colors that nature has painted on our out- 
door world, to me, green is beautiful no matter 
how I look at it. 



^£ns d^c^y 



Georgia 



Big Fish 
Contest 197i 



By Bob Wilson 

Photos by Bob Busby 

What's happened to the fishermen? Where 
are all those bass masters and casters going 
wrong? What about those famous big lakes in 
the south of the state where all those big bass 
are supposed to be? 

Well, it's like this— the fisherwomen are 
spending more time fishing, they don't pass 
up the small lakes and ponds near home in an- 
ticipation of the next tournament, they are 
famous for their patience— and they are catch- 
ing the fish. 

You can't buy that you say? Perhaps you are 
thinking of the advantage fishermen have with 
years of experience gathered since boyhood. 
The men have all the latest equipment too: 
good rods and reels, the hottest lures, and 
super bass boats with all kinds of gear like 
depth finders and electric motors. The men have 
their clubs and fishing cronies permitting a 
rapid exchange of information (and lies) on 
technique, lures, and hot spots. 

Meanwhile, the fisherwomen are content to 

Fish at home and land fish big enough to win 

ie Georgia Big Fish Contest. Loyal readers may 

mat the 1971 contest black bass category 

; won by Mrs. Annie Malcolm of Hampton, 

16-pound, 4-ounce largemouth caught 

>ack yard on Lake Talmadge. The 

winner of the 1972 contest in the black bass 




/ision is Mrs. Bobby Goswick of Mableton, 
io wins with a 1 4-pound, 2-ounce largemouth 
lied from a nearby private lake. 
Mrs. Goswick will have her name engraved 
the Black Bass Trophy provided by the 
ircia Corporation and will receive an Am- 
ssadeur 5000 reel and a matching Garcia rod 
her prize. She says that she hopes to have a 
ger fish to enter in the 1973 contest. 
On the White Bass Trophy, provided by the 
ueger Corporation, will be engraved the 



name of a repeat winner. Michael Gozdick is 
happy to win again, but is somewhat embar- 
rassed at winning with such small fish. This 
year's winning white bass went an even 
3-pounds, and came from Lake Lanier, as is 
usual with contest winners in this category. 
Gozdick's 1970 winner was a hefty 3-pounds, 
8-ounces. Size aside, winning the contest in the 
white bass division will net Gozdick a Pflueger 
Supreme rod and reel outfit. 

The Altamaha River is well on the way to 



Mrs. Bobby Goswick is the second fisherwoman in as 

many years to win the black bass category of the 

Georgia Big Fish Contest. The winning fish went 

16-pounds, 4-ounces. 





Georgia's new state record white 
crappie swept the crappie division of 
the contest for Lewis Little of Macon. 
The monster "speckled perch" weighed 
4-pounds, 11 -ounces. 



Another new state record, this one a 

bluegill, is shown by P. F. Gumm of 

Atlanta. Gumm's 3-pound, 5-ounce fish 

beat out a redear entered in the contest 

by E. M. Guy of Macon by one ounce. 

Gumm is shown at right being 

interviewed by Ben Gunn. 



becoming one of the state's hot spots for h i 
catfish. The 1972 winner in the catfish catego 
is a 44-pound, 12-ounce channel cat boated ll. 
Bobby Smithwick of Vidalia. This fish also s<<l 
a new state record for the species, and wins < 
Ambassadeur 5000 reel and Garcia rod 1 
Smithwick. An Ambassadeur 5000 reel w: 
used to land this monster fish, so Smithw 
ought to be twice as successful this season. I 
worm on a trebel hook, meant for a largemoU 
bass, proved irresistible to the monster cat wi 
was apparently foraging in a small creek. 

Georgia's new state record white crappie i 
healthy 4-pounds, 11 -ounces, and was a cir: 
to win the crappie division of the 1972 contes 
Lewis Little of Macon pulled this monsi 
"speckled perch" from a lake created by the 
moval of clay for commercial production 
bricks. Little caught his prize-winner in late //: 
using a cricket set only 12-inches deep. He 
ports that there were a large number of locu 
emerging in the area at that time, and th< I 
that were unfortunate enough to fall upon I 
water were snapped up by hungry fish lurk r 
close to the surface. Little's fish will be listed 
the current state record and wins a Pflue j 
Supreme rod and reel outfit for him. 

The struggle for the prize in the bream cc t 




Carl Patton, a thirfeen year 

Id fisherman from Mableton, 

pulled a 7-pound, 6-ounce 

rainbow from Lake Lanier fo 

win the trout division of 

the contest. 




I 



y was a close one. The Ambassadeur 5000 
•d Garcia rod prize goes to P. F. Gumm of 
i anta whose 3-pound, 5-ounce bluegill was a 
hner by one ounce. Close behind was E. M. 
ly of Macon with a 3-pound, 4-ounce redear 

ifish pulled from Rivoli Lake. 

I 3umm's winning bluegill, a new state record, 

( s hooked in Shamrock Lake where he reports 

( re are a lot more of the same size. Like sev- 

t I previous winners in this category, he ad- 

;;s fishing deep, as much as 30 or 40 feet 

» vn, with a large pink worm for the really 

:; bream. 

he winner in the trout category, Carl Patton, 

ilso from Mableton, and journeyed to the 

/ er end of Lake Lanier to catch his prize- 

i ning fish. Patton may be only 13 but he is 

finitely an upcoming fisherman. His 7-pound, 

i: jnce rainbow may be an indication of better 

1 gs to come. He will be well equipped to take 

: oigger fish with his prize of a Pflueger Su- 

:pne rod and reel outfit. 

Georgia records have also been updated on 

< species for which .prizes were not awarded, 

mouth and carp. There was a whole horde 

entries of warmouth following last year's 

t lication of world records. At least three of 

entries were larger than the old world 

r ft< rd, but unfortunately, an even larger 



warmouth was caught in another state. 

The newly established official state record 
for warmouth is held by Bruce Soles of Scott, 
with a 1 -pound, 11 -ounce specimen from a 
farm pond in Johnson County. A Mepps Comet 
looked enough like a meal to convince this 
hungry warmouth. 

Reverend Donald Clark of Locust Grove set a 
new state record for carp while he was out fish- 
ing for crappie. Reverend Clark set out from 
Kersey's Landing on Lake Jackson with a bunch 
of crappie jigs as lures looking forward to an 
enjoyable day's fishing and a delicious meal. 
When he was ready to reel in and head home, 
he found himself hung on what he imagined 
was a log. But this "log" moved, and it took 
nearly an hour to land the 35-pound, 12-ounce 
carp using 12-pound test line. 

It turns out that the fishermen didn't do too 
badly last year— they did set five new state 
records. But, it's that big Black Bass Trophy with 
the names of fisherwomen engraved on the last 
two lines that needs more attention. OK men, 
here's the plan we need to follow for some 
fisherman to win the major category in this 
year's Big Fish Contest: 

1 . Fish more often 

2. Fish anywhere and everywhere 

3. Have more patience 



Minimum 
Weight for 
Certificate 



State Records 



World's 
Record 



5 lbs. BASS, FLINT RIVER SMALIMOUTH 
6 lbs., 15 ozs.— James Lewis, 
Cordele, Flint River, 
Feb. 20, 1967 No Record 

10 lbs. BASS, LARGEMOUTH 

22 lbs., 4 ozs.— George Perry, 

Brunswick, Montgomery Lake, 

June 2, 1932 

Second-17 lbs., 14 oi.-Nickie Rich, 

Marietta, Chastain's Lake, 

April 27, 1965 

5 lbs. BASS, SMALLMOUTH 

6 lbs., 5 ozs— Jackie R. Suits, 
Fry, Lake Blue Ridge, 



December 11, 1969 



11 lbs., 15 ozs. 



5 lbs. 



20 lbs. 



2 lbs. 



BASS, SPOTTED 

7 lbs., 8 ozs— Donald Palmer, 

Cleveland, Little Tesnatee R-, 

May 20, 1969 8 lbs., IOV2 ois. 

BASS, STRIPED 

63 lbs., ozs.-Kelley A. Ward, 

Dublin, Oconee River, 

May 30, 1967 72 lbs. 

BASS, REDEYE (COOSA) 

2 lbs., 10 ozs. -John R. Cockburn, Jr., 

Dalton, Jacks River, 

July 4, 1967 6 lbs., Vi oz. 



3 lbs. BASS, WHITE 

5 lbs., 1 oz.-J. M. Hobbins, 
Atlanta, lake Lanier, 



l'/2 lbs. 



8 lbs. 



20 lbs. 



15 lbs. 



15 lbs. 



3 lbs. 



3 lbs. 



15 lbs. 



5 lbs., 5 ozs. 



4 lbs., 12 ozs. 



June 16, 1971 

BLUEGILL 

3 lbs., 5 OZS.— P. F. Gumrr 
Atlanta, Shamrock Lake, 
July 19, 1972 



BOWFIN 

15 lbs., 12 ozs -John F. Maddox 

Phenix City, Ala., W. F. George 

June 4, 1971 19 lbs., 12 ozs. 

CARP 

35 lbs., 12 ozs. -Rev. Donald Clark, 

Locust Grove, Lake Jackson, 

1972 55 lbs., 5 ozs. 

CATFISH, CHANNEL 

44 lbs., 12 ozs -Bobby M. Smithwick, 

Vidalia, Altamaha River, 

May 18, 1972 58 lbs. 

CATFISH, FLATHEAD 

51 lbs., 15 ozs.-Hoyt McDaniel, 

Suches, Lake Nottely, 

June 2, 1969 76 lbs. 

CRAPPIE, BLACK 

4 lbs., 4 ozs.— Shirley Lavender, 

Athens, Acree's Lake, 

June 1, 1971 5 lbs. 



CRAPPIE, WHITE 
4 lbs., 11 ozs— Lewis I. 
Macon, Brickyard Lake, 
May 31, 1972 

GAR, LONG NOSE 
No Official Record 



Little 



5 lbs., 3 ozs. 
50 lbs., 5 ozs. 



Any MUSKELLUNGE 

Weight 38 lbs. -Rube Golden, Atlanta, 

Blue Ridqe Lake, 

June, 1957 69 lbs., 15 ozs. 

5 lbs -PICKEREL, CHAIN (JACKFISH) 

9 lbs., 6 ozs.— Baxley McQuaig, Jr., 

Homerville, 

February, 1961 Same 



l'/2 lbs. 
2 lbs. 



SUNFISH, REDBREAST 
No Official State Record 



No Record 



15" or 
2 lbs. 


18" or 
5 lbs. 


24" or 
6 lbs. 


2 lbs. 


5 lbs. 



SUNFISH, REDEAR (SHELLCRACKER) 

3 lbs., 1 oz.-John S. Reid, 

Montezuma, McKenzie's Lake, 

August 8, 1971 4 lbs., 8 ozs. 

TROUT, BROOK 

3 lbs., 12 ozs. — Barry Lowe, 

Lithnnia, Moccasin Creek, 

April 12, 1969 14 lbs., 8 ozs. 

TROUT, BROWN 

18 lbs., 3 ozs. -William M. Lowery, 

Marietta, Rock Creek, 

May 6, 1967 39 lbs., 8 ozs. 

TROUT, RAINBOW 

12 lbs., 4 ozs. -John Whitaker, 

Ellijay, Cnosawattee Rover, 



May 31, 1966 

PERCH, YELLOW 

No Official State Record 



42 lbs., 2 ozs. 
4 lbs., 3 V2 ozs. 



1 lb. 



WALLEYE 

11 lbs., oz.— Steven Kenny, 
Atlanta, Lake Burton, 
April 13, 1963 

WARMOUTH 

1 lb., 11 ozs.- Bruce Soles 

Scott, Private Pond, 

1972 



25 lbs. 



GEORGIA BIG FISH CONTEST 



The Georgia Wildlife Federation and Outdoors 
in Georgia magazine sponsor a big fish contest 
for the State of Georgia during each calendar 
year. 

Shortly after the first of each year, rod and 
reel sets will be given to the angler catching the 
largest fish in any one of six categories: black 
bass, white bass, crappie, bream, mountain 
trout, and catfish. In addition, the angler catch- 
ing the largest black bass each year will have 
his name engraved on the Garcia Black Bass 
Trophy, and the winner in the white bass cate- 
gory will have his name engraved on the Pflueger 
White Bass Trophy. 

Entries made on fish caught after December 
31 will be entered in next year's contest. Entries 
should be made as soon as possible after the 
fish is caught. The deadline for entries in the 
contest is January 15. 

How To Enter 

1. Have fish weighed, measured, and entered at 
any official Georgia Wildlife Federation Weigh- 
ing Station or any office of the Game and Fish 
Division. If no such station is available, have the 
fish weighed and measured in the presence of 
two witnesses, who sign the official entry blank 
or a facsimile. 

2. Before the affidavit can be accepted, the truth 
of the statements must be attested before a 
qualified officer such as as a notary public, jus- 
tice of the peace, sheriff, municipal clerk, post- 
master, member of state or local law enforce- 
ment agency, wildlife ranger, etc. 

3. There is no entry fee for the contest. 

4. Any Georgia licensed angler, resident or non- 
resident, may enter the contest by completing 
the official affidavit. 



5. Fish must be caught on sporting tackle < 
be hooked and landed by the entrant. 

6. Fish must be caught in the State of Geor 
during the legal angling season for the spc 
taken. 

7. Angler can submit as many entries as 
wishes. Certificates will be awarded for all 
surpassing the minimum standards in the cl 
regardless of the year caught, but contest pr 
will be awarded only in the general black b 
white bass, crappie, bream, mountain trout, 
catfish categories for fish caught this y 
Awards will not be given for specific spe 
within these categories such as the largest w 
crappie, black crappie, etc. due to the diffic 
of exact identification of the species in th 
categories. In the event of a tie, dupli 
awards will be given. 

8. Clear sideview, black and white or color 1 
tographs of the fish, preferably with the am 
must be submitted with each entry which 
comes the property of Outdoors in Georgia 

9. Affidavits should be mailed to Big Fish < i 
test, Outdoors in Georgia, Trinity-Washim I 
Street Building, 270 Washington Street, Atlc 
Georgia 30334. 




HOW TO MEASURE A FISH: C 

should be measured around the largest ti 
of the body as shown in diagram. Let \: 
Measure along a flat surface from the *\ 
tremity of the mouth to the extremit m 
the tail. 



PRINT OR TYPE ALL INFORMATION 



Kind of Fish- 
Girth 



Weight. 



Jbs._ 



_o2s. Length- 



ens. Bait used_ 



-Type Tackle- 



Rod Brand- 



Reel Brand- 



Line Brand- 



Test- 



Where caught (Name of Lake or Stream). 



Location of Lake or Stream (County or Nearest Town). 

Date Caught 

Angler 



Home Address. 
City and State- 



Telephone Numbers: Business: 
Fishing License Number: 



Home:. 



"I hereby swear that the above statements are true; that in taking this fish I complied wit 
contest rules, fishing regulations, and that the witnesses hereto sow this fish weighed and meo id 
I consent to the use of my name in connection with the Georgia State Fishing Contest." 



(Signature of person who caught fish) 

We, the undersigned, witnessed the weighing and measuring of the fish described abovi 
verified the weight and measurements given. 

1. Signature 



Addr 



2. Signature- 
Address 



Sworn to and ascribed before me this_ 



-day of_ 



., 19. 



-Title: 



(Signature of a qualified officer— See Rule 2) 

Send all entries to: Outdoors in Georgia, Trinity-Washington Street Building, 270 Wash po n 
1 lb., 13 ozs. Street, Atlanta, Georgia 30334. 




Sinclair 



By Dick Davis 

Photos by the Author 



Excellent areas for picnicking, camping and bank 
fishing are available at various locations on 
Lake Sinclair. 



\ magnificent morning began as we 
' ded out from the dock for a try 

the renowned bass, crappie and 

am of Lake Sinclair in middle 
1 3rgia. The early March wind was 

k and somewhat cutting as Bill 
c inedy of Crooked Creek Camp 

ved up the motor on his bass boat, 
I the chill was subdued by our ex- 
it tations for the day. Bill pointed 
i several favorite fishing spots as 

showed us around the lake and 
S i brought the boat to a slow glide 

Sandy Run Creek. B,y then the 

i was well up and as the remaining 

I burned off the day warmed 

II :kly. 

vs the boat came into position off 
e bank of the cove, Ben Gunn low- 
° 1 the forward anchor and Bill 
a le his first cast of the day, just as 
[i )phy bass broke clear of the water 
flashing jump that tantalized us 
Ben and I followed with our 



casts and a memorable day began — 
a day like those enjoyed by hundreds 
of thousands of Georgians and visitors 
from other states who savor the pleas- 
ures of Lake Sinclair. 

Sinclair's bass, crappie and stripers 
attract anglers from throughout the 
state, though most come from the ten- 
county area surrounding the lake and 
its tributaries. Thousands journey 
from metropolitan Atlanta and Macon 
and a surprising number travel from 
south and west Georgia for the 
chance to fill their freezers with bass 
and crappie. Sinclair is "big bass 
country" and abounds in largemouth 
black bass, crappie that reportedly 
grow bigger and faster than in any 
other lake in the state, trophy-size 
white bass, striped bass, bream and 
channel catfish. 

Sinclair is famed as "a fishermen's 
lake," although power boating, water 
skiing, sailing and houseboating are 



big activities in the area. 

Lake Sinclair, a 15,330-acre res- 
ervoir, was created in the heartland 
of Georgia when Georgia Power 
Company built the towering dam at 
Furman Shoals on the Oconee River. 
Sinclair has a 420-mile shoreline with 
depths reaching 90 feet. The waters 
feed two 22,550 kilowatt generators. 

In the two decades since Sinclair's 
waters were impounded, Georgia 
Power has directed the development 
of the lake and surrounding lands into 
a recreational mecca. The company 
has worked closely with public and 
private organizations in continually 
expanding the recreational facilities 
of the area. The Oconee Planning 
and Development Commission. U.S. 
Forest Service, the Georgia Game and 
Fish Division, the Federal Bureau of 
Outdoor Recreation and other agen- 
cies have participated in this coopera- 
tive development. 



Lake Sinclair 




v 



— Paved Road 



n = - zr Dirt Road 

Launching Ramps 

A - Bass 

B- Yacht Club 

C - Haslam's 

D - Sandy's 

E - Green 

F - Little RiverPark 

G - Crooked Creek Camp 

H - U.S. Forest Service Recreational Area 

J ~ Putnam County Park 

K - Rocky Creek 

L " Causby Landing, Island Creek 

M - Game and Fish Ramp Hwy. 16 

N - Game and Fish Ramp Hwy. 129 



Fishermen and boaters now ply 
their sport where more than two cen- 
turies ago American Indians camped, 
where in antebellum days the stage 
coach ferry on the Eatonton-Milledge- 
ville run crossed the Oconee River, 
and where in the 1860's a General 
named William Sherman burned and 
pillaged on his March to the Sea. 
Oconee Springs, now the site of a 
recreational park on the lake, was a 
famous mineral waters health spa of 
the later 1800's. In nearby Milledge- 
ville, Georgia's secession assembly 
convened in the state's first capitol. 
Eatonton, on the northern approaches 
to the lake, is the home of Joel Chand- 
ler Harris of "Uncle Remus" fame. 

There are many who consider Lake 
Sinclair the premier fishing area of 
the South for largemouth bass. Lead- 
ing personalities from all walks of 
life have fished her productive waters. 

The late Bobby Jones, Georgia's 
own all-time kingpin of golf and the 
only amateur to win golfdom's grand 
slam, took strings of largemouth from 
Sinclair. After one great day on the 
lake, Jones is quoted as saying, 'This 
day has meant every bit as much to 
me as the day I won the grand slam." 

Beckoning the fisherman at Sin- 
clair are many picturesquely named 
branches and tributaries. The veteran 



angler returns time and again and the 
new arrival discovers the piscatorial 
wealth of such areas as Shoulder 
Bone Creek, Potato Creek, Crooked 
Creek, Nancy Branch, The Cowpas- 
ture, Rocky Creek, Island Creek, 
Beaverdam Creek, Murder Creek, 
Cedar Creek, Sandy Run Creek, Buck 
Creek, Fort Creek and Log Dam 
Creek. The tailrace below massive 
Sinclair Dam is also a favorite fish- 
ing spot. 

Our Sinclair visit followed an un- 
precedented weather spell: the record- 
breaking 17-inch snowfall which 
blanketed the lake area about two 
weeks earlier. This heavy snowfall 
had upset the levels of oxygen distri- 
bution in the water, and the fish had 
moved into many levels seeking the 
water most suitable to them. The re- 
sult was a lack of any pattern to the 
depths at which the fish were moving 
and feeding. 

Even this did not seem to bother 
some of Sinclair's veteran anglers. 
One came in with a fine trio of large- 
mouth, each topping eight pounds. 
Others showed some excellent strings 
of two- and three-pound crappie with 
a few white bass and an occasional 
striper. 

Later in the day Bill rigged the 
trolling motor to the bow, and as we 
moved slowly along we tried both 



minnows and artificials. We mixed 1 
trolling with still fishing and on t 
particular day we got more acti 
when the anchor was down. 

Around Lake Sinclair's beauti 
and comparatively clean shoreline < 
excellent facilities for camping, p 
nicking and bank fishing. There ; 
five established camping sites and 
equal number of large picnic an 
providing tables, parking spaces a 
recreation areas. The lake has fi 
established swimming areas. 

To maintain the cleanliness a 
quality of recreation on the she 
areas, Georgia Power conducts a cc 
tinuous clean-up and maintenar 
program at a monthly cost of abc 
$2,500. Empty oil drums for 1 
disposition of litter are strategica 
placed around the lake at sites fi 
quented by fisherman, hikers a 
campers. 

Nine marinas offer boat launchi 
ramps, docking, fuel, fishing a 
boating supplies and some also pi 
vide boat and motor repairs, a 
areas for swimming, tent and trai 
camping and picnicking, and cabii 

Sailing is another big water sp< 
at Sinclair. Oconee Sailing and Ya( 
Club members unfurl the canvas 
more than 50 sailing boats, rangi 
from small Sprites to Snipes and 
Flyers. 



Lake Sinclaii 's productive waters 

yielded this good string of largemouth 

bass. Rewarding fishing awaits the 

angler year-round at this middle 

Georgia fishing mecca. 




backpacking 



-oods & Stoves 



By T. Craig Martin 

Photos by the Author 



The backpacker too must mind his 
i ly. This does not mean that a 
) ind of beef with Yorkshire pudding 
r fillet of sole with new potatoes and 
r / peas must accompany his every 
e iture into the woods; it does sug- 
1 1 that his meals must be carefully 
i: nned and executed if he expects a 
I asant trip. For although wilderness 
>i vellers have a great reputation for 
! : epting the most abysmal food as 
ji inevitable accompaniment, their 
'i ! ering is both unnecesary and fool- 
f. these days. 

Vhy live on the proverbial bacon 
i i beans ( both are heavy, subject 

spoilage, and inefficient sources of 

rition) when a dinner for four in- 
L iing beef soup, ham a la king, 
S :uits, a gelatin dessert, and hot 
n oa weighs 28 ounces and costs 
1 60? No reason, really, except a 
i verse affection for outmoded tra- 
t on and, perhaps, a certain wari- 
h s in the face of a vast assortment 
I :onflicting brands and claims. 
■ Vhile we can't (and in many cases 
pildn't) break the ties of tradition, 
ti doors in Georgia can help you 
P through the various lightweight 
jc Is and "backpacker" stoves. We've 
ntly tried several of the more 
ninent brands of each, and here 

\ hat we found . . . 
ut Stoves: 

1\ It tried four single-burner stoves: 
< - of the increasingly popular bu- 
i models, one of the traditional 
,fl i e gas types. The cost ranged 
Jpi about $10 for the least expen- 
« butane to about $12 for the 
i e gas stove. A good extra fuel 



Some people have a foolish way of 

not minding, or pretending not to mind, what 

they eat. For my part, I mind my belly 

very studiously and very 

carefully, for I look upon it that he who 

does not mind his belly will hardly mind 

anything else. 

Bosweil's Life of Johnson 




container for white gas stoves runs 
about $3, while extra butane car- 
tridges are $.95 each. 

Our testing procedures will hardly 
put Consumer's Union out of busi- 
ness, but their results may help you 
decide which type of stove is best for 
you. 

We made the tests outdoors, on a 
day in which the temperature was 
about 55° F with a slight breeze. The 
test site was near Gainesville, at 
about 1,100 feet elevation. To 
achieve some uniformity of results, 
we decided to see how fast me units 
would boil a quart of water, and how 
many quarts each could boil over the 
useful life of one container of fuel. 
Although our pots varied in size and 
material, we rotated them from stove 
to stove. 

The white gas stove outperformed 
the rest. One of our butane models 
did fairly well; but the other two 
needed an extra aluminum foil wind- 
screen to be at all effective, an addi- 
tion that should not have been neces- 
sary on this balmy day. 

Gas and kerosene have, of course, 
been the traditional fuels for back- 
packers: they're efficient, readily 
available, and can be carried in al- 
most unlimited quantities for expedi- 
tion use. The stoves developed to 
use them (almost all originate in 




A Uhough most stoves can use some help 
in the way of a windscreen during rough 
weather, some of the more popular bu- 
tane models require them in the slightest 
breeze. A piece of aluminum foil serves 
quite well. 

Hardly a rigorous testing situation, but 
one that we hope will provide a few sug- 
gestions for prospective single-burner 
stove buyers. The box-like contraption 
in the center contains a white gas stove; 
the other three burn butane. 



Europe) are compact, lightweig 
and relatively foolproof. 

But they do require slightly mi 
fussing to start. The fuel must re; 
the burner as a vapor, having b< 
transformed from its liquid state b 
"generator" located between the 
tank and the burner. This genera 
must be preheated before the st< 
is lit, generally by burning a li 
fuel in the "spirit cup", a small tx 
just under the generator. Then 
stove is turned on, and the heat fr 
the generator vaporizes the fuel. T 
same heat expands the fuel in 
tank and forces it toward the burr 

There's a great deal of folk! 
about starting these stoves — yoi 
warned to fill it at sea level, or 
warm it in your hands for a while 
develop pressure, or to bring it ii 
the sleeping bag to heat up — just 
create enough pressure in the j 
tank to force a bit of fuel out L 
the spirit cup. Humbug! The b 
technique is the simplest: spill a Hi 
fuel from the spare supply, or extr 
some from the stove's tank with 
eyedropper. Then the whole proc 
takes about 45 seconds. 

Once started, these stoves prodt 
a very hot flame. Ours boiled sei 
quarts of water in about an hour 
one tank of gas, about Vi pint. 1 





These were the victims of our 

vigorous testing. They represent 

a fair cross-section of the 

available stoves and foods 

for backpackers. 



* :raged out to about eight minutes 
uart, more than two minutes faster 
' quart than the fastest butane. 
The best of the butane stoves 

2 led seven quarts of water in about 

minutes, or about one quart each 

f/en minutes. This average, how- 

r, is misleading, for it began at a 

J of about one quart every nine 

nutes, then the rate fell off as the 

I cartridge emptied. 

Hiis problem of declining efficiency 

one of the major drawbacks of 

'es that rely on pressurized fuel. 

! fuel — usually butane, occasion- 

1. propane — comes in throwaway 

u ridges of about 6Vi ounces each, 

i only a portion of that fuel can be 

I f' ctively utilized. For as the stove 

•urned, the presure falls off and 

'• e flame becomes less and less pow- 

* f 1. The best one tested remained 
I [< :tive until just before the fuel was 
j p lusted, other stoves are less than 
J e 1 in this respect. 

I ome butane stoves use replaceable 
. e cells: the cartridge can be re- 



moved for packing or replacement 
even if all its fuel hasn't been burned. 
This is a distinct advantage over the 
other type in which the fuel from 
each cartridge must be fully ex- 
pended before removal, an arrange- 
ment that can lead to an hour of 
pallid and unuseable flame. 

High altitude and extreme cold are 
said to weaken these stoves by re- 
ducing pressure in the cartridges, but 
I've used them in the snow at 8,500 
feet with no particular difficulty. 
Georgia conditions are unlikely to 
have much effect on them. 
About Food: 

We tried a variety of foods from 
six of the major lightweight food 
suppliers. All of it was palatable, con- 
venient, nourishing, and relatively in- 
expensive; we wouldn't hesitate to 
recommend any of them. 

For a backpacker to mind his belly 
"very studiously and very carefully," 
however, more is involved than count- 
ing his days on the trail, multiplying 
by three, then rushing off to the 



neighborhood supplier for the pre- 
packaged meals. The backpacker has 
fairly specific nutritional needs, needs 
he must consider if he expects to have 
a pleasant trip. 

He needs, for example, more cal- 
ories in the field than he does at home, 
perhaps as many as 5,000 a day on 
rough cross-country treks. And he 
needs these calories spread out over 
the whole working day, not just in 
the usual three-meal-a-day bursts. To 
remain active, he'll need to eat more 
carbohydrates, although he could get 
the same number of calories from fats 
and protein. 

The carbohydrates release their 
caloric energy quickly and easily, 
while fats and protein are hard to 
digest and release their calories much 
more slowly. So he'll try to snack 
all day on high-carbohydrate food, a 
practice that would quickly and radi- 
cally alter his trim physique if he 
tried it in the city. 

He'll probably need more water 
during a day in the field than he 



would during a day in the office, so 
many backpackers plan menus that 
involve a lot of liquid: soup as an 
encore, lemonade or other fruit drink 
with the meal, hot chocolate and/or 
tea after dinner and before bed. The 
water loss he experiences also in- 
volves loss of body salt, so he may 
plan meals that are heavily salted, 
or may supplement his diet with salt 
tablets during the day. 

With these general considerations 
in mind, your main concern in choos- 
ing items for your trail menu will be 
convenient preparation and light 
weight. You won't want to carry 
anything you don't have to, and you 
won't want complicated meals after a 
long day on the trail. 

Although the creative chef can 
fashion tasty and nourishing meals 
out of light-weight conventional 
foods, the easiest solution to the back- 
packer's dual problem is freeze-dried 
food, at least for major meals. They 
are very light — most of the weight in 
food is water and all of the water has 
been extracted — and they are quite 
simple to prepare — you need only 
add water and simmer a while. 

There's an astonishing variety of 
freeze dried food on the market now, 
and almost everyone should find 
something to his taste, even if it's 



only freeze dried ice cream. Prices 
range from $.95 for a two man entre 
to about $3.50 for a multi-course 
meal for four. 

I personally prefer to avoid elabo- 
rate breakfasts and lunches, which 
usually means that I don't want to 
cook. I take along a hearty cereal 
and raisins; a little non-fat dry milk 
(mixed the night before, perhaps with 
a little vanilla added) completes a 
nourishing breakfast or mid-morning 
snack. Freeze dried fruit (either hot 
or cold) is great with breakfast, and 
I try to save a little from dinner for 
this use. 

For lunch I usually have peanut 
butter and jelly or honey on crackers 
or pilot biscuits, a candy bar, and a 
fruit drink. It's usually a light meal, 
since I've -been snacking on "gorp" 
(sometimes called "lurp") all morning 
and will continue to do so all after- 
noon. 

Gorp takes as many forms as there 
are backpackers, but I prefer M&M's, 
raisins, and raw almonds. M&M's 
with peanuts and fruit also is a good 
combination. The idea is to find 
something both tasty and nourishing 
that is high in carbohydrates. Mint 
candies are refreshing, as is freeze 
dried fruit in its dry, hard state. 

Jerky makes a good lunch or snack, 



While freeze-dried foods certainly help backpackers, 
they don't eliminate the need for careful planning. 
Individual bags help organize meals so they can be 
conveniently found. 




as does hard cheese, although I'v 
had trouble keeping cheese in 
palatable state during hot weather. 

Although you may like elaborat 
meals at home, simplicity is a definit 
virtue when you're backpackmj 
Your one-burner stove will help lim 
your whims, and you should try t 
follow its dictates. A perfectly ad< 
quate dinner can be fashioned in on 
pot: soup, followed by a casserole c 
stew cooked in the same pot, washe 
down with a fruit drink or sprin 
water. Later you can clean that pc 
or use a teapot to boil water for te 
or hot chocolate. 

A nice after dinner drink can b 
made from a mixture of instant fru 
drinks and instant tea, spiced with 
little clove or cinnamon. Find 
pleasing proportion at home, the 
package it in plastic bags for trips. 

The manufacturers of freeze drie 
foods provide explicit instructions fc 
preparing their foods, and you shoul 
begin by following them carefull; 
After you've tried them by the bool 
however, you may find that exti 
simmering will help a lot with tf 
stews and casseroles, as will the ac 
dition of some margarine, a judicioi 
dollop of sherry (I carry a sm? 
plastic bottle for just this purpose 
a large pinch of parmesan cheese, < 
a bit of your favorite spice. 

But experiment at home — erro 
there can be rectified (or ignorec 
more easily than those made in tl 
woods. It also is a good practice 
try out any new foods on short tri I 
before venturing off into the woo I 
for more than a week. Three da ' 
from civilization is no place to deci I 
you can't stand some portion of yo 1 
food supply. 

Modern stoves and lightweig i 
freeze-dried foods make the trii 
chef's job a lot easier. But they v il 
not — and cannot — replace care i 
planning as the major ingredient i 
pleasant outdoor meals. The acco 3 
plished backpacker minds his be 1 
before setting forth on the trail, a 1 
by doing so he avoids having t 
worry about it during his journey. I 
belly that's too empty, too full, c 
upset creates an unnecessary distr i 
tion at the very least, a distract n 
that can spoil the most beautiful ti \ 
These discomforts are easily avok e 
with a little forethought: take c 
vantage of all the modern convi 
iences, but rely on yourself. 



midlife Profiles: 






Bream 



By Aaron Pass 

I by Liz Carmichoel Jones 




{Bluegul 



The bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus) 
the most widely distributed and 
t known of the breams. Known 
such local names as sun perch, 
i sunfish, and copperbelly, the 
-"gill may have more color varia- 

than any other sunfish. The body 
>asically yellow to dark blue with 

vertical irregular bars. Adults 
e a wide black gill flap and a 
c blotch at the rear of the dorsal 



fin. The pectoral fin is long and point- 
ed but the mouth is small, not ex- 
tending backward beyond the eye. 

The bluegill's preferred habitat is 
quiet waters with scattered beds of 
vegetation and a bottom of sand, 
gravel or muck. They arc considered 
excellent fish for farm ponds when 
stocked with largemouth bais. The 
bluegill begins spawning in May or 
when the water temperature ap- 



proaches 78 degrees and the spawning 
season extends into early fall. The 
best fishing is during the spawning 
periods as the bluegill concentrate in 
large numbers at this time. This fish 
feeds primarily on zooplankton and 
crustaceans. The bluegill may reach 
15 inches in length and may weigh 
up to AV2 pounds. This popular pan- 
fish is easily caught with natural and 
artificial bait. 




(Red, 



ear 



The redear sunfish (Lepomis mi- 
crolophus) is a Georgia favorite. Lo- 
cally known as the shellcracker and 
yellow bream, this large sunfish is 
eagerly sought on its spawning beds 
from April to June. Basic body color 
is olive green with darker olive spots 
'and 5-10 dusky vertical bars down 
the sides. The gill flap is tipped with 
bright red on males and orange on 
females. The pectoral fins are long 



and pointed but the mouth is small, 
not extending backward beyond the 
eye. 

The preferred habitat of the redear 
is large, quiet waters with an abun- 
dance of stumps or logs for cover. 
It is primarily a bottom feeder and 
depends heavily on mollusks and 
crustaceans, crushing their shells with 
highly developed grinding teeth — 
hence the nickname "Shellcracker." 



The redear begins to spawn a 
water temperatures around 75 ( e 
grees. Spawning is primarily in spri 1 
but also occurs in the fall. 

This species has a decided pr 1 
crence for natural baits over artifici; li 
and anglers use catalpa worms, gJ 
den worms, and grubs with good s <■ 
cess. Weights in excess of 3 poui c3 
have been recorded. 




(Rec/L 



east 



The redbreast sunfish (Lepomis 
auritus) is one of the brightest colored 
members of the sunfish family. Nor- 
mal coloration is yellow sides with a 
red belly and these colors are par- 
ticularly bright during spawning. 
Distinguishing characteristics of this 
species is a long, narrow black gill 
flap, a small mouth, and short round- 
ed pectoral fins. Spawning begins 
normally in late spring at water temp- 
eratures of 70-75 degrees. 

The redbreast is known by a host 
of local names such as: the yellow 
belly sunfish, longear sunfish. sun 
perch, and redbreast bream. Some- 
times found in lakes and ponds, the 
redbreast is primarily a stream fish 
of the rivers of the Atlantic drainage. 
It is a very sporty game fish which 
will take a variety of artificial and 
natural baits. Normal maximum size 
is about 11-12 inches and 1 pound. 

Two small species of bream are 
found in the swamp country of south 
Georgia. The warmouth (Lepomis 
gulosus), and the spotted sunfish 
(Lepomis punctatus), also called 
stumpknocker, are small but impor- 
tant fish in their locality. Found in 
freshwater swamps and slow black- 
water streams, these species are a sig- 
nificant fishery. 

The spotted sunfish is liberally 
dotted with black or brown and at- 
tains a maximum size of about 6 
inches. The warmouth is more color- 
ful and is larger than the spotted. 
Basically olive or gray with mottled 
sides, the warmouth may reach 1 1 
inches. The mouth is large on this 
member of the bream species extend- 
ing back beyond the eye. 



Springtime Flowers 



By Donald C. Pendergrast 




Indian Pink (Spigelia marilandica) 

is a relative of the familiar 

Yellow Jessamine, both being in 

the Logania family. A showy 

plant 1 to 2 feet tall, Indian Pink 

grows in rich woodlands 

throughout the state. The corolla 

is scarlet outside, but 

yellow inside. 



Beardtongue (Penstemon sp.) is 
a member of the Snapdragon 
family, in which the flowers are 
5 lobed, 2 above, 3 below, 
forming a lipped tube. A t least 
five species of beardtongue can 
be found in Georgia; some 
inhabit rocky soils in the 
mountains and hills, others may 
be found in the sandy soils of 
the coastal plain. The name 
beardtongue is derived from the 
tuft of hairs on one of the 
stamens. 



Photos by Don Pendergrast 



The generic name for wild azalea 

is Rhododendron. Hence they ar 

very close relatives of tht 

Rhododendrons and Laurel 

found in the Georgia mountain: 

These shrubs have flowers the 

occur in showy clusters and hav 

five petals. Depending upon th 

conditions in which they ar 

growing, wild azaleas may var 

frow white to pink or lavendei 

The Flame Azalea is the exceptio 

being a much more vivid orangi 

yellow or red. There are at lea: 

eight species of wild azalea 

found across Georgia in habitai 

varying from forests and bogs i 

the mountains to swamp fores, 

of the coastal plain. They at 

always found in wooded area 

usually in moist deciduous wood 

although the Dwarf Azalea mc 

be found on dry sandhill 

Different azaleas bloom at variot 

times, but most often may I 

found in bloom from la 

March through Ma 




Georgia is blessed with a diversity of habitats, 
he southern portion of the state is the low and 
arm Coastal Plain. North of the "fall line" 
hich runs through Columbus, Macon, and 
ugusta, is the Piedmont Plateau, a higher and 
ore hilly terrain. The Georgia mountains, in 
e extreme northern portion of the state are 
/er 300 miles from the southern border and 
ach altitudes in excess of 4000 feet. Because 



of differences in latitude and altitude, you can 
follow the spring from south Georgia's swamps, 
where plants are in full bloom in late March, 
upward into the mountains, where winter lingers 
until May on the peaks. So if you're ready for 
an early spring some year, visit south Georgia, 
and if summer overtakes you too soon for your 
liking, you can visit the Georgia mountains and 
witness spring's freshness all over again. 



Photo by T. Craig Martin 








Photo by Dick Davis 



An example of the rolli 

terrain of Ocmulgee Wildl \ 

Management Area can be st l 

in this view. In the distance c i 

wildlife feeding plots establisf ■ 

along the opening on po\ < 

line right-of-w i 



Ocmulgee 

Wildlife Managemen 

Area 



By Dick Davis 



V? 




ck Scott, Refuge Manager of Ocmulgee WMA, 
ows lush growth of chufas on food plot near 
wellstone Creek. There are more than 100 acres of 
; 'rmanent food plots on the WMA, with turkey, 
i 'er and other game using the plots regularly. 



Photo by Dick Davis 



Photo by Derry Stockbridge 



Trophy deer are bagged on the Ocmulgee which is in 

middle Georgia's famed deer country. The deer 

population on the WMA is growing and it is hoped 

a doe hunt can be begun on the area in the near future. 



Encompassing 36,000 picturesque 
> res in Twiggs, Bleckley and Pulaski 
'. lunties in middle Georgia, Ocmul- 
< e Wildlife Management Area offers 
i t only excellent hunting at present 
i t has a vast potential and promise 
( r the future as the game population 
) ilds rapidly, more prize game spe- 
:i :s are stocked and the number of 
i nters attracted to the area increases. 
* hatever one's desire in game — up- 
e id or lowland, trophy or small 
;j me — much of it is found on the 
v de-ranging areas of Ocmulgee man- 
ij sment area. 

The Ocmulgee WMA embraces 
r my kinds of terrain — rolling, flat, 
H viand, swamp and river bottoms, 
" d some relatively high areas with 
ft ep grades and abrupt rises in ele- 
''<■ tion. There is dense timber as well 
is open, cut-over areas. 

This Wildlife Management Area is 
i Drime example of highly successful 
t iltiple-use of forest lands, both 
-' mpany-owned and individually 
i< Id. The area is composed of 19,000 
1( "es of land owned by Continental 
- n Co., 14,000 acres owned by 
p orgia Kraft Company, both pulp 
11 i paper industries, and 3,000 acres 
pi ned by individuals. 




* 



J' 



• 



~m 



u 









•riS i i. : 



".< 



i' ^ 



■ 



W-Mm* 

151 v> *> " '' 



at' 



>r-3 



N'J 



' i ' » 



f , 



>!• 



F *J 



/ / < OH 

Photo by Ted Borg 

This is also an outstanding example 
of state government, industry and 
private landowners working in con- 
cert for the public benefit. The de- 
velopment and extensive use of the 
companies' timberlands and those of 
individual owners for public hunting 
is proceeding at the same time that 
the companies are logging portions 
of the WMA, harvesting pulpwood 
and sawtimber. 

Varied forest types grace the land- 
scape on the Ocmulgee WMA. Pine 
forests, pine-hardwood, and pure 
hardwood stands dominate the up- 
lands, with bottomland hardwoods, 
cypress, Live Oaks, and Water Oaks 
in the lowlands, swamps and river 
bottoms. Beautiful Spanish Moss 
adorns the Cypress, bays and gums 
of the swamps and river bottoms. 

A tabulation of game on the Oc- 
vIA reads like a "Who's 
Who?" of the Georgia game world. 
11 are of huntable popu- 
lation, the list includes: deer, bear, 
turkey, quail, dove, rabbit, beaver, 
bobcat, grey squirrel and fox squir- 
rel, wood duck, mallard, scaup, black 



m 



duck and hooded merganser. 

The Ocmulgee WMA is ideally 
situated near the center of the state 
and draws hunters from throughout 
Georgia and from some surrounding 
states such as Florida and Alabama. 
The majority of nimrods at present, 
however, are from the middle Georgia 
counties. Good cooperation by the 
public is a big factor in„the excellent 
progress being made in developing 
the Ocmulgee Wildlife Management 
Area toward its full potential. 

Area Manager Jack Scott praises 
the public — "hunters, adjoining 
landowners, and those living in the 
counties and towns near the manage- 
ment area" — for their excellent co- 
operation in supporting development 
of the area, in abiding by laws and 
regulations, and in furnishing as- 
sistance to him and his staff whenever 
help is neede. "On any wildlife man- 
agement area good public support is 
essential," says Jack, "and this is 
even more important on a widely dis- 
persed management area such as the 
Ocmulgee. We are getting overall fine 
cooperation and we appreciate this." 



Wild turkeys which have been 

trapped previously on another 

area are released on the Ocmulgee 

WMA , where stocking of the big 

game birds began in 1971. The 

turkey population on the 

Ocmulgee is increasing and u 

expected to reach huntablt 

proportions within a few years 

Game and Fish Division Regiona 
Supervisor Dick Whittington join.' 
Jack in this expression of apprecia 
tion and in paying special tribute U 
Continental Can Co., Georgia Kraf 
Co. and the private landowners wh< 
are permitting use of their lands fo 
the management area. 

Jack Scott is a veteran wildlife am 
refuge director. Prior to joining th 
Game and Fish Division he was fo 
more than 10 years Wildlife Manage 
of the noted Millhaven Plantation i 
Screven and Burke Counties. 

Now in only its second full ye; ' 
of operation as a public hunting are i 
under the direction of the Game an I 
Fish Division of the Department ( f 
Natural Resources, the Ocmulgf -' 
WMA is fast growing in popularii i 
and in hunter acceptance. Opened J 



OCMULGEE 

WILDLIFE MANAGEMENT AREA 

DEPARTMENT OF NATURAL RESOURCES 
GAME AND FISH DIVISION 



r fl __ TO DANVILLE 




CAMPING AREA 
HARD SURFACE ROAD 
IMPROVED DIRT ROAD 
— UNIMPROVED ROAD 
- STREAM 

PRIVATE PROPERTY 



September, 1970, the area drew 500 
deer hunters during that year. For 
this year's season, 779 hunters bought 
deer permits and there were 73 bucks 
killed as contrasted to only 39 during 
the first year of operation. 

Opening day of the deer season 
was a big one on the Ocmulgee this 
year. Twenty bucks were taken on 
that one day. The high quality of 
the hunting is evidenced by the tro- 
phy game bagged. This year's prizes 
included a 13-point buck that field 
dressed at 171 pounds and a 10- 
pointer that dressed out at 182 
pounds. 

Deer population is growing on the 
Ocmulgee and Jack Scott looks for- 
ward to the area's first doe hunt, 
possibly next year. Natural forage is 
good and improving throughout much 
of the Ocmulgee. In addition, special 
delicacies available to deer are honey- 
suckle and crabapples. 

The mast crop for grey and fox 
squirrels is generally excellent in the 
hardwood forests and mixed-pine 
hardwood. Bears feast on numerous 
species of berries and on the acorns 
and crabapples. Turkeys consume 
parts of many small plants and also 
find an excellent supply of insects in 
the humus and matted litter of the 
forest floor. 

Excellent water supplies for game 
are found throughout the manage- 
ment area. The Ocmulgee River 
snakes its way along the western 
boundary of the management area 



and other creeks and streams flowing 
through the refuge are Shellstone 
Creek, Savage Creek, South Shell- 
stone Creek, Evergreen Creek and 
Richland Creek. In addition, beaver 
ponds are widely dispersed on the 
area. 

Big plans and action are in the 
making to assure that this outstanding 
hunting area reaches its full potential 
within the next few years. 

The original wild turkey stocking 
of the woodlands took place in 1971 
and it is hoped that the turkey popu- 
lation can be increased to huntable 
proportions in the near future. Four 
hens and three gobblers were released 
that first year and in 1972 an addi- 
tional eight gobblers and 1 1 hens 
were moved to the area. 

There are permanent food plots 
spotted in all parts of the wildlife 
management area. Altogether, there 
are more than 1 00 acres of food plots 
on the WMA. For deer there are corn 
and peas in the summer, rye and crim- 
son clover in the winter. The turkeys 
are well supplied with chufas, the 
plant with the root nodules the hens 
and gobblers find continuously to 
their liking and scratch up in the food 
plots. Brown-top millet is planted for 
dove and quail, and in the open, cut- 
over areas Lespedeza bicolor has 
been planted in strops 15-20 feet 
wide. Sunflower seed patches also 
provide forage for the game birds. 
Ducks in the river bottoms are at- 
tracted by Japanese millet. 



Many river bottoms and beaver pond areas provide 
extensive good habitat for waterfowl and small game. 



Photo by Dick Davis 




Another project by Jack Scott a 
his group to increase the game pop 
lation on the area will be erecting 3 
Wood Duck boxes in the next fi 
years, 75 of them to be placed m 
year. The boxes will be made 
Cypress. 

Beaver ponds on the WMA add 
the excellent duck habitat provid 
by the Ocmulgee River bottomlan< 
In fact, so extensive have the pon 
become — some are 50 acres — tl 
timber damage has resulted and tra 
ping of beaver is now underway 
Continental Can Co. lands. 

Controlled burning has been do 
on about 800 acres of timberlan 
on the Ocmulgee management an 
This serves both to provide improv 
habitat for game, particularly turk 
and deer, and to reduce the like 
hood of forest fires and the sever 
of damage in event of wildfire. 

In past years the Ocmulgee Ma 
agement Area has offered buck hui 
ing only for deer plus a bowhunt f 
either sex. There has been a sp 
season for small game hunting. T 
first season has been essentially t 
month of September, with the seco 
season beginning about the seco 
week in December and continui 
through January. Small game hu 
ing is permitted on Wednesda 
Thursdays and Saturdays during I 
open season. 

To reach the Ocmulgee W^ I 
from Macon, hunters take U.S. 1 i 
south. Continue across the inters : 
tion with Ga. 96 and about Va ni 
south of the intersection turn rr; 
at sign indicating the direction to 1 
checking station. 

Special hunting regulations on j 
Ocmulgee WMA include: no bui 
shot and no dogs allowed exo 
pointers and retrievers used in q J 
and duck hunting. It is required i il 
for their own safety all deer hun I 
wear orange, red or yellow caps I 
coats during the gun hunts. Fo 1- 
nately, thus far there have not t;i 
any hunting accidents on the Ocr > 
gee WMA, and Jack Scott and Is 
assistants would like very mucl 3 
prevent accidents from taking pi U • 

Permanent stands for deer are i- 
couraged, especially when erecte I Q 
trees, because nails in the trees r< It 
in damage to mill saws when <e 
timber is cut for lumber or to c v- 
pers when the wood is chipped ff 
pulp. 



Georgia Wildlife 
Federation Awards 



1 ly Aaron Pass 

F iOto by Bud Van Orden 



The Georgia Wildlife Federation is 

I oth a new and an old organization. 
t he name is new but the organization, 
f Tmerly known as the Georgia 
£ xirtsman's Federation, is old. At 
J' ast relatively old, since the Federa- 
it )n held its 1 7th annual meeting last 
b arch. 

: During the meeting held in Atlanta, 

II e Federation was addressed by sev- 
t al well known speakers in the con- 
■irvation field. The Honorable Ben 
B ackburn's luncheon speech cen- 
{(■ "ed around national water resources 
£ ;islation. 

i Bass Angler's Sportsmen's Society 
f is represented on the afternoon pro- 
bun by Bill Stembridge, and Dan 
p nton spoke for Ducks Unlimited. 
\i :k Crockford, Director of the Game 
r i Fish Division of the Department 
Natural Resources, explained the 
73 fishing regulations and answered 
i :stions. 

-ach year the Federation, in co- 
oration with the Sears Roebuck 
i-< npany in Georgia, presents awards 
1 :hose individuals who, in the past 
r, have made significant contribu- 
is to natural resources conserva- 




The top award, The Conservation- 
ist of the Year, was presented to Joe 
D. Tanner, Commissioner, Depart- 
ment of Natural Resources, for his 
genuine concern and outstanding con- 
tributions in the conservation of the 
state's natural resources. 

A special award, the President's 
Award, was presented by Federation 
President Charles Ingram to a man 
Ingram called the "unsung hero of 
conservation in Georgia." Dr. Charles 
Wharton, Professor of Biology at 
Georgia State College, received this 
award for his publication, "The 



Commissioner Joe D. Tanner 

receives the Georgia Wildlife 

Federation's Conservationist of 

the Year Award. Commissioner 

Tanner (left) is shown receiving 

congratulations and the award 

from Charles Ingram, President 

of the Georgia Wildlife 

Federation. 



Southern River Swamp," and for his 
efforts in the- conservation field. 

Other conservation awards were 
presented in eight resource categories. 
The Wildlife Conservationist of the 
Year Award went to wildlife biologist 
Robert Ernst of the Game and Fish 
Division of the Department of Nat- 
ural Resources for his research work 
with black bear. Sanford Darby of 
the Environmental Protection Divi- 
sion of the Department of Natural 
Resources received the Soil Conser- 
vationist of the Year Award for his 
influence on the reclamation of strip 



mines in the state. The Water Con- 
servationist Award went to Dr. Claude 
Terry for his notable contributions on 
the Chattahoochee River and other 
water resource related efforts. Verlon 
Carter of the Bureau of Sport Fish- 
eries and Wildlife won the Forest 
Conservationist of the Year Award 
due to his successful demonstration 
that efficient wildlife and timber man- 
agement can coexist. 

The Conservation Education 
Award went to Mrs. Jennie Tate An- 
derson who was instrumental in in- 
troducing a curriculum guide ror con- 
servation education into the Georgia 
school system. The Honorable 
George K. Larsen of the 27th Con- 
gressional District was awarded the 
Conservation Legislator of the Year 
Award for his efforts in conservation 
legislation, including the Georgia 
Scenic Trails Act, the Georgia Scenic 
Rivers Bill, and the Chattahoochee 
River Protection Act. The Conserva- 
tion Communicator of the Year 
Award went to John Pennington of 
the Atlanta Journal-Constitution 
Magazine for his many resource ori- 
ented articles. 

Trout Unlimited, Chattahoochee 
Chapter, was honored as the Conser- 
vation Organization of the Year for 
its efforts in protecting the Chatta- 
hoochee and Little Tennessee Rivers 
and for assisting in the development 
of the Waters Creek Trophy Trout 
Stream. 

The Federation also presented 
Youth Conservationist Awards to 
deserving young people who have 
contributed to the conservation effort. 
Richard Rudman of Briarcliff High 
School was honored as Youth Con- 
servationist of the Year. Other win- 
ners were: John Allen Bailey, 1st 
District; Bill Mills, 2nd District; Wal- 
ter Evans, 3rd District; Benedict Tai, 
4th District; Sarah Patterson, 5th 
District; Cheryl Lynn Smith, 6th Dis- 
trict; Jeanie Summerford, 7th Dis- 
trict; Grace Griffis, 8th District; Bur- 
ton McDaniel, 9th District; and Alton 
Johnson, 10th District. 

Special awards were presented to 
three deer hunters for their notable 
success. Mr. H. D. Cannon of Comer, 
and Mr. J. W. Plemmons of Griffin 
Lhe 1972 Georgia Big Deer 
:sts. Mr. Boyd L. Jones of Tal- 
lahassee Florida was also recognized 
for having taken a new record weight 
in Georgia. 




Wildlife Biologist Robert Ernst 
(left), of the Game and Fish 
Division, was selected as the 
Wildlife Conservationist of the 
Year for his research on black 
bear in north Georgia. 



Sandford Darby of t 

Environmental Protectu 

Division of the Department 

Natural Resources received t 

Soil Conservationist of the Ye 

A ward for his influence on t 

reclamation of strip mines 

the sta i 




a>o lucky Georgia 
•er hunters who 
~>n the 1971 Big 
\er Contest flank 
mimissioner Tan- 
r with their prizes. 
W. Plemmons (left) 
<n the weight divi- 
n with a whopping 
4 lb., 7 oz. buck. 
D. Cannon, on the 
'Ht, racked up in 
i antler division 
h a trophy scor- 
■172-2/ 8 Boone & 
ockett points. 





Sportsman's 
Calendar 



FISHING REGULATIONS 



LICENSE REQUIREMENTS 



1 11 fishermen 16 years of age or older in the State of 

< rgia are required to have a valid current State fishing 

i se in their possession while fishing in fresh water, with 

:xception of landowners and members of their immedi- 

r amily who may fish without a license on their own 

Pj>) erty. No license is required for fishing in saltwater. 

P :sidents 65 years of age, or over, blind persons, and 

tp y disabled veterans may obtain a permanent honorary 

Bi lg license free of charge by personal or mail application 

t|l e Game and Fish Division's office in Atlanta. 

TROUT STAMP 

p I non-resident fishermen and all resident fishermen be- 
'F i the ages of 1 6 and 65 must have a trout stamp to 
cjp and keep trout. Resident anglers holding honorary 
'fr ;es and resident anglers under 16 years of age are not 
MjU red to have a trout stamp. A season trout stamp costs 
Y for residents and $10.25 for non-residents, a non- 
ri !d 'nt 5 day stamp is $3.25. 



LICENSE FEES 

Resident Fishing License $3.25 

Resident Combination Hunting and Fishing . . 7.25 

Non-Resident Fishing (5 day trip) 3.25 

Non-Resident Season Fishing License .... 10.25 

SEASONS 

All streams, lakes, and ponds of Georgia are open to fish- 
ing through the entire year with the exception of the moun- 
tain trout waters of North Georgia. See trout regulations for 
details. Sunday fishing is allowed. 

DAILY CREEL LIMITS 

Bream (Bluegill, Red Breast, 

and other species of Bream) 50 

Crappie 50 

White Bass 30 

Largemouth Black Bass, Smallmouth Bass, Red- 
eye Bass, and Spotted Bass or Kentucky Bass 15 

Striped Bass or Rock Fish 5 

White-striped Bass Hybrid 10 

Chain Pickerel or Jack 15 

Brook or Speckled Trout, Rainbow Trout 

and Brown Trout 8 

White Shad, Hickory Shad 8 

Sauger, Walleye 8 

Muskelunge 2 

Channel Catfish No Limit 

Flathead Catfish No Limit 

POSSESSION LIMITS 

It is unlawful for any person to possess at any one time 
more than 50 fish in the aggregate (total) of all species 
named, except channel and flathead catfish. No more than 
a total of 15 largemouth, smallmouth, redeye or spotted 
bass can be possessed. No more than 8 trout of any or all 
species can be possessed at any time. 



SPECIAL POSSESSION LIMITS 
There will be a special creel limit of 25 warmouth, bream 
or sunfish taken from the Suwannee River and the Oke- 
fenokee Swamp. On Lake Blue Ridge there will be a creel 
limit of 15 walleye. 

SIZE LIMITS 

There is a minimum size limit of twelve (12) inches for 
largemouth bass on all public waters in this State. It is a vio- 
lation of this regulation to take or have in possession large- 
mouth bass less than 12" in length, taken from public 
waters. 

There is a minimum size limit of 12 inches on all redeye 
bass taken from the Flint River. 

There is a minimum size limit of fifteen (15) inches for 
striped bass (rock fish) in all waters (fresh and salt) of this 
State. It shall be a violation of this regulation to possess 
striped bass less than 15" in length, taken from these waters. 

REGULAR TROUT SEASON 

The Georgia trout season runs from March 31, 1973, 
through October 6, 1973, inclusive. This season shall apply 
to all streams in the eleven north Georgia counties of 
Dawson, Fannin, Gilmer, Habersham, north of Ga. #115, 
Lumpkin, north of Ga. #52 east of Dahlonega and north 
and west of U.S. #19 west of Dahlonega, Murray, Pickens, 
Rabun, Towns, Union, White, north of Ga. #115. It shall 
also apply to the Chattahoochee River and its tributaries 
upstream to the backwater level due to power generation 
from Buford Dam to the Roswell Bridge on U.S. High- 
way 19. 

Streams designated as trout water in the counties of 
Walker, Chattooga, Bartow, Floyd, Paulding, Gordon, Har- 
alson, Cherokee, Polk, and Catoosa open and close with the 
regular state trout season (March 31-October 6). These 
streams are designated by signs erected by the Game and 
Fish Division. 

WILDLIFE MANAGEMENT AREA TROUT SEASON 

The Wildlife Management Area trout season shall run 
from April 28, 1973, through Labor Day, inclusive. This 
season shall apply to those streams, and their tributaries, 
listed in the Managed Stream Schedule elsewhere in this 
brochure. All other streams on Wildlife Management areas 
will be open during the regular trout season (March 31- 
October 6). 

LAKES AND RESERVOIRS 

The regular state trout season shall not apply to any lake 
or reservoir, except Dockery Lake where the season shall 
be March 31-October 6, and Rock Creek Lake and Ed- 
mundson Pond which are. open as tributaries to Rock Creek 
— See Managed Stream Schedule. 

All tributary streams to Lake Lanier, except the Chatta- 
hoochee and Chestatee, to Hartwell except the Tugaloo, and 
to Clark Hill, except the Savannah, Broad and Little Rivers 
are closed to fishing for a distance of three (3) miles up- 
stream from backwaters from December 1 to April 1 of 
each year. 

GENERAL TROUT REGULATIONS 

CREEL LIMITS 

Eight (8) trout per day (regardless of species) except 
as otherwise provided in Special Regulations. Possession 
limit eight (8) trout (regardless of species). 

FISHING HOURS 

Fishing on trout streams open during the regular state 
t; nit season (March 31-October 6) will be permitted from 
minutes before sunrise until 30 minutes after sunset. No 
hing on these streams is permitted. Trout fishing 
lifted on all impoundments except Dockery 
reek lake, and Edniundson Pond, where fish- 
"rom 30 minutes before sunrise until 30 
mim ' l. Night fishing is permitted on "year- 

round'* trout streams. 



FISHING METHODS 

1. Fishermen may take trout only with rod and 11 
Trout fishermen are restricted to the use of one rod and 1 
and it must be held in hand. 

2. Live bait-fish May Not be used in ANY trout stre; 
in the state. Seining of bait fish is not allowed in any tr< 
stream. 

3. Trotlines, set hooks, jugs, nets, and bows and arro 
are prohibited for fishing in all trout streams. 

4. On those streams designated for "artificials onl 
only artificial lures may be used. It is illegal for anyc 
fishing an "artificial only" stream to have any bait otl 
than artificial bait in his possession. 

Artificial bait as used in these regulations shall mear 
any bait which is man-made, in imitation of or as c 
substitute for natural bait, and shall include artificial 
flies. NOT included and expressly prohibited are fish 
eggs, corn, or chemically treated or processed foods. 

5. While fishing specially regulated waters with a mi 
mum size limit, it will constitute a violation to possess tr< 
of less than the specified minimum size. 

RESERVOIRS AND LAKES 
There is no seasonal restriction on trout fishing in res 
voirs and lakes, except Dockery Lake where the season n 
from March 31-October 6, and Rock Creek Lake and I 
mundson Pond which are open as tributaries of Rock Cre 
— See Managed Stream Schedule. 

NIGHT FISHING 

Night fishing for trout is permitted on reservoirs a 
lakes, except Dockery Lake, Rock Creek Lake, and E 
mundson Pond where fishing is permitted from 30 minu 
before sunrise until 30 minutes after sunset. 

CREEL LIMIT 
Eight (8) trout (regardless of species). Possession lb 
eight (8) trout (regardless of species). 

TRIBUTARIES CLOSED 

All tributary streams to Lake Lanier, except the Cha: 
hoochee and Chestatee Rivers, to Lake Hartwell, except 
Tugaloo River, and to Lake Clark Hill, except the Sav 
nah, Broad, and Little Rivers, are closed to fishing fo 
distance of three (3) miles upstream from backwater fr 
December 1 to April 1 of each year. 

MINIMUM SIZE LIMIT 

Lakes Lanier, Hartwell, Clark Hill, Burton, Rabun, Se: 
Tallulah Falls, and Blue Ridge shall have a minimum : i 
limit of 14 inches on all species of trout from Decembe : 
to April 1 of each year. 

TROUT STAMP 

A current state trout stamp affixed to the back of a v 1 
state fishing license is required to catch and possess tn i 
(See License Requirements — elsewhere in this brochu : 

The trout stamp is required to fish in those lakes wl : 
trout are the only or the predominant species. These h 3 
are Dockery Lake, Amicalola Lake, Lake Trahlyta, Un ci 
Lake, Rock Creek Lake, and Edmundson Pond. 

On all other lakes or reservoirs where trout are pres 
the trout stamp is required only if trout are in posses i 
of the fisherman. 

CLOSED STREAMS 

The following streams will be closed for renovation i 
restocking during the 1973 trout season: 
Chattahoochee River 

(Upstream from Henson Creek) . Chattahoochee W w 

Dick's Creek Lake Burton W vi 

Tuckaluge Creek Warwoman W * 

Coleman River 

(Upstream from USFS 

bridge #54) Coleman River Wvi 

Mill Creek Coleman River W Vft 

Tate Branch Coleman River W ^ 

Mill Creek on Blue Ridge WMA is permanently close 1 ^ 
fishing (water supply for Chattahoochee Forest Nati >i I 
Fish Hatchery). 



Management 
Area 



Stream 



April 



May 



June 



July 



August 



September 



)LUE RIDGE 



Jones Creek 



Sat. 28 
Sun. 29 



Sat., Sun. 
Mon. 28 



Sat., Sun. 



Sat., Sun. 
Wed. 4th 



Sat., Sun. 



Montgomery 



Sat. 28 
Sun. 29 



Nimblewill 



Sat. 28 
Sun. 29 



Sat., Sun. 
Wed., Thu. 

Mon^28 

Sat., Sun. 
Mon. 28 



Sat., Sun. 
Wed., Thu. 



Sat., Sept. 1 
Sun., Sept. 2 
Mon., Sept. 3 



Sat., Sun. 
Wed., Thu. 



Sat., Sun. 
Wed., Thu. 



Sat., Sept. 1 
Sun., Sept. 2 
Mon., Sept. 3 



Sat., Sun. 



Sat., Sun. 
Wed. 4th 



Sat., Sun. 



Sat., Sept. 1 
Sun., Sept. 2 
Mon., Sept. 3 



Noontootley 



Sat. 28 
Sun. 29 



Every Day 



Every Day 



Every Day 



Every Day 



Sat., Sept. 1 
Sun., Sept. 2 
Mon., Sept. 3 



Rock Creek 



Sat 28 
Sun. 29 



Sat., Sun. 
Wed., Thu. 
Mon. 28 



Wed., Thu. 
Sat., Sun. 



Sat., Sun. 
Wed., Thu. 



Sat., Sun. 
Wed, Thu. 



Sat., Sept. 1 
Sun., Sept. 2 
Mon., Sept. 3 



:hattahoochee 


Chattahoochee 


Sat. 28 
Sun. 29 


Sat., Sur.. 
Mon. 28 


Sat., Sun. 
Wed. 


Sat., Sun. 
Wed. 4th 


Sat., Sun. 


Sat., Sept. 1 
Sun., Sept. 2 
Mon., Sept. 3 




Dukes 


Sat. 28 
Sun. 29 


Sat., Sun. 
Wed., Thu. 
Mon. 28 


Sat., Sun. 
Wed., Thu. 


Sat., Sun. 
Wed., Thu. 


Sat., Sun. 
Wed., Thu. 


Sat., Sept. 1 
Sun., Sept. 2 
Mon., Sept. 3 


:hestatee 


Boggs 


Sat. 28 
Sun. 29 


Sat., Sun 
Wed., Thu. 
Mon. 28 


Sat., Sun. 
Wed., Thu. 


Sat., Sun. 
Wed., Thu. 


Sat., Sun. 
Wed., Thu. 


Sat., Sept. 1 
Sun., Sept. 2 
Mon., Sept. 3 




Dicks 


Sat. 28 
Sun. 29 


Sat., Sun. 
Mon. 28 


Sat., Sun. 


Wed., Thu. 
Sat., Sun. 


Sat., Sun. 


Sat., Sept. 1 
Sun., Sept. 2 
Mon.. Sept. 3 




Waters 


Sat. 28 
Sun. 29 


Sat., Sun. 
Mon. 28 


Sat., Sun. 


Sat., Sun. 
Wed. 4th 


SaJ,, Sun. 


Sat., Sept. 1 
Sun., Sept. 2 
Mon., Sept. 3 


\KE BURTON 


Moccasin 


Sat. 28 
Sun. 29 


Sat., Sun. 
Wed., Thu. 
Mon. 28 


Sat., Sun. 
Wed., Thu. 


Sat., Sun. 
Wed., Thu. 


Sat., Sun. 
Wed., Thu. 


Sat., Sept. 1 
Sun., Sept. 2 
Mon., Sept. 3 



Wildcat 



Sat. 28 
Sun. 29 



Sat., Sun. 
Mon. 28 



Sat., Sun. 



Sat., Sun. 
Wed. 4th 



Sat., Sun. 



Sat., Sept. 1 
Sun., Sept. 2 
Mon., Sept. 3 



. VKE RUSSELL 



Middle Broad 



Sat. 28 
Sun. 29 



Sat., Sun. 
Wed. 
Mon. 28 



Sat., Sun. 
Wed. 



Sat., Sun. 
Wed. 



Sat., Sun. 
Wed. 



Sat., Sept. 1 
Sun., Sept. 2 
Mon., Sept. 3 



i ARWOMAN 



Finney 



Wed., Thu. 
Mon. 28 



Sat., Sun. 



Wed., Thu. 



Sat., Sun. 



Sat., Sept. 1 
Sun., Sept. 2 
Mon., Sept. 3 



Sarahs 



Wed., Thu. 
Mon. 28 



Sat., Sun. 



Wed., Thu. 



Sat., Sun. 



Sat., Sept. 1 
Sun., Sept. 2 
Mon., Sept. 3 



Walnut Fork 



Sat. 28 
Sun. 29 



Sat., Sun. 



Wed., Thu. Sat., Sun. 



Wed., Thu. 



Hoods Creek 



Sat. 28 
Sun. 29 



Sat., Sun. 



Wed., Thu. Sat., Sun. 



Wed., Thu. 




UntyS- 



Outdoors 

it? georgia 

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: * 







Jimmy Carter 
Governor 

Joe D. Tanner 

Commissioner 
Department of Natural Resources 

George T. Bagby 

Deputy Commissioner 
for Public Affairs 

BOARD OF 

NATURAL RESOURCES 

James Darby 

Chairman 

Vidalia— 1st District 

William Z. Camp, Sec. 
Newnan— 6th District 

Leo T. Barber, Jr. 
Moultrie— 2nd District 

Dr. Robert A. Collins, Jr. 
Americus— 3rd District 

George P. Dillard 
Decatur— 4th District 

Rankin M. Smith 
Atlanta-5th District 

Leonard E. Foote 
Marietta— 7th District 

Henry S. Bishop 
Alma-8th District 

Clyde Dixon 
Cleveland— 9th District 

Leonard Bassford 
Augusta— 10th District 

Jimmie Williamson 
Darien— Coastal District 

Wade H. Coleman 
Valdosta— State at Large 



EARTH AND WATER DIVISION 
Sam M. Pickering, Jr., Director 

ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION DIVISION 
R. S. Howard, Jr., Director 

GAME AND FISH DIVISION 
Jack Crockford, Director 

PARKS AND RECREATION DIVISION 
Henry D. Struble, Director 

: ICE OF PLANNING AND RESEARCH 
'arrish, Director 

'RATIVE SERVICES 
n, Director 

PUBLIC RELATIONS AND 

INFORMATION SECTION 

H. E. (Bud) Van Orden, Chief 



FEATURES 

Knife Care Bob Wilson 

Bonanza— Black Sea Bass . . . T. Craig .Martin 

Camping Fever Nancy Hurt 

Largemouth Bass Aaron Pass 

Alligator! Allen R. Coggins 

Reciprocity T. Craig Martin \ 

How to Make Spinners Mike Sawyers ! 

DEPARTMENTS 

Sportsman's Calendar J 



ON THE COVER: Oscar the Alligator, by Jim Couch 
BACK COVER: Amicalola Falls-infra-red, by Bob Wilson 



Outdoors 



\t) georgia 



June, 1973 



Volume II 



Number 



Outdoors in Georgia is the official monthly magazine of the Georgia Departme 
of Natural Resources, published at the Department's offices, Trinity-Washingt 
Building, 270 Washington St., Atlanta, Georgia 30334. No advertising accepte 
Subscriptions are $3 for one year or $6 for three years. Printed by Willio 
Printing Company, Atlanta, Ga. Notification of address change must include < 
address label from a recent magazine, new address and ZIP code, with 30 dc 
notice. No subscription requests will be accepted without ZIP code. Articles a 
photographs may be reprinted when proper credit given. Contributions are w 
come, but the editors assume no responsibility or liability for loss or damage 
articles, photographs, or illustrations, Second-class postage paid at Atlanta, C 



MAGAZINE STAFF 

Phone 656-3530 

H. E. (Bud) Van Orden 
Editor-in-Chief 

Bob Wilson 
Managing Editor 

Art Director 
Liz Carmichael Jones 



Staff Writers 

Dick Davis 
Aaron Pass 
T. Craig Martin 



Staff Photographer* 

Jim Couch 
Bob Busby 



Linda Wayne 
Circulation Manager 



EDITORIAL 



^ATER 



IT CAN BE FUN 

IT CAN BE DANGEROUS 



When we're thirsty, we drink it by itself or 
ixed with something else. When we're hungry, 
i catch fish out of it. When we want to play, 
i swim in it or we ski on it. There's no doubt 
tout it, water can provide us with a lot of recre- 
ional activity during the summer months. 
But, if we're not careful, we can end up at the 
)se of the summer season as nothing more than 
statistic. That's what happened to 19 Geor- 
i ins last year who were careless in their appre- 
ition of water. 

A new boat owner showing his craft to some 
' ends who didn't take the time to put on life 
i|kets; a fisherman who couldn't swim and 
:< >od up in his small boat one time too many to 
i ike a cast; swimmers who failed to take a 



quick survey of the area before diving unknow- 
ingly into new waters; the boat driver who failed 
to watch the skier until it was too late — they all 
contributed to those statistics. 

We can all imagine how much fun these sta- 
tistics could be having this summer if they had 
been a little more careful last-summer. 

Water recreational areas are found all over 
Georgia, and there are new areas being devel- 
oped daily. The outdoors is a great place to 
spend the summer months, and the rewards are 
great if we will take but a few moments to be 
sure that fun and safety on the water go together. 

With water glass raised on high, I'll drink to 
that. 



iottt, ^y^y &juty 




Knife 
Care 




By Bob Wilson 



Photo by Bob Wl s 

Shame on anyone who would treat good blades ( > 
some lesser blades) and oil stones in such a fash i 
A few quick openings and hard closings will resiu 
dull, nicked blades, and possibly a broken stt ; 



Look in your tackle box. Rummage 
around in your hunting or camping 
gear. You're looking for a knife— an 
axe will do if you really don't have 
a knife. Got one? Good! 

Now look at it. Is that a little spot 
of rust? Is it really as sharp as it 
ought to be? Just where was it that 
you had it stored? Let's take a quick 
look at some of the common prob- 
lems facing knives and see what can 
be done to overcome them. 

\ knife or axe is a simple cutting 

i more, but all to often 

t less. Proper sharpening, 

use, a little maintenance, and 

ige will result in a blade 



which will have a long life and will 
do its job safely and quickly. 

Tc start from the beginning, in case 
you missed the article "Sportsmen's 
Knives in the April issue of Outdoors 
in Georgia, spend as much as is nec- 
essary to get a quality knife (or axe) 
and as much as you can afford to get 
one you can take pride in. A good 
knife or axe will leave the factory 
sharp, with the edge correctly honed. 
Depending on the treatment it has 
received between the factory and 
you, it may or may not still be sharp 
and free of nicks. 

In any case, after a bit of use even 
the best blade will be dulled. Unless 



a cutting edge has been misused c 
neglected, it only takes a few rr i 
utes to hone it. If the blade must : 
reshaped, it will take considers i 
longer and will require more Cc ' 
The moral here is to keep a blade 
good shape, sharpening as often • 
necessary, and you will save ti t 
and effort in the long run. 

Knives and axes are sharpened t 
grinding away metal in order to t! i 
and possibly smooth the cutting ec 3 
A number of devices can be u< 
for this purpose, but only a few 3 
acceptable for all applications. (-'I 
fashioned grindstones, emory whe 2 
files, carborundum "stones," ste ? 



id Arkansas oil stones are all used 
i different individuals with varying 
>grees of success. 

Old-fashioned grindstones are 
ird f o come by but are very useful 
sharpening axes and gardening 
ols. Such stcnes should be turned 
:ry slowly towards the cutting edge 
;ing sharpened. Modern emory 
heels driven by high-speed electric 
Dtors have probably ruined more 
ades than anything except rust. 
?at generated by high-speed grind- 
g "burns" the metal, leaving it 
ittle and without temper. In the 
nds of a skilled craftsman, an ap- 
opriate set of files can put a very 
od edge on a blade in short order, 
lain, the file teeth should move 
vard the cutting edge of the blade, 
ose few craftsmen who do use files 
sharpen fine knife blades frequent- 
use a very fine grade of emory 
:oer to polish the edge after it has 
:5n formed and smoothed by their 
est file. Corborundum "stones" 
i fine for quickly sharpening axes 
en the blade doesn't need re- 
i iping, but it is sinful to touch one 
'3 a fine blade as it will leave a 
iged edge. A sharpening steel is 
i )htly better than a carborundum 
c ne, and is handy for a quick touch- 
: in the field— but they do leave a 
i( ged edge. 

"he best device for sharpening 
p )d blades is a rock. Not just any 
kk will do, however; a very special 
k k called novaculite and found only 
a small area of Arkansas is what 
' leeded. Arkansas oil stones are 
|l nd in a variety of grades, from 
) d to soft. The hard ones are us- 
) y a dark color and the soft ones 
ream and brown mottled color. 
| the name implies, these stones 
■[€ used with an oil, which keeps the 
: "i II particles of steel from becom- 
b embedded in the pores of the 
9 ie. A specially blended honing 
I is best as it can be washed out 
1 he pores of the stone if an ac- 
|r ulation builds up and dries; if a 
•'ring oil is unavailable, cooking oil 
: ight machine oil may be substi- 
U± 

l II right, so you've got your dull 
|i1 5, an Arkansas oil stone (prefer- 
§1 with hard and soft sides) and 
st 5 oil — you're ready to go, but 
{ ,a tly how? Slather on some oil 
£ ,d take a few swipes at the stone 
(fi side) with one side of the blade 




A soft Arkansas oil stone and honeing oil are required 

to keep knives corectly and safely sharpened. Simply 

lay on a track or two of the oil and spread it 

over the stone. 




: 



■ ■ 

! ••• ■ ",.■'■ 



Photos by Bob Busby 



Starting with the blade held across the stone at one end. 

and at a 15-30° angle to the surface of the stone, and 

applying moderate pressure, you are ready to 

begin sharpening. 




- 

A sweeping motion down the length of the stone so 

that the whole length of the edge contacts the stone is 

the object. Imagine that you arc slicing a very 

thin layer off the stone. 



For best results, a blade must 
be sharpened for the job it is to 
do — just as they are designed 
for different purposes. For very 
light work, such as filleting fish, 
a very thin edge is best — hone 
at 15° or less — for very heavy 
work, a sturdy edge is 
necessary — hone at 30° . For 
general use, a hone angle of 
17-22° will prove best. If you 
find it difficult to maintain a 
constant angle while honeing, 
commercially available devices 
such as the one shown below 
will hold the blade at a 
constant angle. 




Photo by Bob Busby 



\ 




and then some with the other side c t 
the blade; just make sure that yc, 
keep the angle between the blac: 
and the surface of the stone the sarr; 
all the time. 

Seriously, lay the stone, soft sic s 
up, on a flat surface on which th 
stone will not slide around. L; ) 
down a track of oil the length of th 
stone and spread it out on the storf 
with the blade to be sharpened. Ne> t 
lay the blade flat across the stone 
one end of the stone with the edc < 
pointing down the length of th 
stone. Tilt the top of the blade i) 
until the blade is at an angle of 1 > 
30° with the surface of the ston 
and, using a moderate amount 
pressure, sweep the blade down th 
stone in an arc so that the whole ed< < 
contacts the stone. Repeat this pre: 
ess for 10-20 strokes (depending <t 
how dull the knife really is), aic 
turn the knife over for the sar 
treatment on the other side. As t! 
blade becomes sharp, take few; 
strokes before working equally i 
the other side of the blade, and u 
less pressure. 

Once the knife is sharp, rea ' 
sharp, it is ready for the hard stor i 
A few strokes, usually no more th i 
ten per side, on the oiled hard sto i< 
will polish the edge to smooth p> r 
fection. The only improvement th a 
can be made now would be to t >< 
a leather strop for razor-like polin 
When you are finished, test the ed I 1 
by slicing slivers of paper, or sh< v 
ing hair off an arm — do not rur 



Shaving hair with 
a blade may tend 
to dull it quickly, 
but it is much 
safer than slicing 
a thumb or finger. 
A fine, well-sharp- 
ened blade will be 
is sharp as a razor 
and will slice be- 
fore you feel it. 



lumb or finc/er down a sharp blade. 
A couple of commonly encoun- 
;red difficulties in sharpening knives 
re difficulty in maintaining a con- 
sta it, correct angle while honing 
le blade, and a bent "wire" edge 
n the blade dfter honing. The abil- 
y to hoid a blade at the correct 
ngle during the honing process is 
cquired through practice, patience 
nd concentration. 
A number of manufacturers offer 
lechanical devices that attach to the 
ack of the blade and insure a con- 
stant honing angle. These devices 
Deed the sharpening process great- 
, and get you accustomed to a cor- 
net honing angle. 

A "wire" edge is caused by the 
etal at a sharpened edge being 
Ided over as a result of excessive 
essure. If you do get a wire edge 
i the blade you are working on, 
:ke comfort in the knowledge that 
e blade is sharp. All that is neces- 



/ your honeing technique is correct, surplus oil on the stone 
• '/ collect evenly along the length of the blade. If you are 
i lintaining a constant angle the oil will take on a dirty 
/ tearance within a dozen strokes. 





Photos by Bob Busby 



' 









4< s 




■ 

- 



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\ 



sary is to turn the blade over and 
gently hone the "wire" off and polish 
the edge. 

What about caring for a knife or 
axe other than an occasional sharp- 
ening? A light coat of oil on the 
blade after each sharpening and each 
excursion will keep it rust-free. If 
you do get some surface rusting, a 
gentle polishing with fine steel wool 
and oil will remove it. An axe han- 
dle should be lightly sanded and 
given a light coat of linseed oil from 
time to time depending on the 
amount of use and storage condi- 
tions. 

Knives and axes should be stored 
in such a way that their fine edges 
do not come into contact with hard 
surfaces which might dull or "turn" 
an edge. Some knife collectors even 
advise storing knives in drawers 
with individual compartments for 
each. Some also advise against 
storing knives in their sheaths due 
to the possibility of moisture in the 
leather. 

Almost every outdoorsman knows 
that knives are not meant for prying, 
scraping, throwing (except for those 
specifically designed for that), and a 
number of uses — or misuses — to 
which knives are sometimes put. A 
good blade, available commercially 
from such manufacturers as Buck and 
Gerber is not really expensive, even 
at $10 to $30, considering the quality 
and durability. With proper care, 
such knives will last a lifetime, and 
with very little effort they will al- 
ways be sharp enough to do the 
work at hand safely and efficiently. 




Knives with two blades are often sharpened with one blade for he 
work and another, razor-thin, for light w< 



Good stones with both soft and hard sides are readily available at 
sporting goods stores. Use the soft side to sharpen a blade, and then 
the hard side to smooth and polish the edge. 



Photos by Bob B s 



, 



v 



i 







Bonanza! 

Black Sea Bass 



By T. Craig Martin 



When you're in the mood for some pure meat fish- 

I, for pulling in fish until your arms and back ache, 

• the cooler overflows in finny abundance, till your 

sting knife loses its edge in contemplation of the 

:k before it, then you're ready to face the black sea 

3 ,S. 

'he "blackflsh" you catch won't be very big— about 
c ht pounds is the maximum, one to two pounds the 
/ rage — but you'll catch enough to feed your family 
jl I most of the neighbors within a couple of hours 
njfsr you've found a good hole. 

Finding that hole can be a problem, though. The 
>. t nearby blackflsh spots are off our coast, over the- 

| elo Reef live bottom and the artificial reefs placed 

I the Department of Natural Resources. 

The natural reef probably is your best bet, but it's 
■ K ut 16 miles offshore from the nearest access point, 
'l I even when you get into the area, you're apt to 
|( that the marker buoys have disappeared, so you'll 
i'i d a recording depth finder to locate the reef. 

Unless you have a well-equipped and seaworthy 
ci1 ', it probably makes sense for you to go out on a 
m ter boat. The costs aren't really astronomical. One 
c p ter captain operating out of the Colonel's Island 

II na, for example, charges $125 a day for a group 
If >ur. For this sum you get a knowledgeable skipper, 
apt -foot Hatteras boat, bait, and tackle. Other charter 
Ha s cost about the same. 

f you wish to take your own boat out, however, 
ttt loors in Georgia has a nautical chart that will help 
gic 



Georg 

you. It's free, and we 



be happy to mail it to 



'hatching these tasty liltle critters doesn't require 
W? ophisticated gear; your freshwater casting or spin- 
n S gear will be fine, although you'll have to use 
r ^' r heavy weights to reach the bottom. 




Photo by T. Craig Martin 

Once you find a good blackflsh "drop," you can keep hauling 
them in until your arms and hack give out, or until all your 
cooler space is full, whichever comes first . . . Here skipper 
Lee Card watches as Billy Prosser cranks up a double. 



The charter boats supply gear that is rather stiff 
for these small fish, but their tackle must be versatile 
enough for many applications. Since the rods are 
stiff, they utilize 8-ounce bank sinkers to get the bait 
down to the 70-foot depths frequented by the sea bass. 

The currents over the reef aren't severe, however, 
so with lighter gear you won't need that half-pound of 



lead dragging along as you struggle to raise the fish. 
A IV2- or 2-ounce sinker is plenty if you don't mind a 
slight lag while it wends its way to the bottom. 

The rest of the terminal tackle is simple: a wire 
leader with a 2/0 or 3/0 hook, and another similar 
hook on a dropper line. Largish chunks of cut bait — 
menhaden, portions of other fish caught, whole shrimp, 
anything will do. 

Your quarry is a chunky fish, mottled brown or 



blue-black. Occasionally one will have brilliant bl 
markings interspersed in the black background. Wat 
that dorsal fin! The spines are sharp and hard, and c 
deal you a fine wound if you're not careful. 

Sea bass filets are delicious, but even the small 
fish can be scaled or skinned and cooked like yi 
would any freshwater bass. Centopristes striatus, 
the way, bears no formal relation to the freshwal 
Micropterus species which share its name. 



An unidentified angler with a fine blackfish. They aren't very big 
fish — 2 to 3 pounds is a good size on our coast — but they are 
great eating. 



Photor by Bob Bu 




REEF 



WHISTLE 
BUOY 



;\/W^ 



you're lucky enough both to have a recording depth finder and to locate the Sapelo live 
ttom, this is how it will look. On this chart, the left is the offshore side, which shows up as a 
'her smooth, level surface. The reef shows as a very uneven surface, and this is why the fish 
e it: they can find both food and protection in its nooks and crannies. The reef covers the area 
tween the two lines on the chart. The next long dropoff is about where you'll find the 
listie buoy off Sapelo Island. 



Sea Bass Lisbon Style 

small bass, % to 1 pound each 

teaspoons olive oil (or drawn butter) 

tablespoons chopped onion 

large ripe tomatoes, peeled, seeded, and 

chopped 

clove garlic, minced or crushed 

tablespoon chopped parsley 

teaspoon powdered marjoram 

bay leaf, tied to long thread 

teaspoon salt 

cup dry red wine 

cup light cream 

tablespoon butter 

tablespoon flour 



Clean and scale the fish, then cut them into 
i ee or four pieces each. Discard the head, tail, 
rd fins. Heat the oil in a heavy, ovenproof 
: let, then saute the onion, tomatoes, garlic, 
3 sley, and rosemary gently for five or six 

lutes. Bury the bay leaf in the vegetables, 
< n lay the bass pieces on top. Combine the 
i le and cream and pour it in the skillet. Cover, 
t I cook in a pre-heated 325-degree oven for 

minutes. Transfer the fish to a warm platter, 
€ i remove the vegetables with a slotted spoon, 
wing the juices to drain back into the pan. 
nnnge the vegetables around the fish on the 
c ter, discarding the bay leaf. Bring the 
'« 5s to a gentle 'simmer in the pan. Knead the 

1 er and flour to a smooth paste, then drop 

" of it into the juices, stirring until each has 
'S: olved before adding another bit. Let the 
|U:e simmer for at least five minutes after the 
1st bit of butter and flour has been added, then 
ll • it over the fish pieces. Serves 4 to 6. 



Sea Bass Chowder 

4 pounds of fish, cleaned and scaled 

1 V2 quarts cold water 

V2 teaspoon salt 

V2 lemon, cut in thin slices 

1 tablespoon butter 

4 potatoes, cut in V2 inch cubes 

3 medium-size onions, chopped coarsely 

4 cups chopped tomatoes, with all juices 

2 tablespoons dry vermouth 

1 cup medium dry sherry 
1 V2 tablespoons lemon juice 

2 tablespoons butter 



Put the fish in a deep pan, cover with the cold 
water, bring it to a boil, skimming the froth, 
then reduce it to a simmer. Add the salt and 
lemon slices, and continue simmering 15 to 20 
minutes. The fish need not be completely done, 
but should flake off the bones in large pieces. 
Discard the bones and skin, and reserve the 
flesh in a warm bowl. Spread one tablespoon 
butter on the inside of a deep kettle or saucepan, 
put in the pieces of fish, potatoes, onions, and 
tomatoes, then strain the cooking juices over 
them. Cook 20 minutes at a gentle simmer, or 
until the potatoes are tender. Stir in the ver- 
mouth, sherry, and lemon juice, cook two or 
three minutes longer, remove from the heat, 
stir in the butter, and serve in soup bowls. 
Serves 6 to 8. 




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By Nancy Hurt 

With June's warm weather, camp- 
ing bugs have emerged from their 
wintertime cocoons and swarmed 
Georgia's campsites, spreading their 
infectious camping fever to epidemic 
proportions. Camping fever victims 
are scurrying to Georgia's mountains, 
lakes, streams, and even to her 
swamplands. They come in all shapes 
and sizes, some with backpacks and 
others with plush camping trailers, 
with fishing rods, bicycles, boats, hik- 
ing boots, water skis, tennis rackets, 
or golf clubs — all equipped for out- 
door fun. 

There is no immunity to camping 
fever, but luckily, Georgia has just 
the remedy for those who have been 
bitten by the bug. From the north 
Georgia mountains to the Okefenokee 
Swamp, there are state parks, national 
forests, privately owned campgrounds, 
and lakes with adjacent camping 
areas maintained by the U.S. Army 
Corps of Engineers — enough to sat- 

:<• any camping appetite. So whet 
npetite and see what Georgia 
you! 

vho love to rough it, 




primitive camping sites can be found 
almost anywhere you choose. How- 
ever, most designated camping facili- 
ties provide several basics for your 
camping convenience. Most state 
parks, national forests, and Corps of 
Engineers campgrounds have tent and 
trailer campsites, sanitary facilities, 
drinking water, and picnic tables. 
Georgia's state parks also offer elec- 
trical and water hook-ups, and many 
have trading posts and laundry facili- 
ties. Lakeside campgrounds operated 
by the Corps of Engineers provide 
boat launching ramps. National For- 
ests and Georgia State Parks charge 
fees between $1.00 and $2.50 for 
use of camping sites, and will accept 
no advance reservations. State parks 
and Corps of Engineers' lakes are 
open year 'round. National Forests 
are open between May 1 and October 
31. 

In many state parks, pioneer camp- 
ing areas for organized groups with 
adult supervision are also designated. 
On the other hand, group camping 
consists of a self-contained facility, 
including sleeping quarters, dining 






Photo by Ted ( 

room, kitchen and recreational are 
available to organized, non-pro 
groups for a time period between tv 
days and two weeks or less. Reserv: 
tions can be made through the pa 
superintendent. 

For those who want the coml'o I 
of home in the lap of Georgia's oil 
of-doors, there are furnished ren a 
cottages and mobile homes in r I 
state parks. Rates for these facilit a 
can be made through the superinte i 
dent of the park which you wish t 
visit. 

For the mountaineer - at - hea" 
camping heaven is bound to be i 
those north Georgia mountains. N 
tied in the rugged terrain are ele\ i 
state parks and the Chattahoocl a 
National Forest, with good fishii i 
breath-taking scenery, and a vari< t 
of activities to remedy any case d 
camping fever. 

In the heart of Georgia's moi r 
tains is the Chattahoochee Natio 
Forest. Spanning 700,000 Georg a 
acres from the South Carolina 1 n 
near Clayton to Lafayette in h 
northwestern corner, this area al< n! 



includes 17 designated camping areas. 
Camping areas are clustered around 
the forest's clear mountain lakes. 
Blue Ridge Lake hosts two camping 
are is. Morganton Point campsite, 
near Morganton, and Lake Blue 
Ridge campsite, near Blue Ridge, 
offer boating, fishing, and swim- 
ming. Rabun Beach campsite on 
Lake Rabun, near Lakemont, and 
Lake Russell, near Cornelia, offer an 
enticing agenda featuring swimming 
with a beach and bathhouse, hiking, 
boating, and good fishing. Conasauga 
Lake, Georgia's highest lake, also of- 
fers these activities. 

Dockery Lake, near Dahlonega, 
offers fishing and boating, and Lake 
Zhatuge, near Hiawassee, adds swim- 
ning to that list of activities. The 
dear waters of Lake Winfield Scott, 
;outhwest of Blairsville and near the 
\ppalachian Trail, invite you for a 
lip, and a beach and bathhouse are 
tearby. Paddleboats and horseback 
iding offer a change of pace, and 
liking and fishing are yours for the 
sking! 

Also on the Appalachian Trail 
ibove Cleveland is Unicoi Gap camp- 
rite with its rugged hiking trails. The 
'ocket campsite also offers a chal- 
.'nge to the hiking buff. 

Mountain streams can lure any 
I sherman to cast his line, and Geor- 
jj ia's streams are no exception. Deep 
;Hole, Cooper Creek, and Mulky 
c impsites, all north of Dahlonega, 
K Ter fishing the way it's supposed to 
1 :! Andrews Cove and Desoto Falls, 
r ?ar Cleveland, have the same menu. 
;I you tire of fishing, you can hike 
}■ the five tumbling waterfalls of 
t esoto Falls. 

, Downstream from Desoto Falls is 
V aters Creek, famed for its trophy 
i nit stream. Secluded camping and 
- cellent trout fishing can also be 
<und at Tate Branch and Tallulah 
R ver campsites, northwest of Clay- 
ka. Near the Chattahoochee Na- 
p nal Fish Hatchery at Dahlonega 
s Frank Gross campsite where, need- 
p s to say, there is always good fish- 
P ;. Hidden Creek, near Calhoun, 
i its camping beside a stream which 
u is cool and clear for a day or two, 
1 then vanishes. 

file Chattahoochee National For- 
si also encompasses several state 
a ks. At the foot of the Appalachian 



Trail is Amicalola Falls State Park. 
Surrounding Georgia's highest water- 
fall (739 feet), this park offers good 
lake and stream fishing, boat rentals, 
and pioneer camping. 

Black Rock Mountain State Park, 
in Mountain City, lures the hiker to 
its dark granite cliffs and a view of 
four states. Cloudland Canyon State 
Park, near Rising Fawn, boasts a leg- 
endary lead mine, a well-kept secret 
of the Cherokee Indians. Both of 
these parks are of special interest to 
the nature lover, each having hiking 
trails and pioneer camping areas. 

Red Top Mountain State Park, lo- 
cated on Lake Allatoona near Car- 
tersville, offers water sports such as 
swimming, fishing, and boating, and 
miniature golf. And speaking of golf, 
Victoria Bryant State Park near 
Royston, offers a 9-hole golf course, 
as well as swimming and fishing. 

Vogel State Park, near Blairsville, 
has a lake and beach for waterbugs. 
It also offers horseback riding, minia- 



ture golf, and nearby Neel's Gap, 
Lookout Point, and Brasstown Bald 
Mountain, Georgia's highest point. 
Moccasin Creek State Park, also in 
the national forest, is located near 
Clarkesville on Lake Burton and al- 
lows fishing, boating and skiing. 

Panning for gold is a favorite pas- 
time at Blackburn State Park near 
Dahlonega. And after a long, hot day, 
visitors can swim in Blackburn's lake. 
Fort Mountain, near Chatsworth, 
where mysterious ruins still stand, of- 
fers hiking, swimming, fishing, boat- 
ing rentals, and miniature golf. 

Lake Hartwell hosts two state 
parks, Tugaloo near Lavonia, and 
Hart near Hartwell. Located in the 
hills of northeast Georgia, both offer 
a wide range of water sports and 
pioneer camping. Tugaloo adds min- 
iature golf and a children's play- 
ground. Hart-State Park also is avail- 
able for organized group camping. 
As a lake maintained by the Corps 
of Engineers, Lake Hartwell has sev- 



Photo by Bob Busby 




YEAR ROUND RECREATH 



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Stale Park 



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Alexander H. Stephens 


35 


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15 


1 


X 






X 






X 


X 


A 




X 


Amicaiola Falls 


25 


25 


25 


2 


X 






X 


X 




X 








X 


Black Rock Mountain 


70 


35 


35 


3 


X 


X 




X 


X 




X 








X 


Bainbridge 


Blackburn 


35 


35 


35 


1 


X 


X 




X 


X 












X 


Bobby Brown 


80 


48 


48 


2 


X 


X 




X 


X 




X 




X 




X 


Chebaw 


43 


43 


43 


2 


X 


X 






X 


X 


X 




X 


X 


X 


Chatuge 






























X 


Cloudland Canyon 


46 


26 


46 


2 


X 






X 


X 




X 








X 


Crooked River 


56 


56 


56 


2 




X 




X 


X 


X 


X 




X 


X 


X 


Elijah Clark 


200 


150 


150 


9 


X 


X 




X 




X 






X 




X 


Fairchild 






























X 


Fort Mountain 


117 


28 


14 


4 


X 






X 


X 


X 


X 




X 




X 


Fort Yargo 


35 


35 


35 


2 


X 






X 




X 








X 


X 


Franklin D. Roosevelt 


140 


70 


70 


4 


X 


X 


X 




X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


General Coffee 


50 


25 


25 


2 


X 


X 


X 




X 




X 








X 


George W. Carver 


16 












X 












X 


X 


X 


Georgia Veterans 


75 


75 


75 


2 


X 




X 






X 


X 






X 


X 


Gordonia Alatahama 


25 


25 


25 


1 


X 


X 




X 




X 


X 




X 


X 


X 


Hamburg 


30 












X 








X 






X 


X 


Hard Labor Creek 


105 


105 


105 


4 


X 


X 


X 




X X 




X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


Hart 


56 


56 


56 


X 


X 






X 






X 




X 




X 


High Falls 


108 


108 


108 


4 


X 


X 




X 


X 


X 






X 


X 


X 


Indian Springs 


125 


100 


100 


5 


X 


X 




X 


X 


X 


X 


X 




X 


X 


Jeff Davis 


35 




























X 


John Tanner 


60 


60 


60 


1 


X 


X 




X 




X 


X 








X 


Keg Creek 


15 






1 


X 






X 










X 


X 


X 


Kolomoki Mounds 


35 


35 


35 


1 


X 






X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


Laura S. Walker 


90 


90 


90 


3 


X 


X 




X 




X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


Lincoln 








1 








X 










X 


X 


X 


Little Ocmulgee 


65 


40 


40 


2 


X 


X 




X 


X 


X 


X 




X 


X 


X 


Magnolia Springs 


100 


75 


75 


2 


X 


X 


X 




X 


X 


X 


X 


X 




X 


Mistletoe 


70 


70 


70 


2 


X 






X 


X 


X 


X 




X 




X 


Moccasin Creek 


100 


75 


75 


2 


X 


X 
















X 


X 


Nancy Hart 






























X 


Panola 






























X 


Providence 


Red Top Mountain 


450 


187 


187 


3 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 








X 


Reed Bingham 


100 


60 


60 


2 


X 


X 


X 




X X 








X 


X 


X 


Reynoldsville 








1 






















X 


Richmond Hill 


50 


30 


30 


1 


X 


X 










X 






X 


X 


Seminole 


50 


50 


50 


2 


X 


X 




X 


X 




X 






X 


X 


Stephen C. Foster 


78 


78 


78 


2 


X 


X 




X 


X 


X 




X 




X 


X 


Tugaloo 


130 


130 


130 


4 


X 


X 




X 


X 


X 


X 




X 




X 


Victoria Bryant 


25 


25 


25 


1 


X 


X 




X 


X X 




X 




X 




X 


Vorel 


85 


85 


85 


2 


X 


X 


X 




X X 


X 






X 


X 


X 


Watson Mill 


















X 




X 






X 


X 


White Water 


30 


30 


30 


1 














X 








X 1 


Yam Grandy 


























X 


X 


X 



GEORGIA STATE PARKS 



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Special Features 



State Park 



X 


X 


X 


X 






X 




Museum 


Alexander H. Stephens 


X 


X 




X 




15 


X 






Amicalola Falls 












10 


X 






Black Rock Mountain 


















Gold panning, museum 


Bainbridge 


Blackburn 






X 


X 


X 








Pool 


Bobby Brown 






X 


X 


X 










Chebaw 
















X 




Chatuge 












5 








Cloudland Canyon 






X 


X 


X 


15 






Fishing pier & pool 


Crooked River 






X 


X 


X 


19 






Beach, museum 


Elijah Clark 






X 


X 


X 










Fairchild 




X 








15 


X 




Beach 


Fort Mountain 




X 


X 


X 










Tennis courts, beach & bathhouse, fort 


Fort Yargo 


X 






X 




12 






Pool 


Franklin D. Roosevelt 


General Cottee 






X 


X 


X 




X 




Beach w/bathhouse 


George W. Carver 




X 


X 


X 


X 


15 






Landing strip, museum 


Georgia Veterans 


X 


X 


X 


X 










Bathhouse & pool 


Gordonia Alatamahha 




X 


X 


X 




1 


X 




Museum 


Hamburg 




X 


X 


X 




10 






Beach w/bathhouse, horses w/stables, 
mini-bike trail 


Hard Labor Creek 






X 


X 


X 


5 


X 




Beach 


Hart 




X 


X 


X 










Beach & bathhouse 


High Falls 




X 


X 


X 




5 






Museum 


Indian Springs 


















Museum 


Jeff Davis 




X 


X 


X 




7 






Beach 


John Tanner 




X 




X 


X 




X 




Beach w/bathhouse 


Keg Creek 






X 


X 


X 








Pool, Indian mounds, museum 


Kolomoki Mounds 






X 


X 


X 








Pool 


Laura S. Walker 


! 














X 


Pool 


Lincoln 






X 


X 


X 


5 








Little Ocmulgee 






X 


X 


X 


5 






2 pools, fish hatchery 


Magnolia Springs 


X 




X 


X 


X 




X 




Beach 


Mistletoe 






X 


X 


X 




X 






Moccasin Creek 
















X 




Nancy Hart 


: 














X 




Panola 
















X 




Providence 






X 


X 


X 


10 


X 




Boat marina 


Red Top Mountain 






X 


X 


X 








Beach w/bathhouse, arboretum 


Reed Bingham 




X 


X 












(botanical garden) 


Reynoldsville 






X 












Located near Ft. McCallister 


Richmond Hill 






X 


X 


X 


10 








Seminole 






X 


X 




9 






Museum 


Stephen C. Foster 




X 


X 


X 


X 


10 


X 




Beach 


Tuqaloo 


















Pool, baseball memorial 


Victoria Bryant 








X 




25 


X 




Beach w/bathhouse, pavillion over water 


Voqel 














X 


X 


Largest covered bridge in Georgia 


Watson Mill 




X 


X 


X 












White Water Creek 
















X 


Pool, baseball diamond 


Yam Grandy 



Compiled by Suzanne Bass 



eral campsites operated by the Corps. 

Lake Allatoona, another Corps of 
Engineers lake, has two state parks, 
Red Top Mountain and George 
Washington Carver, in addition to 
ten camping areas maintained by the 
Corps. These campsites, scattered 
around the lake's edge, offer a per- 
fect location for all boating bugs. 
Old Highway 41 and Sweetwater 
Creek Recreation Areas have swim- 
ming beaches, and all campsites per- 
mit water skiing. 

The shore of Lake Lanier, the na- 
tion's most heavily used Corps of 
Engineers' lake, is sprinkled with 
campgrounds. Twenty-eight camping 
areas maintained by the Corps are 
havens for water skiers and skippers 
alike. Most of these areas are desig- 
nated as primitive camping areas 
with no facilities. Others, such as 
Shoal Creek camping area and Shady 
Grove Park, offer any kind of camp- 
ing you might choose. 

Water lovers will also find the per- 
fect remedy for camping fever in 
Georgia's Piedmont region. In most 
parks, private boats are allowed; boat 
ramps, docks, and rentals can be 
found in several parks. 

Clark Hill Lake, sharing its re- 
sources with 12 Corps of Engineers 
camping areas and 4 state parks, 
makes the most of its assets. The 
coves of Keg Creek and Mistletoe 
State Parks, near Appling, are bait 
for any fisherman. Bobby Brown 
State Park, near Elberton, and Elijah 
Clark, at Lincolnton, offer a full cal- 
endar of activities. Together they 
offer anything from biking to boat- 
ing, from miniature golf to museum 
exhibits. 

High Falls State Park, Jackson, 
and John Tanner State Park, near 
Carrolton, offer water sports galore. 
Newly-developed Hamburg State 
Park, near Mitchell, has centered its 
activities around a 225-acre lake. 

Alexander H. Stephens State Park, 
in Crawfordville, hosts a museum and 
Liberty Hall, restored home of the 
vice president of the Confederacy, as 
well as fishing, swimming, and group 
and pioneer camping. Facilities for 
the handicapped are available at 
Fort Yargo State Park, where a por- 
tion of the park, Will-A-Way, is spe- 
cially designed for them. A block- 
house, stili in good condition, stands 
as a reminder of the past. Fort Yargo 



offers water sports as well as minia- 
ture golf and a children's playground. 

Indian history has woven its way 
into several of middle Georgia's 
parks. Creek Indians of past cen- 
turies used the mineral spring which 
flows in Indian Springs State Park, 
near Jackson. Today, water enthusi- 
asts can enjoy a variety of water 
sports, and pioneer and group camp- 
ing in Indian Springs. 

Creek Indian legend extends into 
Franklin D. Roosevelt State Park, 
which is located around King's Gap, 
a famous Indian trail and one-time 
pioneer trading post. F. D. Roosevelt, 
near Pine Mountain, offers swimming, 
fishing, dream and fishing boat rent- 
als, miniature golf, and pioneer and 
group camping. Nearby are Callaway 
Gardens and Roosevelt's favorite 
summer home, Little White House. 

If Georgia's state parks can't quite 
quench your middle Georgia camp- 
ing thirst, try the Oconee National 
Forest. Encompassing about 100,000 
acres of rolling hill country, the for- 
est's Oconee River and Lake Sinclair, 
camping areas offer boating and fish- 
ing. In addition, swimming with a 
nearby beach and bathhouse is avail- 
able at Lake Sinclair campsite. 

All that remains of once prosperous 
Skull Shoals — ruins of Georgia's first 
paper mill, first cotton gin, and first 
textile factory — are within hiking dis- 
tance from the Oconee River camp- 
site. 

In the coastal plains, several state 
parks are rich in history and heritage. 
Varied outdoor recreation opportuni- 
ties are offered throughout the area. 

Magnolia Springs State Park, where 
springs fill a beautiful pond and pro- 
vide clear water for boating, fishing 
and swimming, is located near Millen 
where Fort Lawton, a confederate 
prison camp, once stood. Indian his- 
tory still haunts Reed Bingham State 
Park, near Adel, where today the 
camper can roam its lake and hike 
its nature trails. 

Richest in Indian history is Kolo- 
moki Mounds State Park, where 
mounds have been set aside as na- 
tional landmarks and excavations in- 
dicate Indian occupancy as early as 
800 A.D. Kolomoki Mounds State 
Park, near Blakely, has everything 
from hiking to water sports, reserved 
shelters, a museum and all types of 
camping. 

Several of south Georgia's parks 



are located on major lakes. Lai 
Blackshear, whose shores host tl 
Georgia Veterans Memorial Sta 
Park, near Cordcle, is a favorite i 
the fisherman or any waterlover, ar 
offers everything imaginable for tl 
water enthusiast. And for the lam 
lubber, there is miniature golf, tenni 
picnicking, and even an airplane lam 
ing strip for flying bugs. 

Chehaw State Park, near Alban 
offers fishing and boating, as well ; 
miniature golf for the family. Lik 
wise, Little Omulgee, near McRa 
offer a full calendar of activities ii 
eluding a golf course and tenni 
hiking, water sports, and grov 
camping. Both are former Indie 
hunting grounds. 

A special park for the naturalist 
Gordonia Alatamaha State Park, : 
Reidsville. This park, named for tl 
plant which was originally fouri 
along the Altamaha River, offe 
swimming and fishing, as well as pi< 
neer camping. Crooked River Sta 
Park, near Kingsland, offers wat< 
sports and an extra advantage in i 
coastal neighbors, Jekyll Island ar 
the Golden Isles. 

Near the Okefenokee Swamp a 
two state parks, Stephen C. Foste 
near Fargo and Laura S. Walke 
near Waycross. For wildlife enth 
siasts, these are two state parks whi' 
hold extra appeal. Laura S. Walk 
offers pioneer and group campir j 
miniature golf, and various wa1 ! 
sports. Stephen C. Foster offers mu 
the same agenda, adding a musei ' 
exhibit. 

Lake Seminole, boasting some 3 
the South's best fishing, hosts fi' 
Corps of Engineers camping are i 
and two state parks. Seminole St; t 
Park offers pioneer camping, a cr \ 
dren's playground and of course, go ) 
fishing. Campsites maintained by 1 } 
Corps of Engineers offer anythi i 
from fishing to bait and suppli ' 
from water skiing to beach and ba 1 
house. This lake is a favorite (\ 
families. 

Camping on Lake Walter 1 
George, near the Alabama line, 
available at White Oak camps tl 
Cotton Hill camping area will < % 
camping facilities in summer '73. 

There are as many places to ca 
and things to do as there are mo k 
of camping. So the next time I" 
camping bug bites you, try Georg i 
cure. It works every time! 



Midlife 
Profiles: 





JLargemouth )Joass 



\ y Aaron Pass 

i rt by Liz Carmichael Jones 

The Largemouth Bass (Micropterus 

\i Imoides) is the undoubted and un- 
I ;puted king of Georgia fishing. 
j )ing under a wide variety of aliases, 
a :h as green bass, green trout, 
P wego bass and black bass, the 
r a gemouth has had as much effect on 
f )rt angling in America as any other 
! s i due to his popularity and wide 
i tribution. The original range of 
largemouth was from southeast- 
Canada south to Florida and west 
u lusive of the Mississippi drainage. 
[< Id in high regard by most anglers, 
i >emouth bass have been trans- 
it nted west to such an extent that 
Is ribution is now virtually nation- 
It e. 

Tie largemouth is the largest mem- 
'i of the ubiquitous sunfish family 
h ch includes the breams. The large - 
■0 ith grows much larger than the 
'h t sunfish, with the world record 
Ji g 22V4 lbs., and 10-15 lb. fish 
|t uncommon. This large gamefish is 
'u dry attired in various shades of 
(p n with a dark lateral band running 
| ength of the body. Key distingu- 
|i g features of this species are a 
lg- mouth extending back well be- 



yond the eye, a separated dorsal fin 
and an absence of scales at the base of 
the soft dorsal fin. 

The largemouth's habitat prefer- 
ence is not unlike his smaller cousins: 
relatively shallow, weedy waters are 
preferred due to abundant food and 
protective cover. The bass move to 
deeper waters when hot weather or 
heavy disturbance makes the shallows 
intolerable. 

Found in almost all clean water- 
ways in the state, the largemouth is 
most often found in still water. Farm 
ponds and large reservoirs both pro- 
duce largemouth bass as do the ox- 
bow lakes and sloughs in south Geor- 
gia river swamps. The main in- 
gredients necessary for bass are 
forage, cover, and a place to spawn. 

Largemouth bass spawn in late 
spring when the water approaches 
60-70° F. and spawning occurs in 
nests in shallow water. The male bass 
sweeps clean a depression about 20 
inches in diameter and attempts to 
lure a female to the spawning bed. The 
female may lay only a few hundred 
eggs at one time but she, or other 
females, may utilize the same nest 
repeatedly. The eggs are sticky and 
adhere to the bottom. The male stays 
near the nest until the eggs hatch 
(usually about a week, depending on 



water temperature) and continues to 
guard the young fish (fry) for a short 
time. 

These fry remain in a school until 
they are about an inch long, then 
they disperse and forage for them- 
selves. The juvenile bass begin feed- 
ing on zooplankton and progress to 
small insects and crustaceans as they 
grow. An adult bass seeks meatier 
morsels and may dine on large crus- 
taceans, frogs, small fish and even 
small mammals if the opportunity 
presents itself. 

The largemouth is popular as a 
sport fish and has been so for a long 
time. Anglers have always sought a 
new and better way to catch the ag- 
gressive largemouth. Legend has it 
that a Kentucky watchmaker designed 
the first bait casting reel to catch bass 
which were beyond the reach of con- 
ventional tackle of the mid-1800*s. 
New and revolutionary lures have 
come and gone and the bass has 
grown more wily and the bass fish- 
erman more ingenious. It is this ap- 
parent intelligence that makes the 
bass such a challenging game fish. 
True, a bass will give an aggressive 
battle climaxed with head shaking 
leaps, but it is the fickle cunning of 
the largemouth which makes him a 
true fisherman's challenge. 



All; 



Agayor. 



We give you now Professor Twist 
A conscientious scientist. 
Trustees exclaimed 
He never bungles, 

And sent him off to distant jungles; 
Camped on a tropic river side, 
One day he missed his loving bride. 
She had, the guide informed him later, 
Been eaten by an alligator. 
Professor Twist could not but smile 
You mean, he said, a crocodile. 

"The Purist" by Ogden Nash 



By Allen R. Coggins 

The American Alligator (Alligator 
mississipensis) once was found 
throughout the southeastern United 
States and up the Mississippi River 
Valley. But like so many other crit- 
ters, the alligator has found it hard 
to adapt to the changes which man 
has brought about in its environment. 
Only in those few areas of suitable 
habitat which man has not yet 
changed has the gator managed to 
survive. Unfortunately, we humans 
are still encroaching upon those few 
remaining unspoiled dwelling places 
of the alligator. 

More devastating than the reduc- 
tion of suitable habitat has been man's 
active pursuit of the gator's valuable 
hide. Federal and State legislation 
aimed at protecting the species has 
helped considerably, and many of the 
once dwindling populations are com- 
ing back. If man acts quickly enough 
to recognize the importance of this 
species, and sets aside adequate hab- 
itat, it may have a chance. 




Photo by Bob Wilson 

The alligator belongs to a group of 
related animals collectively known as 
the Crocodillians (Order Crocodilia). 
This group also includes the croco- 
diles, the caimans of Central and 
South America and the gavials of 
India. 

The alligator has a broader snout 
and body than his cousin the croco- 
dile, and he lacks its sinister, closed- 
mouth smile. In contrast to the 
crocodile, the gator's teeth are cov- 
ered by his lips. The teeth are in 
sockets and grow back readily if 
knocked out. Alligators are generally 
black on top and creamy tan under- 
neath. The young may have light 
markings which fade as they mature. 

The alligator is the largest reptile 
in North America, and he is well 
adapted to his amphibious habitat. 



Underneath his dry, leathery skin ; t 
boney plates which give him a for r 
idable coat of armor. 

His favorite haunts are rr t 
swamps, lakes, marshes and bayo i 
He is often seen basking himself i 
the sun for hours at a time wl il 
waiting to pounce upon some uns I] 
pecting prey. His prey consists < 
just about anything in the way < 
meat, but he is especially partial I 
birds, fish, raccoons, rabbits and ot 
tasty mammal morsels. 

Males range from 8 to 10 feet 
length, with females being sligl t 
smaller. Prior to the turn of the c i 
tury, 20 foot gators were not uncc n 
mon with the average being probs ) 
around 14 feet or so. Most of thtj 
big fellows are gone now, but he* 
fully today's protected 10 footers ' 




bi come tomorrow's 20 footers. Males 

f iy weigh up to five hundred pounds 

iviile females seldom exceed 300 

x unds. The average life span is 

k nething on the order of 50 to 60 

£ irs, but the old 20 footers may live 

K isiderably longer. 

, The gator's hearing is comparable 

p that of humans. Its ears are locat- 

f on his head and are equipped with 

a 3s of skin which close off the ear 

a ials when he is submerged. His 

c .trils are equipped with similar 

a»s, as is his throat. This makes it 

o sible for the gator to open his 

k uth under water without strangling. 

■lis eyes are quite interesting, in 

they have two types of protective 

1 erings. The eyes protrude above 

£ animal's head, but can be dropped 

n into protective boney sockets if 



Photo by Art Rouschenberg 

danger threatens. The top set of eye 
lids are leathery and open up and 
down in much the same way as ours 
do. The underlying lid, called a 
nictitating membrane, is transparent 
and moves vertically. Some birds 
have a similar membrane which ap- 
parently protects their eyes from wind 
during flight. The nictitating mem- 
brane in the gator protects its eyes 
underwater. 

A man could easily hold even a 
good sized gator's mouth closed with 
one hand, but it would take much 
more effort to keep the jaws open. 
The jaws have thirty to forty formid- 
able teeth and since the gator's food 
is gulped in large chunks, the teeth 
are used primarily to tear ard crush 
prey. 

The alligator has an equally pow- 



erful weapon on the other end of his 
body — his tail. This very muscular 
structure has an impact comparable 
to that of a hundred pound sledge 
hammer. Reptile reflexes are rela- 
tively slow in comparison to that of 
mammals, but given the advantage of 
surprise, the gator is very adept at de- 
fending himself or procuring living 
food on the hoof. 

Prehistoric reptiles, called The- 
codonts, first appeared in early Trias- 
sic times, about 225 million years 
ago. Thecodonts were relatively small 
animals, overshadowed by their mam- 
mal-like reptile neighbors. They even- 
tually gave rise to the now extinct 
flying reptiles and dinosaurs, and the 
crocodillians. The latter group has al- 
ways been specialized, semi-aquatic 
carnivores (meat eaters). As the only 
surviving descendants of the Theco- 
donts, the aliigators and crocodiles 
are the closest living relatives of the 
dinosaurs. 

The survival of the crocodillians 
has probably been due to their con- 
tinuous occupation of swampy habi- 
tats, similar to those in which they 
evolved hundreds of millions of years 
ago. Their survival is also due to their 
ability to withstand long periods with 
little or no food, and to the fact that 
they are opportunists. They will eat 
almost any animal material, living or 
dead. 

Not only have they remained in 
swamp habitats, but they are partially 
responsible for having kept it in eco- 
logical balance for these many mil- 
lions of years. They prey on rough 
fish, turtles and other forms of life 
which, if not kept in check, would 
soon take over the swamp and change 
it drastically. Were it not for the alli- 
gators, other species would run ram- 
pant. This would probably have a 
detrimental effect upon the entire 
ecology of the swamp. 

Gator wallow holes are natural 
reservoirs in times of drought. Many 
species of plants and animals are de- 
pendent upon these pools of water for 
survival during the long hot summer. 
Their constant movement along water 
ways (natural drainage ways in the 
swamp) assures the free flow of water, 
thus lessening problems of flooding 
during periods of heavy rain. If the 
gators didn't keep the water ways 
open, plants would soon encroach 
upon them and close them for good. 

The alligators have a slight advan- 




This gator nest, which is 
composed of decaying 
vegetation, is built just 
above the water table, 
and the female buries her 
eggs in its top. Capillary 
action will draw moisture 
upward toward the 
warming sun and this, plus 
the heat of decomposition 
of the nest material, will 
incubate the eggs. 



Photo by Fred K. Parrish 

tage over other reptiles. They have a 
baffle plate in their heart which as- 
sures a flow of fresher blood through 
their systems with a consequent larg- 
er oxygen supply, food supply, and 
higher waste removal capacity. 

The amphibians and most other 
reptiles have three-chambered hearts, 
which causes unoxygenated "bad" 
blood to mix with the oxygenated 
"good" blood. This is a relatively 
poor system in comparison to that of 
the warm blooded birds and mammals 
which have four-chambered hearts. 
A four-chambered heart means that 
good and bad blood will not mix. 
The alligator is fortunate in that this 
special dividing plate in his heart 
cuts down on most of the mixing 
which would make him a more slug- 
gish animal. 

The Thecodont, ancient ancestor 
of the alligator, gave rise to the dino- 
saurs and flying reptiles. The dino- 
saurs had three-chambered hearts, 
the birds have developed four-cham- 
bered hearts, and the old gator is 
halfway in between. It is good that 
evolution chose to make him a rep- 
tile. In respect to his heart and circu- 
latory system, he has made a good 
reptile, but he would have made a 
lousy bird. 

The alligators are scavengers. They 

ck in up large and small carcasses 

which would normally take a longer 

time to decay and return to dust as 

5. This job could be done en- 

and buzzards, but it 

r. Were the gators 

uild be more flies 



and other scavenger species which 
would throw off the ecological bal- 
ance of the swamp. Such an ecologi- 
cal change would have far-reaching 
effects. The increased fly population 
could conceivably cause an increase 
in the spread of disease in humans 
and other animals in and around the 
swamp. 

The home range of alligators may 
vary considerably. The female's terri- 
tory may be from five to forty acres 
depending upon the availability of 
food, number of individuals in the 
area, time of year and individual 
preference. During the time that the 
female is guarding her nest, her terri- 
tory is much smaller. The males have 
been known to travel great distances, 
as much as twenty miles, in search 
of mates. 

April and May is the mating sea- 
son for gators. During this time the 
bulls can be heard for many miles 
across the swamp as they bellow out 
their sweet love chants. This may be 
beautiful music — to other gators, but 
to us mammals, it's rather eerie. The 
bellows have another significance — 
they are territorial cries. They mean 
in no uncertain terms, "keep out of 
my territory, or else." All too often, 
the warnings go unheeded and two 
bulls collide in full combat. The win- 
ner takes the territory and the lady 
while the defeated meekly slithers 
away in search of another mate. 

There is a second method of at- 
tracting a mate which involves power- 
ful glands located under the neck and 
in the cloaca. The cloaca is a pouch 



located between the hind legs. Th 
glands secrete a scent which is d( 
tectible by the female for many mile: 

Once mating has taken place, th 
female begins the difficult task c 
constructing a nest in which to inci 
bate her eggs. The nest is general! 
two to three feet high and up to seve 
feet in diameter. It is composed ( 
dry grasses, peat moss, sticks an 
other dead vegetation. She builds h( 
nest on high ground to avoid floodinj 
The materials are packed firmly int 
place as she crawls back and fort 
across the nest. 

About a month or so after matin] 
the female digs a hole in the top ( 
her nest mound and deposits h( 
eggs. 

Unlike snake eggs which are ql 
long and leathery, gator eggs resembl 
chicken or goose eggs and are har 
shelled. Sometimes two or more f< 
males lay in the same nest, thus cau 
ing confusion as to how many eg} 
are contained in a clutch. It is no 
known that the clutch may vary fro 
30 to 50 eggs, but generally averag 
about three dozen. 

After the female has laid her egg 
she remains nearby to guard ther 
They will take 65 to 85 days to hate 
Raccoons, skunks, snakes, bears ai 
many other animals relish gator egg 
but the female is well equipped at 
ill tempered enough to handle almo 
any marauder. 

The natural decomposition of ti 
vegetation within the nest produc: 
some heat. But, it is primarily 1 1 
heat of the sun which incubates ti 
eggs. This is accomplished by din : 
sunlight and by evaporation from t i 
vegetation. The nest is construct 
just above the water table and J 
water rises by capillary action t ) 
resultant steam heats the eggs. Du 
ing the night this heat is held by 1 1 
vegetation. The eggs themselves i i 
also known to produce some heat. 

Should the nest dry out, the fern 1 
will leave the water to climb acr< 
it. Water from her body and fni 
pouches in her mouth moistens it. 

As a young gator forms inside 9 
egg, much of the calcium of its sr : 
is absorbed to make bone cells. A 
result, the shell thins making it eas t 
for the gators to break through i. t 
the outside world when the time 
right. 

As the young hatch, they ui < 
rather high keyed clucking sour! 



Vhen their mother hears this, she 
limbs up onto the nest and digs them 
lit, Once all of the viable eggs have 
latched, the mother gator grunts an 
ige-old beckoning and her "gator- 
ings ' follow her into the water. 

The young gators are as vulnerable 
fter they hatch as they were before, 
^fter hatching, they have a new crop 
»f enemies which include fish, birds 
nd other gators. 

At birth, the young resemble adult 
ators except for their length which 
§ about 9 inches and the light colored 
tripes or bands on their bodies. They 
/ill not feed for at least two or three 
/eeks after hatching since their stom- 
chs will still contain yolk. When 
ley finally do start eating, their diet 
'ill consist of insects, small fish, cru- 

aceans and about anything else they 
ian sneak up on, outrun or over- 
ower. 

Young gators grow about one foot 

;r year until they reach sexual ma- 

irity. This will generally take about 

i x years. Growth slows after this 

: Dint is reached. 



There is some difference of opinion 
among the experts as to how long a 
mother gator will stay with her newly 
hatched young. It appears that some 
don't stay around at all, while others 
may remain for up to a year. Ma- 
ternal behavior appears to be a heridi- 
tary response. Both types of behavior 
have their advantages and disadvan- 
tages. If the adult gator remains to 
watch over her young, the young have 
a better chance of survival. Her young 
females will also mature into protec- 
tive females giving their young more 
of a chance of survival. On the other 
hand, in staying with her young for 
a long period of time, the mother 
gator becomes easy pickings for 
poachers. This was more of a prob- 
lem before Federal and State legis- 
lation curtailed most poaching. If the 
female is killed, her young stand no 
more of a chance of survival than 
they would had she left them. 

Nonprotective females leave their 
young to fend for themselves. The 
young have less of a chance of sur- 
vival, but their mother has a greater 



\ 'atemal instinct in the crocodillians is teamed behavior. Here a female guards two of her 
tlnerable young; female young who survive also will display protective behavior. These 
' ■atorlings" will lose their light colored bands as they grow toward maturity. 

■ 



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chance to produce other broods. It 
may be that both methods are equally 
effective. In any case, the chances 
that a hatched gator will live to sex- 
ual maturial is about one in 30. 

The American Alligator is an en- 
dangered species, but with a little 
help from man, it now has a chance 
to reinvade a few of its old haunts. 
The last sure stronghold of the alli- 
gator is the Okefenokec Swamp in 
southeastern Georgia. The gator's ex- 
istence is threatened in the Florida 
Everglades due to commercial inter- 
est and a dangerously fluctuating 
water table. It is also threatened in 
Louisiana by the oil industry, by seep- 
age of salt water into the swamps, 
and more recently by open seasons 
on the animal. The waters of the 
Okefenokee are unpolluted and rise 
entirely within the swamp. This area 
is also ownecTand protected by the 
federal government. Therefore, the 
American Alligator will grow and 
flourish there for as long as man sees 
fit to protect this, one of his most 
interesting fellow creatures. 



Pho.o by Bob Wilson 



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■ -. - '. ' . • • 



T E N N. 



N. C /UK. 



Lake Chat uge 



• ATLANTA 



Tugaloo Lake 
Yonah Lake 


' N \~ 


W 




Harlwelllake 


a- 




Clark Hill lake 



AUGUSTA • 



-J 



Baillells Ferry lake 
Goat Rock Lake 
Lake Oliver 

• COLUMBUS 




F L O R I D A 



eciproc'ity 



"Mutual dependence, cooperation" 

Webster's 
'The term is used in international 
law to denote the relation existing 
between two states when each of 
them gives the subjects of the other 
certain privileges, on condition that 
its own subjects shall enjoy similar 
privileges at the hands of the latter 
state." 

Black's Law Dictionary 

T. Craig Martin 



Although few Georgia fishermen 
i /e much reason to be interested in 
i international recriprocal agree- 
n nts between "states," many of our 
i;lers make frequent use of similar 
% eements between our state and 
[ se that border us. 

A series of rather complex treaties 
l itles Georgia citizens to use por- 
p is of border waters that actually 
:'( within the confines of neighbor- 

! states. Under these agreements 
r citizens gain "reciprocal" rights, 
is, they can use our share of 
fe e streams and lakes. 
< >ccasionally, however, anglers mis- 
»;cerstand or misinterpret the terms 
I hese agreements and the ensuing 
jc fict leaves no one happy. 

o help avoid such conflicts, Out- 
c 's in Georgia provides this sum- 
iju y of the rights Georgians enjoy 
K _>r the reciprocal fishing agree- 
m ts now in effect between Georgia 
aJ her neighbors. In our July issue, 
I will discuss similar agreements 
W* ring boating and the new Georgia 
bj ing laws passed by the State Leg- 
ist ire. 

l\i BAMA 

f e agreements with our neighbor 

ie west include impoundments 

he Chattahoochee River that 

m i its way between the states. The 

H< " lakes included are Walter F. 



George, Bartlett's Ferry, Goat Rock, 
Oliver, Seminole, and Columbia. 

Georgians may sportsfish (also hunt 
waterfowl) on any portion of these 
impoundments, but not in tributary 
streams within Alabama borders. 
They may fish from either bank. They 
must hold valid resident licenses; 
Georgia visitors holding non-resident 
licenses are not covered under these 
agreements. No license is needed by 
fishermen under 16. 

The creel and possession limits on 
these waters are the same as on Geor- 
gia waters, although there is a limit 
of 50 yellow perch (Georgia has no 
specific limit on these, fish although 
the aggregate limit includes them). 

FLORIDA 

Two agreements govern Georgians 
fishing in Florida waters. One allows 
them to fish in any section of Lake 
Seminole, another covers the St. 
Mary's River. Neither of these agree- 
ments covers tributary streams. 

Creel limits and other regulations 
on the Florida portion of Lake Semi- 
nole are the same as those on the 
Georgia portion. 

The St. Mary's agreement covers 
sportsfishing only, and embodies 
slightly different creel limits: 70 
bream (50 is the current Georgia 
limit), 40 crappie (50 in Georgia), 
15 pike (not covered in Georgia's 



regulations), and 30 yellow perch 
(not specifically covered in Georgia's 
regulations). 

A legal Georgia license is the only 
permit required under either agree- 
ment. 

NORTH CAROLINA 

Our agreement with North Caro- 
lina covers only the portion of Lake 
Chatuge located in Clay County, 
N.C. A properly licensed Georgian 
may fish with rod and reel or hook 
and line in this portion of the lake, 
but he may not fish from a boat that 
is anchored to the North Carolina 
shore, and he cannot fish from that 
shore. 

Georgians are governed by Georgia 
creel and possession limits on all of 
Lake Chatuge. 

SOUTH CAROLINA 

This agreement covers the Chat- 
tooga, Tugaloo, and Savannah Rivers 
and their impoundments. Properly 
licensed Georgia fishermen have ac- 
cess to all portions of these waters 
(excluding Carolina tributaries), but 
they must abide by South Carolina's 
regulations while fishing in her waters. 

One major difference between 
Georgia and South Carolina law is 
that they require fishermen 12 years 
of age and older to have a license, 
while we set the limit at 16. So Geor- 
gians 12 and older must get Georgia 
licenses before venturing into South 
Carolina waters. Another South 
Carolina regulation prohibits the pos- 
session of a rifle while on the water, 
and firing one within 100 yards of an 
impoundment. 

Creel limits vary also. In their 
waters one may catch 10 trout of any 
species (8 in Georgia); 10 bass of any 
kind, including not more than 2 
striped bass (Georgia allows 15 black 
bass and 5 stripers); and 30 of all 
other species, including bream, white 
bass, crappie, etc, (Georgia allows 
50 bream and crappie, 30 white bass, 
etc.). Their total possession limit is 
40, ours is 50. 

Enforcement of creel and posses- 
sion limits on these and other inter- 
state waters is somewhat sporadic, but 
the limits can be enforced. In the 
interest of sportsmanship and conser- 
vation, Georgia anglers should abide 
by the lower limits wherever they 
fish. 



E io w to Make Spinners 




Spinner making equipment isn't elaborate. Two pairs of pliers are the only devices needed. The 
types of beads, blades, bodies, clevises, hair and hooks to be used are a matter of personal choice. 

By Mike Sawyers 

Photos by the Author 



Fly fishermen have long known the advan- 
tages of "tieing their own." While spinner mak- 
ing isn't as widely practiced as fly tieing, it offers 
the same advantages. 

Home-made spinners are inexpensive to cre- 
ate and the individual angler can add a little 
something here and there that he feels will make 
the lure more attractive to the fish. 

You don't need a machine shop to start 
spinner production. Once you acquire the 
needed parts, two sets of pliers will put you in 
the spinner making business. One pair of these 
pliers should have edges for wire cutting. It is 
possible, however, to purchase a manually op- 
erated mechanical device to help put the finish- 
ing twists on your spinners. 

A variety of mail order catalogues offer 

pages of beads, swivels, clevises, wire, blades, 

bodies and other parts for making spinners and 

ires. These parts come in various finishes 

or you can paint them the desired color. 

An easy way to start is to take a look at your 
worite factory-made spinner. List the parts 



you see and order similar ones from one of I 
suppliers. Though most commercial spinn 
come in pre-established weights such as o«i 
sixteenth or one-eighth of an ounce, you <; 
make spinners of any weight by varying I 
types of bodies you use. That way, you v 
have lures suitable for every depth of wal; 
Additional weight, which often disturbs I 
lure's action will be unnecessary. 

The initial outlay of cash is usually not i 
great with spinner making as with fly tiei 1 
There just isn't as much equipment needed. i 
with fly tieing, once you get into producti i 
the cost per finished spinner will continue 
decrease. 

The pleasure of landing a fish on a creat ( 
of your own is just as evident with spinners 
with flies. And, because the cost per spinne 
low, it won't be such a traumatic experie a< 
when you have to leave one of the lures dangl i 
from a branch on the other side of the rivei < 
attached to a log at the bottom of the lake. 





••-^^r^--.-?' 




piece of wire about twice the length of the finished product 
'ows you more leverage for making the loops and wraps at 
ch end of the spinner. A wire with a diameter of .018 or .020 
strong enough for most types of fishing. 



Once the treble hook is slipped onto the wire, the initial wraps 
can be made around the shaft. Spring steel wire which is heavily 
tin-plated is the best wire for spinner making since it comes off 
the coil in straight pieces and requires no additional 
straightening. ^ . 





/ i combination of bodies and beads can be varied to please 
< ividual taste. The angler can change the weight and the color 
he spinners by the type of parts he uses. 




Next comes the most important part of the spinner. The clevis 
is a small loop that fits on the shaft and holds the spinner blade. 
Although some spinners will work without a clevis, most types 
require a clevis to achieve the proper action. 






'& 





P if of needlenose pliers will help make the finishing loop a 
Vi le process. One twist around the needlenose and then a 
'". or two around the wire shaft and the spinner is nearly 
W ed. 



The remaining wire is snipped off with the wire (Utters and the 
spinner is ready for use. Natural or < olored squirrel or deer hair 
can be added to the hook as an attraetor. 



Cat citing fish, such as these brown 
trout, on your own creation is a 
real treat. 




Sportsman's 
Calendar 



FISHING REGULATIONS 

LICENSE REQUIREMENTS 

All fishermen 16 years of age or older in the State of 
Georgia are required to have a valid current State fishing 
license in their possession while fishing in fresh water, with 
the exception of landowners and members of their immedi- 
ate family who may fish without a license on their own 
property. No license is required for fishing in saltwater. 

Residents 65 years of age, or over, blind persons, and 
totally disabled veterans may obtain a permanent honorary 
fishing license free of charge by personal or mail application 
to the Game and Fish Division's office in Atlanta. 

LICENSE FEES 

Resident Fishing License $3.25 

Resident Combination Hunting and Fishing . . 7.25 

Non-Resident Fishing (5 day trip) 3.25 

Non-Resident Season Fishing License .... 10.25 

SEASONS 

All streams, lakes, and ponds of Georgia are open to fish- 
ing through the entire year with the exception of the moun- 
tain trout waters of North Georgia. See trout regulations for 
details. Sunday fishing is allowed. 

DAILY CREEL LIMITS 

Bream (Bluegill, Red Breast, 

and other species of Bream) 50 

rappie 50 

White Bass 30 

irgemouth Black Bass, Smallmouth Bass, Red- 

and Spotted Bass or Kentucky Bass 1 5 

Striped Bass or Rock Fish 5 

White-striped Bass Hybrid 10 

Chain Pickerel or Jack 15 



Brook or Speckled Trout, Rainbow Trout 

and Brown Trout 

White Shad, Hickory Shad 

Sauger, Walleye 

Muskelunge 

Channel Catfish No 

Flathead Catfish No 

POSSESSION LIMITS 



2 

Lin 

Lin 



It is unlawful for any person to possess at any one ti 
more than 50 fish in the aggregate (total) of all spec 
named, except channel and flathead catfish. No more tr 
a total of 15 largemouth, smallmouth, redeye or spot 
bass can be possessed. No more than 8 trout of any or 
species can be possessed at any time. 

SPECIAL POSSESSION LIMITS 

There will be a special creel limit of 25 warmouth, bre 
or sunfish taken from the Suwannee River and the O 
fenokee Swamp. On Lake Blue Ridge there will be a cr 
limit of 15 walleye. 

SIZE LIMITS 

There is a minimum size limit of twelve (12) inches i 
largemouth bass on all public waters in this State. It is a v 
lation of this regulation to take or have in possession lar: 
mouth bass less than 12" in length, taken from pull 
waters. 

There is a minimum size limit of 12 inches on all red ] 
bass taken from the Flint River. 

There is a minimum size limit of fifteen (15) inches < 
striped bass (rock fish) in all waters (fresh and salt) of 
State. It shall be a violation of this regulation to pos:; 
striped bass less than 15" in length, taken from these wat i 

GENERAL TROUT REGULATIONS 

CREEL LIMITS 

Eight (8) trout per day (regardless of species) exc i 
as otherwise provided in Special Regulations. Posses; i 
limit eight (8) trout (regardless of species). 

FISHING HOURS 

Fishing on trout streams open during the regular s a 
trout season (March 31 -October 6) will be permitted f i 3 
30 minutes before sunrise until 30 minutes after sunset. > 
night fishing on these streams is permitted. Trout fist ii 
at night is permitted on all impoundments except Docl - 
Lake, Rock Creek Lake, and Edmundson Pond, where : s 
ing is permitted from 30 minutes before sunrise until 
minutes after sunset. Night fishing is permitted on "y '<■ 
round" trout streams. 



FISHING METHODS 

1. Fishermen may take trout only with rod and line. 
>out fishermen are restricted to the use of one rod and line 
nd it must be held in hand. 

2. Live bait-fish May Not be used in ANY trout stream 
i ths state. Seining of bait fish is not allowed in any trout 
trean. 

3. Trotlines. set hooks, jugs, nets, and bows and arrows 
re prohibited lor fishing in all trout streams. 

4. On those streams designated for "artificials only," 
•nly artificial lures may be used. It is illegal for anyone 
shing an "artificial only" stream to have any bait other 
lan artificial bait in his possession. 

Artificial bait as used in these regulations shall mean 
any bait which is man-made, in imitation of or as a 
substitute for natural bait, and shall include artificial 
flies. NOT included and expressly prohibited are fish 
eggs, corn, or chemically treated or processed foods. 

5. While fishing specially regulated waters with a mini- 
lum size limit, it will constitute a violation to possess trout 
f less than the specified minimum size. 

TRIBUTARIES CLOSED 

AH tributary streams to Lake Lanier, except the Chatta- 
oochee and Chestatee Rivers, to Lake Hartwell, except the 
ugaloo River, and to Lake Clark Hill, except the Savan- 
ah, Broad, and Little Rivers, are closed to fishing for a 

. istance of three (3) miles upstream from backwater from 

I 'ecember 1 to April 1 of each year. 

MINIMUM SIZE LIMIT 

Lakes Lanier, Hartwell, Clark Hill, Burton, Rabun, Seed, 
] allulah Falls, and Blue Ridge shall have a minimum size 

nit of 14 inches on all species of trout from December 1 
t > April 1 of each year. 

TROUT STAMP 

A current state trout stamp affixed to the back of a valid 
s ate fishing license is required to catch and possess trout. 
( >ee License Requirements — elsewhere in this brochure.) 

The trout stamp is required to fish in those lakes where 
; 3ut are the only or the predominant species. These lakes 
a e Dockery Lake, Amicalola Lake, Lake Trahlyta, Unicoi 
t ike, Rock Creek Lake, and Edmundson Pond. 
1 On all other lakes or reservoirs where trout are present, 

e trout stamp is required only if trout are in possession 

the fisherman. 




CLOSED STREAMS 

The following streams will be closed for renovation and 
restocking during the 1973 trout season: 
Chattahoochee River 

(Upstream from Henson Creek) . Chattahoochee WMA 

Dick's Creek Lake Burton WMA 

Tuckaluge Creek Warwoman WMA 

Coleman River 

(Upstream from USFS 

bridge #54) Coleman River WMA 

Mill Creek Coleman River WMA 

Tate Branch Coleman River WMA 

Mill Creek on Blue Ridge WMA is permanently closed to 
fishing (water supply for Chattahoochee Forest National 
Fish Hatchery). 

MANAGED STREAM SCHEDULE 

Honogtmm. 

At* q Stream J une July Auguit September 

BLUE RIDGE Jones Creek Sat, Sun. Sot.. Sun. Sat ., Sun. Sat.. Sept. 1 

Wed 4th Sun., Sept 2 

Mon., Sept. 3 

Montgomery Sat., Sun. Sot., Sun. Sat., Sun. Sot., Sept. 1 

Wed , Thu. Wed , Thu. Wed . Thu. Sun.. Sept 2 

Mon., Sept 3 

Nimblewill Sat., Sun. Sal, Sun. Sat., Sun. Sat., Sept. 1 

Wed 4th Sun., Sept 2 

Mon., Sept. 3 

Noontoofley Every Day Every Day Every Day Sot., Sept. 1 

Sun , Sept 2 

Mon., Sept. 3 

Ruck Creek w,j.!h, Sot., Sun Sat. Sept 1 

Sot . Sun Sat, Sun. Wed, Thu. Sun, Sept 2 

Wed , Thu Mon . Sept. 3 

CHATTAHOOCHEE Chattahoochee Sat . Sun. Ssu»rSun. Sat.. Sun Sol, Sept. 1 

Wed. Wed. 4th Sun., Sept 2 

Mon , Sept 3 

Dukes Sat., Sun. Sat , Sun. Sat., Sun. Sat., Sept. 1 

Wed , Thu Wed , Thu. Wed, Thu. Sun., Sept 2 

Mon , Sept 3 

CHESTATEE tk.q.ii Sat, Sun. Sot, Sun. Sot . Sun Sot . Sept. 1 

Wed , Thu Wed ., Thu. Wed, Thu. Sun, Sept 2 

Mon., Sept. 3 

DicV, Sot., Sun. Wed, Thu. Sot. Sun. Sot, Sept. 1 

Sot , Sun. Sun , Sept 2 

Mon.. Sept. 3 

Waters Sat., Sun. Sat., Sun. Sat., Sun. Sat., Sept. 1 

Wed 4th Sun.. Sept. 2 

Mon., Sept 3 

LAKE BURTON Moccasin ~ Sot . Sun. Sal., Sun Sat . Sun Sot . Sept 1 

Wed , Thu Wed. Thu. Wed, Thu. Sun, Sept 2 

Mon., Sept. 3 

Wildcat Sot , Sun. Sot , Su. . Sat., Sept. 1 

Sol , Sun Wed 4th Sun., Sept 2 

Mon., Sept 3 

LAKE RUSSELL M.ddle Brood Sol , Sun. Sot . Sun Sat, Sun. Sot . Sept. 1 

Wed Wed Wed Sun., Sept 2 

Mon., Sept. 3 
WARWOMAN Finney Sat., Sun. Wed . Thu Sal , Sun. Sot , Sept I 

Sun , Sept 2 

Mon., Sept. 3 

Sarahs Sat, Sun. Wed, Thu. Sat, Sun. Sat, Sept I 

Sun . Sept 2 

Mon., Sept. 3 

Walnut Fork Wed., Thu. Sot., Sun. Wed., Thu. 

Hoods Creek Wed., Thu. Sot., Sun. Wed., Thu. 



Outdoors 

\t) georgia 

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3/73 



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Outdoors in Georgia Magazine 

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Outdoors 

\t) georgia 



July, 1973 



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41 



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•** k ''<s 




BOARD OF 
NATURAL RESOURCES 

James Darby 

Chairman 

Vidalia— 1st District 

William Z. Camp, Sec. 
Newnan— 6th District 

Leo T. Barber, Jr. 
Moultrie— 2nd District 

Dr. Robert A. Collins, Jr. 
Americus— 3rd District 

George P. Dillard 
Decatur— 4th District 

Rankin M. Smith 
Atlanta-5th District 

Leonard E. Foote 
Marietta— 7th District 

Henry S. Bishop 
Alma-8th District 

Clyde Dixon 
Cleveland-9th District 

Leonard Bassford 
Augusta— 10th District 

Jimmie Williamson 
Darien— Coastal District 

Wade H. Coleman 
Valdosta— State at Large 

James D. Cone 
Decatur— State at Large 

A. Calhoun Todd, Jr. 
Macon— State at Large 



EARTH AND WATER DIVISION 
Sam M. Pickering, Jr., Director 

ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION DIVISION 
R. S. Howard, Jr., Director 

GAME AND FISH DIVISION 
Jack Crockford, Director 

PARKS AND RECREATION DIVISION 
Henry D. Struble, Director 

E OF PLANNING AND RESEARCH 
Chuck Parrish, Director 

: OF ADMINISTRATIVE SERVICES 
' ttman, Director 

C RELATIONS AND 
INFORMATION SECTION 

H. E. (Bud) Van Orden, Chief 



Jimmy Carter 
Governor 

Department of Natural Resources 



Joe D. Tanner 

Commissioner 



George T. Bac 
Deputy Commissio 



FEATURES 

New Boating Laws T. Craig Martin 

The Role of Forest Openings . . . E. V. Richards 
Hotdogs, Pop, & Yellowjackets . . . Jim Howell 

Catfish Aaron Pass 

Chattooga T. Craig Martin 

New Life for Georgia Acres .... Dick Davis 
Water Watchdogs Suzanne Bass 

DEPARTMENTS 

Book Reviews 

Outdoor Calendar 



Outdoors 

it> georgia 



July, 1973 



Volume II 



Numb: 



Outdoors in Georgia is the official monthly magazine of the Georgia Depa 
of Natural Resources, published at the Department's offices, Trinity-Wash 
Building, 270 Washington Street, Atlanta, Georgia 30334. No advertising occ 
Subscriptions are $3 for one year or $6 for three years. Printed by W 
Printing Company, Atlanta, Georgia. Notification of address change must i 
old address label from a recent magazine, new address and ZIP code, with 3 
notice. No subscription requests will be accepted without ZIP code. Articli 
photographs may be reprinted when proper credit given. Contributions ai 
come, but the editors assume no responsibility or liability for loss or dam 
articles, photographs, or illustrations. Second-class postage paid at Atlanta, G' < 



MAGAZINE STAFF 
Phone 656-3530 



H. E. (Bud) Van Orden 

Editor-in-Chief 



Dick Davis Staf V*« 



Bob Wilson Edito 

Liz Carmichael Jones . . . Art Director Aaron Pass Stol 

Jim Couch .... Staff Photographer T. Craig Martin Stal | ,e J 

Bob Busby .... Staff Photographer Linda Wayne . . Circulation h 3f 



if 



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EDITORIAL 





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Think . . . 

and don't let it happen. 




% 



New Boating Laws 



By T. Craig Ma 



£S/\HV\\ 




Although there is no law on the matter right now, it makes vet 
good sense not to overpower your boat. Follow the manufa 
turer's recommendation on horsepower. Also follow his sugge 
lions on weight: overloading your boat can only cause troubi 
Your boat registration decal must be mounted on the windshie 
of your boat, or near the control point if there is no windshie i 
(sometimes called a spray shield). 



■ -■- . • 



In last month's Outdoors in Georgia 
we promised a rundown of the re- 
ciprocal agreements on boating be- 
tween Georgia and her neighbors. 
We'll also provide a summary of the 
Georgia Boat Safety Act of 1973, a 
new law that will make these agree- 
ments obsolete after January 1, 1974. 
Reciprocal agreements are needed 
when there is some difference between 
:he laws of one state and those of its 
leighbors covering a common area. 
3 ortions of Lake Hartwell, for exam- 
ple, are located in both Georgia and 
Jouth Carolina, and there could be 
conflicts when residents of one state 
trayed across the border into waters 
)f the other. 

A Georgia boater obeying all of his 
tate's regulations might be in conflict 
/ith South Carolina law, and the same 
ould hold true of South Carolinians 
l Georgia waters. So officials try to 
each some mutual agreement about 
lules governing such waters. 

In the past, major differences have 
I entered on boat registration require- 
i lents. While Georgia has registered 
ill boats in excess of 10 horsepower, 
! outh Carolina required the registra- 
t on of all boats of 1 horsepower and 
( lanically propelled boats be regis- 
; oove (and currently requires all me- 
t red). Alabama also requires that all 
t 3ats be registered. 

South Carolina has agreed to delay 
i lplementation of its registration re- 
tirement until January 1, 1974, to 
i low joint implementation under the 
)w Georgia rules. And, until Janu- 
iy 1, 1974, Georgians who plan to 
' nture into Alabama waters may ob- 
un free registration tags for their 
ats. These tags will bring Georgians 
o compliance with Alabama regu- 
a ions. There are no agreements with 
J )rth Carolina or Florida, but there 
i ve been no problems in the past. 
Keep in mind, however, that these 
, reements apply only to shared 
1 ters; if you venture into non-con- 
juous lakes or tributary streams 
c npletely inside the borders of our 
£ ghbors, you must be prepared to 
o nply with all their boating laws. 

Oiese agreements will not be neces- 

i y after 1974. Then federal law will 

-' uire the states to register certain 

- sels, and provide that boats which 

I i"' legally registered in one state will 

I e legal in all others. The Georgia 

c it Safety Act of 1973 brings Geor- 

Ip into compliance with the federal 








Your boat registration number must be displayed 

on each side of the bow, in letters at least three inches tall; and the letters must 

be clearly visible against the background color of your boat. Be sure that your 

trailer is carefully adjusted to handle your boat. Here Mike Strong of 

Gainesville's North Lake Marine makes the final alterations on a new rig, making 

sure the weight is evenly distributed over the trailer. The Georgia Department 

of Transportation requires a license tag and current inspection 

sticker on any boat trailer. 



law, according to Bob Baker, Co- 
ordinator of Special Services and 
Boating Law Administrator of the 
Department of Natural Resources. 

According to Baker, major pro- 
visions of the new law are: 

REGISTRATION: 

While Georgia law now requires 
registration of all mechanically pro- 
pelled boats in excess of 10 horse- 
power, after January 1, 1974, all me- 
chanically propelled boats must be 
registered, as must all sailboats 12 
feet or longer. Boats using electric 
"trolling" motors are considered "me- 
chanically propelled" under this law. 

The law excludes boats used only 
on privately owned ponds not open 
to the public from this provision. 

EXPIRATION DATES: 

Under current law, all boat regis- 
trations expire at the end of the third 
calendar year after registration. That 
is, if you register a boat during 1973, 
that registration expires on December 
31, 1975. According to the new act, 
registrations will expire on the last 
day of the month of the owner's birth. 
If, then, you register your boat under 
this act, the registration would expire 
three years from the last day of the 
month you were born, say May 31, 
1977. 



This provision has two purposes: 
a) to help spread registrations over 
the year so that all the thousands of 
renewals don't flood the licensing of- 
fice at one time; and b) to make it 
easier for you to remember your re- 
newal date. 

Baker noted that during 1974 new 
registrations may be for one, two, or 
three years, a measure designed to 
stagger renewal dates. All renewals 
will continue to be for three years, he 
said, but during this first year some 
new boat owners or those registering 
boats under 10 horsepower for the 
first time may receive a registration 
good for less than three years (at 
lower fee, of course). 

FEES: 

A new registration fee scheduled 
also will go into effect. As with the 
current law, the fee will depend on the 
size of your boat: 

class old fee new fee 

A (up to 16 feet) $ 5.25 $ 5.00* 
I (16 to 26 feet) 7.75 12.00 

II (26 to 40 feet) 10.25 30.00 
III (40 feet and 

larger) 15.25 50.00 

These figures are for three year 
registrations, so a Class II boat really 
is paying only $10.00 per year. In- 
come from the new fees will indirectly 



return to benefit boaters in the form 
of new appropriations for boating 
safety, Baker said. 

IDENTIFICATION NUMBER: 

After January 1, you'll need to pro- 
vide the hull identification number 
from your boat to register. All boats 
made after October, 1972, have these 
numbers (as do some older boats), 
usually imbedded in the outside of the 
transom. You won't need this number, 
of course, if your boat was built be- 
fore 1972. 

Baker warned home boatbuilders 
that they must have a hull ID number 
on any boat they intend to sell or 
transfer to another owner. Baker said 
his office will provide the necessary 
number on request. 

FLOATATION DEVICES: 

The number and variety of "per- 
sonal floatation devices" or life pre- 
servers you must carry on your boat is 
determined by its size. But whatever 
type you are required to carry, it must 
be in "good and serviceable" condi- 
tion and readily accessible. Baker em- 





This is, perhaps, the most comi i 

PFD on Georgia waters. Until recer , 

it was classified as Type I by the C. t 

Guard, hut now it is a Type II. e 

couldn't locate a Type o 

illustrate for <. 

Georgia law now says you must 
have at least one Personal Flotation 
Device (PFD) handy for each persor, h 
board — preservers in their plastic cove ; 
or stuffed under the bow or locked 
in a storage compartment won't do. See 
the story for upcoming changes in 
the PFD regulations. 

phasized that preservers kept in p ;- 
tic bags or stored under the bow >:a 
boat would not meet the law's reqi i - 
ments. 

Floatation devices are divided n 
four categories: 

Type I: The best of all such u 
but also the most bulky and cum>- 
some, Type I units are the old f tj 
ioned life jackets that are worn le 
coats. According to Coast Gi id 
rules, all these must be internatinl 
orange color. 

Type II: These most often are e 
familiar "bib" type vests that ep 
around the neck and tie over the c <t. 
Once called Type I units, they rec »- 
ly were reclassified by the C 3>t 
Guard. 

Type III: These are "special »■ 
pose devices" like ski vests (not 1 ik 
confused with ski belts), the poj ufir 
Stearns vests, buoyant jackets, et< . 

Type IV: These axe "throw; b 




f lis is one of the many Type III, or 
Dedal purpose," devices approved by the 
'. oast Guard. 



Buoyant cushions or rings are classified 

i Type IV devices, and are distinguished 

by their handles. The other types are 

"wearable," while these are made 

for throwing. 

J vices, ring buoys or cushions with 
i ndles. They are designed to be 
ic ;sed to someone in the water, and 
jr jst have convenient handles for him 
t grasp. 

! All Coast Guard approved units 
hide after October, 1972, will have 
ta ;s specifying their type, which 
1 )uld help you avoid some confu- 
ii n. 

! To comply with the new law, each 
l iss A vessel (under 16 feet) must 
'<■ /e one Type I, II, III, or IV device 
v lilable for each person aboard. 

Class I, II, and III vessels must 
c /e one Type I, II, or III device on 
c ard for each person, and at least 
r : Type IV device readily available. 
1 at is, the individuals must have one 
t irable device each, and there must 
e some additional throwable device 
a ,dy. 

I SCELLANEOUS: 

/entilation systems are required on 

vessels with enclosed fuel tanks, 

boats with inboard motors must 



be equipped with flame arresters. 
Class II and III vessels must carry 
some "sound producing appliance," a 
whistle or horn or other noise making 
device to warn approaching craft. 

The new regulations will require 
more adequate lights on most craft, 
but specific measures have not yet 
been ratified. There also will be some 
new ruling on fire extinguishers, but 
it, too, has not yet been worked out. 

Regulations governing safe boating 
operation remain in effect, as do rules 
on reporting boating accidents. It re- 
mains, of course, illegal to operate a 
boat while under the influence of in- 
toxicants. 

These are the major facets of the 
Georgia Boat Safety Act of 1973. For 
more complete information, contact 
either: Mr. Bob Baker, Coordinator 
of Special Services, Room 717, 270 
Washington Street, S.W., Atlanta, 
Georgia 30334; or Public Relations 
and Information Section, Department 
of Natural Resources, Room 719, 270 
Washington Street, S.W. 




The Role 
of 

Forest 
Openings 



By E. V. Richards 

Staff Officer 
Chattahoochee-Oconee National Forests 

Photos courtesy of National Forest Service 




The deer hunter was motionless as he leaned 
against the large white oak. Momentarily he 
rested his eyes from the strain and concentration 
of watching the forest opening ahead. The gray 
shadows of early morning still lay across the 
area. He recalled his scouting of the area the 
previous weekend and how the well-traveled 
deer paths followed the contours of the ridge to 
the forest opening. But it was the plentiful deer 
signs — the close cropping of the green brier, the 
heavy browsing of the honeysuckle, gum and 
dogwood sprouts, and the deer trail following 
the clearing edge that made him select the white 
oak for his deer stand. This was a good spot 
he thought — just a matter of time! He waited. 
It was opening day. 

This little story is repeated many times 
every hunting season in the mountainous areas 

jeorgia, as hunters learn that forest openings 

igs have a special attraction for wild 

me use is more concentrated and 

inities usually are better near a 

opening than in deep forest conditions. 



But what is the role of a forest openin; 
What makes them so important to wildlife? 

Forest openings are an integral part of til 
forest, islands in the vast oceans of trees th; 
are vital to wildlife. Many birds and aninul 
depend on openings in the forest canopy to su: 
ply suitable areas for feeding, nesting and re 
ing. 

Openings in the forest always have be; 
created naturally by fire, windstorm, insect 
disease. But early man recognized the value j 
such openings for his food, and Indians us; 
fire to establish and maintain forest openire 
and grass savannahs. 

Here in Georgia on the Chattahoochee > J 
tional Forest and throughout the entire /] 
palachian mountain chain, large blocks ( 
rugged mountain forest, mostly pole-size til 
ber, contain few openings. Take an airpter 
ride over the mountains and you will be ama;e 
at the solid unbroken forest that stretches >' 
yond your view: continuous hardwood fores 
extend monotonously with their dense canor. 9 



hading out all but the most shade-tolerant un- 
ergrowth. 

Game populations do exist in these areas, 
ut not to the optimum number possible, 
ligber game populations are obtained in mix- 
ires of mature forest, young forest, brush 
reas and open fields. High animal populations 
re most likely to be found where the basic 
eeds of feeding, resting and nesting are avail- 
ble within the crusing radius of the animals. 

Forest openings or clearings supply these 
jquirements through the "forest edge" along 
leir perimeters, the brushy transition zone be- 
veen field and forest. This portion of the for- 
it environment provides a diversity of food 
id cover found no other place; here grass, 
inual growths, vines, shrubs and small trees 
: -oduce the variety of seeds, fruits, berries and 
i its so vital to wildlife. This vegetative zone 
reives the right amount of sunlight to stimu- 
; te sun-loving plants. A forest opening is also 
1 1 area of high food production in the form of 
1 sects and small animal life. 

On the 728,000 acre Chattahoochee Na- 
i Dnal Forest, stretching across the northern 
nrt of the state, and the smaller 103,000 acre 
" conee National Forest, located southeast of 
- tlanta, many forest clearings are being pur- 
) >sely created for game use by the U.S. Forest 
j ;rvice and the Game and Fish Division of the 
. eorgia Department of Natural Resources. 
I nese areas, created by heavy bull-dozers, are 
i ned and fertilized and then seeded to grass, 
itgume or grain mixtures as part of the coop- 
j ative wildlife program in which the U.S. For- 
l:t Service and the Georgia Department of 
s atural Resources are partners. Once grass 
I d clover sods are established, the areas are 
)• riodically mowed and top dressed to maintain 
,1 sir usefulness. 

Other useful openings result from the im- 
,»i ovement of abandoned mountain farm home 
i es. Scores of these areas, often neglected for 
j lecade or more, are being reclaimed by cut- 
ii g or mowing the invading trees and brush. 

Hundreds of acres of temporary openings 
k :ur each year as national forest timber is sold. 
'ich timber sales in mountainous areas average 
p s than fifty acres, but they result in irregular 
p est openings which attract deer, grouse and 
a)bits immediately and over the long range 
? prove the overall habitat for other species. 





Jfl 









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f$0m 


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V3T* . ^ 



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Maintained power line right-of-ways like the one shown above and 
proper timber harvests such as that shown below provide openings 
for early succession plant species that benefit wildlife. Such early- 
succession plant species might otherwise not be found in a mature 
forest. 




People seldom realize that the forest is con- 
tinually changing as it grows older. Forest open- 
ings continually are being created by mother 
nature through such agents as wild-fire, severe 
wind storms, tornadoes, cyclones, ice storms, 
and insects or disease. All such openings are 
temporary. Nature quickly produces a vegeta- 
tive covering on every acre, giving the forest 
the variety and interspersion of food and cover 
vital to all wild birds and animals. 

The benefits are quite varied: Openings fur- 
nish the tender, sprout growth needed by deer 
and rabbit; green vegetation is made available 
to the wild turkey and ruffed grouse as increased 
sunlight bathes the forest floor; upland game 
birds and various song birds nest in or near 
forest openings, and grouse and turkey nests 
seldom are far from an opening. 

Young turkey poults, baby grouse and quail 
require a high protein diet of insects during the 
first months of their lives. Old fields and open- 
ings provide grasshoppers, beetles, leaf hoppers 
and other insects to feed the hungry young 
birds. 

The perimeter of clearings and old fields 
seed into fruit bearing shrubs, vines and sun- 



loving trees. Stand in a field or forest opening 
and look around. Notice the profusion o 
grapevines, green brier, blackberries, dogwoods 
haws, and other seed and fruit bearing plant 
that occupy the transition zone between fiel< 
and forest. 

The forest contains additional openings ii 
the form of pipe lines, gas lines, roads, orchards 
and small farms. All are an important part c 
the forest habitat, and all are heavily used b 
wild creatures for various reasons. 

So — when you look at the forest, see mor 
than the trees! Recognize the value and rol 
of the openings that are scattered through th 
expanse of trees. Learn of their importance t 
the creatures of the forest; you will apprecial 
and understand forest environment even mor< 



Regularly maintained forest openings planted in wildlife foods I 

found on all Wildlife Management Areas operated by the Ga 
and Fish Division in cooperation with the National Forest Serv, I 







Hotdoss, Pop, & Yellowiackets 




W 




'ellow jacket workers are often a nuisance to fishermen because they are 
ttractcd to the aromas of fresh fish. 

\y Jim Howell 

lotos by the Author 

Many campers, hikers, and other enthusiasts 
ook forward with great anticipation to the ar- 
ival of Georgia's early spring, for it marks the 
irst chance in several months that many fam- 
lies have had to get away from the drudgeries 
if everyday living and head for the outdoors. 
Infortunately, around many campsites Geor- 
« ia's outdoorsmen will find themselves catering 
1 d an unwanted guest — the yellowjacket. These 

< nnoying insects appear with the first warm 

< ays of spring, and their numbers increase 
npidly to almost overwhelming proportions in 

Jte summer and fall. 

There are two important species of yellow- 
ickets in Georgia, and both have jagged bands 
f yellow and black on the abdomen. One spe- 
:es, Vespula maculifrons, has a solid black 
r orax above (the body section just behind the 
Had), while the thorax of V. squamosa has 2 
Parallel yellow lines running most of its length, 
ley are relatively stout-bodied wasps, corn- 
ered to the more elongate Polistes exclamans, 
1 "guinea wasp," with which they are occa- 
nnally confused. 

In summer and early fall these black and 
[' How scavengers accumulate in large numbers 
) ound drink machines and trash cans, where 
rs adults feed on the sugary liquids remaining 
|i pop bottles, cans, or paper cups. They also 
< come a severe nuisance in picnic areas, where 

-y are attracted to foods such as hamburgers 
l d hotdogs, and at times become quite bother- 



some to fishermen, since fresh fish is also an 
excellent attractant. The adults collect this meat 
and carry it back to their underground nest to 
feed the young. 

When these wasps are foraging away from 
their nest, they usually will not sting unless they 
are confined or molested. The number of yel- 
lowjackets attracted to a picnic table often is so 
great, however, that the meal must be aban- 
doned for fear of provoking these unwanted 
guests to the point of stinging. 

Perhaps the greatest danger from yellow- 
jackets lies in accidentally disturbing their nests. 
These insects are extremely protective of their 
nest site, and become painfully aggressive 
when an unwary visitor ventures too near the 
colony. This confrontation is most common in 
the spring when nests constructed in lawns and 
hedges are accidentally disturbed by home- 
owners working in their yards. 

Yellowjacket nests are started in early spring 
by a mated over-wintering queen. The queens, 
which waited out the winter under stones, rot- 
ting logs, or other similar retreats, emerge and 
search out suitable nest sites. The yellowjacket 
queen usually builds underground, in such 
places as abandoned rodent holes, or under up- 
rooted stumps, but occasionally its nest is made 
aboveground between the walls of a house, or 
in the cavities of a cinderblock wall. 

She begins by making a small paper comb 
suspended by a short paper pedicel, and sur- 



rounded by one or more paper envelopes. An 
egg is laid in each cell of the comb, and the 
queen then forages for protein (meat) — usually 
in the form of caterpillars, flies, earthworms, 
or other small soft bodied animals — to feed to 
the developing larvae after the eggs hatch. The 
first adult workers that emerge from the "queen 
nest" usually are much smaller than those pro- 
duced later in the year. Upon emergence, these 
young workers assume the feeding and nest 
construction duties of the queen. They receive 
nourishment through a process called "trophy- 
laxis," in which the developing larva regurgi- 
tates some of its partially digested food and the 
adult wasp then feeds on this semi-liquid ma- 
terial. They enlarge the nest structure through- 
out the summer, producing a series of combs 
below the initial one built by the queen. The 
queen remains permanently in the nest, laying 
eggs for continuous brood production. 

As the number of larvae rapidly increases, 
the foraging behavior of the workers intensifies. 
It is at this time that they are a severe nuisance 
in many camping and picnic areas. In the fall 
the queen produces eggs which develop into 
new queens and males. The new reproductive 
castes emerge from the nest and mate in flight. 
The queens quickly search out a wintering site, 
while the males remain active, visiting flowers 



Yellowjacket nests are almost always con 
structed below ground. Unlike nests o 
other wasps, Vespula nests are complete! 
enclosed in an overlapping paper envelope 
Single yellowjacket combs resemble thos 
of other wasps. Usually 4 to 7 of these ar 
produced in tiers to make up a complet 
nest. 





and watering places until cold weather kills 
hem. They are never allowed to return to the 
lest. 

When a yellowjacket stings, it injects a ven- 
"rmous fluid underneath the skin. This causes 
'onsiderable pain and swelling that may last 
:everal days. These reactions may occasionally 
I e severe or even fatal to individuals who have 
k n acute allergy to wasp stings. 

In most cases, excessive first aid treatment 
i of little value in treating wasp stings. An ice 
f ack may be placed on the area to keep down 
spelling, and later an analgesic-corticosteroid 
ontment can be applied. Individuals who have 
n acute allergy to wasp stings should carry an 
oinephrine-antihistamine kit with them. 

In general, yellowjackets are highly bene- 
f :ial, since they capture many harmful and de- 
s ructive insects as food for their young. When 
i< rge numbers come in contact with man, how- 
'er, some sort of control is usually sought. 

When a yellowjacket's nest has been located, 
jt can be destroyed quite easily. Treating the 

st opening with a few puffs of insecticide dust 



containing 5 or 6% chlordane or Sevin® usually 
will kill the wasps in about 24 hours. Sevin® 
is one of the safest of all insecticides, and when 
applied properly is harmless to birds and mam- 
mals. In the absence of insecticides, about Vt 
cup of gasoline poured into the nest opening 
will do an excellent job. One should be aware 
of of the danger of using gasoline, however, 
and use it only in areas where no fire hazard 
exists. Gasoline also will kill lawn grasses and 
damage some shrubs. For nests in the walls of 
dwellings, or near certain domestic plants, 
chlordane or Sevin Tt dust is recommended. 
Treatments should be carried out after dark, 
when all the workers are at home. Treatments 
during daylight hours will receive a very hostile 
reception from workers returning to the nest. 

In most cases of yellowjacket annoyance, 
however, the nest cannot be located. Until con- 
trols can be developed which need not be ap- 
plied directly to the nest, the camper and pic- 
nicker must be content to share at least a part 
of his meal with this small black and yellow 
intruder. 



Wildlife Profiles: 




. 




Channel Catfish 



Catfish 



By Aaron Pass 

Art by Liz Carmichael Jones 




CHANNEL CATFISH (Ictalurus 
punctatus) "~ 

This well known fish seems equally 
popular with both commercial and 
sport fisherman across the state due 
to its wide distribution and abundance. 

The channel catfish is rather hand- 
some, as catfish go, with a gray-olive 
or slate blue upper or dorsal surface 
fading to a silvery or white belly. The 
sides are liberally sprinkled with 
roundish black spots and the tail is 
deeply forked. 

One of the larger members of the 
catfish family, channel cats 30 pounds 
and larger are caught by sport anglers 
and commercial fishermen report 
catches of fish up to 60 pounds. 

This catfish is found in almost all 
the rivers and lakes in the state which 
meet its habitat requirements. This 
fish prefers a relatively clean bottom 
of sand, gravel, or boulders and is not 
usually found in dense cover, except 
while spawning. 

Spawning occurs when water tem- 
peratures reach 75 degrees farenheit. 
Eggs are laid in a nest under an over- 
hanging ledge, submerged log, or simi- 
lar cover. The male guards the nest 
until the eggs hatch and the fry are 
able to make their own way. The nest 
is located in running water and those 
fish in lakes ascend tributary streams 
to spawn. 

The channel cat feeds on almost 
anything edible that comes its way and 
it forages mainly at night. Sport an- 
glers do well by fishing natural baits 
at night. Trotlines and jug-fishing also 
are excellent catfish producers. 



FLATIi£AD CATFISH (Pylodictis 
olivaris) 

This large, square-tailed, catfish is 
named for its wide, distinctly flattened 
head. The predominate body color is 
light brown, mottled with blotches of 
darker brown. The tail fin is squarish, 
with the upper and lower edges being 
somewhat lighter in color than the 
rest of the fin. 

The flathead's principal range in 
Georgia is the western portion of the 
state in the Tennessee and Apalachi- 
cola drainage areas. This catfish pre- 
fers the deep sluggish pools of the 
larger rivers with a hard bottom of 
rock or gravel for its habitat. Omni- 
vorous, the flathead will eat almost 
anything but seems to prefer fish. 

The flathead is popular with an- 
glers throughout its range and natural 
bait is the top choice. The average 
flathead caught weighs less than 5 
pounds, but this species can attain 
weights up to 100 pounds. 




WHITE CATFISH (Ictalurus catus) 

This comparatively small catfish 
closely resembles the larger channel 
cat in both appearance and habitat. 
The white cat has a slate gray to 
bluish back and a white or silvery 
belly, usually with a definite demarca- 
tion line between the two colors. In- 
dividual fish occasionally display mot- 
tling of the darker colors. The white 
lacks the distinct black spots and the 
deeply forked tail of the channel cat. 

The white cat is found in both 
lakes and rivers, but seems to prefer 
less current than the channel cat will 
tolerate. It shows a tendency toward 
upstream movement during spawning. 

1 ne white catfish is highly esteemed 

as a food fish and sport anglers claim 

'eater tendency to feed in the 

than other catfish species. 

size of this species is 

indup to 3 pounds. 




i.i 




QJlathead Catfish 







vi/hite C at fish 



• n *> 



M 



'".v- v .«: 



SFO 



Stf&V 











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e 











A river is perhaps more like a cat than a dog, 
for it refuses through its generations to be tamed — 
often cohabiting with man, never yielding to his 
dominion. A river flows in feline grace, plays with 
kittenish glee, and yes, kills with a cat's cold ferocity. 
No slavish obedience from cats, no fetching, no 
rolling over; and so it is with rivers that rampage just 
as man's control seemed complete. 

No man can tame a wild river: he must destroy 
it or yield to it; there can be no compromise. Rivers 
can be damned, left forever to languish under 
man-made lakes; or their guts can be reamed, leaving 
a dead hulk following the old course with all 
the spirit of a Disney automaton. But dams and 
channels and locks conquer a stream only by 
destroying it, by so chaining up or wrenching out 
its essence that the remainder has value only as 
a vehicle for man's pleasure or profit. Less drastic 
measures will not suffice; for no matter how placid a 
river seems, no matter how long it docilely fulfills 
its man-ordained purpose, one day it will revert to its 
primordial state, mangling those that thought to 
use it, as a big cat will ravage its trainer. 

Given these alternatives, the "reasonable" 
decision for years semed quite simple and straight- 
forward: rivers are valuable only insofar as they 
are useful to man, and all necessary steps must be 
taken to bend them to man's purposes. Dams, 
channels, and their accompanying locks burgeoned 
through the land until only a very few rivers 
had escaped evisceration. 

One of the few survivors wends its way along 
the far northeastern border of Georgia, forming the 
boundary line between our state and South 
Carolina. Until recently it was known only to a 
few — geologists, trout fishermen, foresters, kayak 
addicts — those who had some business in or 
around it. Then the marquee blared its name out in 
letters only slightly smaller than those heralding 
Burt Reynolds and Jon Voight: "See the Mighty 
Chattooga." Suddenly the river was 
"Deliverance Country." 

Traffic jams spawned and reproduced and all 
but choked every access point; the river filled with 
jaunty adventurers in varied vessels — in kayaks anc 
canoes, in rafts and rickety inflatable contraptions — 
each seeking in one way or another to prove 
himself (or herself) the stars equal; and with 
depressing regularity the banks echoed the calls of 




xt & Photos by 
Craig Martin 



search parties seeking the remains of those whose 
carelessness or naivete proved terribly expensive. 

The Chattooga has borne its star status fairly 
well so far, much as a trained leopard might. It goes 
its way, allowing men to come near, to gape, to go 
away thinking they have learned something of the 
wild. And it has sacrificed a few, to whet the 
appetite of the many. 

Perhaps soon it will gain its deserved "Wild 
River" status, and the roads will end far away 
from it, and the cabins will be torn down, and the 
crowds will thin. In the meantime, Outdoors in 
Georgia offers this photographic impression 
of natural beauty and those who attempt to 
appreciate it. 



21 




:«•*.*& ■■ 














I 







Cattle thrive on pasture established on the reclaimed 
site of feldspar mining operations in Jasper County. 



Reclaiming land following a large sand mining operatt I 

in DeKalb County, a bulldozer grades areas which ) /I 

become lakeside slopes as the former mine site is tun i 

into a residential area around a la >. 



Mined Land Reclamation Makes 

New Life For Georgia Acres 



By Dick Davis 

There were once high spoil banks 
alongside massive excavations where 
kaolin was mined in middle Georgia; 
now on the same spot there is a scenic 
lake stocked with bass and bream of 
frying pan size, bordered by grass- 
covered shores, surrounded by areas 
planted for wildlife, furnishing cover 
and forage for quail, deer and small 
game. 

Once there were unattractive low- 
lands at a location in extreme south- 
east Georgia; now, following dredge 
mi ling of the much needed heavy 
;rals — titanium ore, monazite and 
'ircon — there are inviting areas of 
and value and a lake teem- 
fish and sometimes dotted 
ither migratory water- 



fowl. Even the original topsoil has 
been salvaged and placed back in 
position atop the land which now sup- 
ports a growth of grasses. 

Once in west Georgia, as iron ore 
was mined for the blast furnaces of 
Birmingham, there were gaping, long 
holes in the earth with high piles of 
overburden, and the land seemed dis- 
membered. Now in some of those 
areas there are gently rolling to almost 
level lands covered with grasses or 
supporting rowcrops of corn or pea- 
nuts, or stands of planted pines. 

Once in a northwest Georgia coun- 
ty, giant draglines dug deep into the 
red earth to mine valuable barite ore 
and the piles of excavated soil towered 
alongside, all within shouting distance 



of a major highway artery, and alnr 
in the front doors of manufacturi i 
plants and business establishmer i 
Now the monstrous holes are bei ll 
filled, the land is being leveled ai 
stabilized, and prime, high-vali 
building and commercial sites i r 
being provided. 

In such ways, Georgia's surf; z 
miners are restoring to usefulne 51 
beauty and productivity the lands tl ' 
mine to obtain the highly valua '1 
minerals essential to life as we en 3 
it. Areas of reclaimed surface-mii - 
lands, however, often are alongs d 
unreclaimed mined lands that s i 
lie nonproductive and often erodi ij 

Mined lands in the state have bi e 
reclaimed as lakes for fishing, boat n 



ind water recreation and water con- 
ervation; for pastures and grasslands; 
brest lands; rowcrop lands; wildlife 
ireas; building sitesj parks, camping 
ind recreational areas; industrial de- 
'elopments; and for sanitary landfills 
or solid waste disposal followed by 
ilanting of- grasses or trees. 

Mining is big business in Georgia 

nd comprises a major segment of the 

tate's economy and produces materi- 

Js essential to our modern way of 

fe. The annual value of mining 

roduction in the state now exceeds 

270,000,000. There are more than 

00 mining operations in Georgia in 

lore than 100 counties. Mineral pro- 

, uction in Georgia has increased near- 

1 1 five-fold in the last two decades, 

;nd in the last ten years the value of 

I roducts mined in the state has more 

t lan doubled. Our state is the seventh 

I irgest industrial mineral producer in 

t le nation, and leads the world in the 

| roduction of kaolin, the clay used 

\ idely in the production and coating 

( f paper and in the rubber and plastics 

i idustries. Georgia leads the fifty 

s ates in the quarrying of both marble 

i id granite. 

Twenty-five commercial products 
a - e now mined in Georgia: kaolin, 
e anite, marble, feldspar, barite, zir- 
b m, titanium ore, monazite, ochre, 
B nd, umber, structural clays, gravel, 
ii;on ore, quartz and quartzite and 
biert, peat and humus, kyanite, lime- 
5 one, bauxite, fuller's earth, refrac- 
■"■• ry clays, coal, mica, talc, flagstone 
i id shale. 

Materials from Georgia's mines pro- 
v de the cement and building stone 
i id bricks of which our homes and 
p lildings, our highways and roadways 
|i s constructed. Georgia's mines have 
p en a source of the steel and other 
J itals which have made possible the 
f iustrial age and the space age. Mod- 
•i i communications and transporta- 
>i n utilize mining products. Kaolin 
r >m middle Georgia is used to 
'■<■ at papers for writing and printing 
h oughout the world. 

Mining products are essential to 
n r civilization, and supply many of 
p necessities, comforts and luxuries 
?f our daily lives. It is vital that min- 
be continued and expanded. It is 
o important that, as a phase of en- 
' omental protection, there be con- 
Ir -ling land reclamation accompany- 
mining operations. 
Hie mining industry of Georgia is 




Unreclaimed land — this was mined for iron 
ore in west Georgia — was an eyesore in 
years prior lo the start of reclamation 
program in the state. Lands mined 
near this area in recent years have been 
reclaimed for pastures and rowcrops. 



An excellent swimming and fishing lake, 
with a beach and recreational area, has been 
developed by reclamation following kaolin 
mining in Washington County. 

Photo by John Smith 




- 



» ► 



i . 






i • 




> 



25 




Here's a good growth of grass on 
southeast Georgia lowlands reclaimed 
after surface mining of titanium ore, 
monazite and zircon. In these 
mining operations, pre-planning included 
stockpiling and replacing original topsoil 
on the land before replanting. 



Photo by W. J. Siprelle 

Far-stretching areas, formerly mined for 

kaolin in middle Georgia, now support 

a good stand of pines, returning land to 

productivity and restoring economic 

and aesthetic values. 




assuming its responsibilities in re 
claiming mined lands and in this wa; 
is making a major, contribution to en 
vironmental quality improvement. 

Georgia's licensed surface miner 
now number 368. The area they hav 
effected in mining since 1969 total 
more than 10,000 acres and they wi 
reclaim an equal amount of land. 

The key to effective land reclama 
tion at reasonable cost is the simul 
taneous planning of mining and rec 
lamation.. Surface mining companie 
in the state are now preparing rech 
mation plans as an integral part ( 
mining plans, both in the opening ( 
new mining areas and the expansio 
of existing mines. 

Reclamation of surface mined lane 
on a substantial scale began with tr 
enactment of the Georgia Surfac 
Mining Act which became effecth 
January 1, 1969. Some of Georgia 
mining companies had begun maj( 
voluntary reclamation projects q 
their mined lands prior to that time 

The Georgia Surface Mining Ac 
as amended, requires that surfat 
miners reclaim each year as mui. 
land as is affected by mining that ye . 
— acre-for-acre. The Act requir | 
that all surface miners in the state 
licensed by the Land Reclamatk i 
Section, Environmental Protects i 
Division, Department of Natural R; 
sources. 

The existing Georgia surface mil 
ing regulations requiring reclamati< 
apply only to lands surface min 
since January 1, 1969. There are 
estimated 30,000 acres of uru 
claimed "orphan lands" in the st.l 
which were mined prior to 1969. R< 
lamation of these lands in future ye; I 
can be a boon to environmental i | 
provement in the state. 

To obtain a license to engage i 
surface mining, miners must prep; 
and obtain prior approval of a < ( 
tailed reclamation plan for all acre; ( 
to be affected by mining. 

In developing reclamation pla l 
surface miners can choose the purp 
for which lands are to be reclaim j 
provided the use is of economic < 
social benefit and receives the 
proval of the Land Reclamation S ' 
tion. Surface miners are also requi < 
to post bonds to insure that reclai U 
tion is completed. Posted bonds U 
released once reclamation of a mi < 
area is completed and approved. 

Acceptable reclamation requ P 



tat the land be suitably graded to a 
>lling topography and prepared for 
[anting or for other use. The maxi- 
ium allowable slope on any area to 
Itimately remain above water is such 
lat the land can be traversed by farm 
lachinery. Such a slope will reduce 
■osion and facilitates replanting with 
grass cover crop or trees. 
When the grading is completed, 
•eas to be developed into pastures or 
oodlands are fertilized and planted 
ith grasses, legumes, or trees, 
(ulching is essential for rapid germi- 



nation of seed. Permanent stands of 
grasses, other plants or trees must be 
established. The grasses must be uni- 
formly distributed and cover 70% of 
the area. Bermuda grass, bahia grass, 
weeping love grass, abruzzi rye, mil- 
let. Loblolly Pine, Slash Pine, Virginia 
Pine, and Sycamore are the species 
most commonly planted. The love 
grass, abruzzi rye and millets provide 
fast developing cover crops which are 
used as nurse crops while permanent 
grasses or legumes are established on 
mined areas. Usually two species are 



utilized in the plantings, which have 
proved successful when started in both 
spring and fall. 

Georgia's mining industries — large 
and small — are making reclamation 
and environmental improvement a 
reality as they rehabilitate mined 
lands across the state for the use and 
enjoyment of the generations to come. 

Prime industrial and commercial building 

sites are being provided by reclamation 

of areas mined for barite in northwest 

Georgia. Active mining operations 

can be seen at the extreme left, graded 

and leveled building sites are in the center, 

and an area still to he filled and 

graded on the right. 




WATER 

WATCHDOG 



By Suzanne Bass 

Photos by the Author 

The tap water in our homes that we drir 
and use to fill our acquarium tanks is the san 
water into which we blindly dump detergen 
for washing and to which we add chemicals i 
all varieties for innumerable needs. Stoppir 
to fill our glass with water from the faucet, c 
we question its quality or ask whether the in 
purities added the day before have been r; 
moved? 

On blind faith we act, assuming the efficie' 
cy of the machines that cleanse our water an 
the responsibility of individuals that make vi'3 
decisions about the substances that are added 
But thanks partly to the efforts of the Georcj 
National Guard, steps are being taken to asc • 
tain the effects of detergents with phosphcj 
additives on specific lakes and reservoirs in t j 
state,- and also determine the efficiency of ti 
treatment plants that remove some of the h< 
ardous chemicals, but at the same time ci 
charge effluents rich in nutrients. 

The Georgia Guard provides the essenl i 
manpower for carrying out Georgia's porta 
of what is called the National Eutrophicat :i 
Survey, operating under the auspices of n 
Federal Environmental Protection Agency, 'I 
Department of Defense and the EnvironmerM 
Protection Division of the Georgia Departmsf 
of Natural Resources. The response of the Mo- 
tional Guard makes Georgia the thirteenth st n 
to participate in the survey, which eventu( I' 
will include all fifty states. 

But exactly what is eutrophication and wu 
is the aim of this survey? 

Eutrophication is a process of nutrient I 
richment in lakes which causes the shallow > 



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become choked with masses of aquatic plants. 
The nutrients that quicken plant growth in a 
lake are concentrations of phosphates and ni- 
trates that come primarily from municipal sew- 
age treatment plants, industrial discharges, and 
fertilized cropland and feedlot drainage. A 
balance of these nutrients is necessary for nor- 
mal plant and fish growth and generally is 
furnished through natural runoff; but eutrophi- 
cation and the subsequent rapid growth of the 
aquatic plants will destroy the value of a lake 
as a water resource. Perhaps the worst effect 
of eutrophication is the depleted oxygen supply 
and reduced water clariry that endangers such 
fish as trout and bass, which come to be domi- 
nated by those species better adapted to eutro- 
phic conditions such as carp and suckers. 

Thirteen Georgia lakes have been selected 
by the Environmental Protection Division for the 
year-long Eutrophication Survey. Volunteer 
Georgia National Guardsmen will conduct 
monthly sampling at the mouths of the main 
tributaries, above and below municipal sewage 
treatment plants and from treatment plant out- 
falls. The 100 sampling stations involve the fol- 
lowing lakes: Allatoona, Blackshear, Chatuge, 
Clark Hill, Jackson, Sidney Lanier, Nottley, 
Seminole, Sinclair, Blue Ridge, Harding, Burton 
and High Falls. These lakes were chosen be- 
cause they hold both potential eutrophication 
problems and are among the largest public 
lakes in the state. 

The survey is an attempt to discover a lake's 
present trophic (nutritional) condition, its toler- 
ance for nutrients, and the principal sources of 
excess nutrients entering a lake, especially 
where municipal sewage sources are involved. 
One major question is whether increased phos- 
phate removal at a municipal sewage treatment 
plant will significantly improve the water quali- 
ty of the lake that receives its effluent. In es- 
sence, the results of the survey will help to 
determine if a given lake is now in trouble, or 
if it looks like it may be at some point in the 
future. Phosphate reduction or removal then 
could be required through legislation, in order 
to insure water quality. 

Phosphorous, then, is the nutrient most often 
implicated as a cause of eutrophication in fresh- 
water and, occasionally, in salt or brackish 
water. However, the introduction of other major 

rients, such as nitrogen or trace elements of 
manganese, and molybdenum also have 
sted the rate of eutrophication. 

of this operation rests with the 

uardsmen who travel to the selected 

samples. Securing the water 



samples involves a carefully ordered procedur 
requiring a faultless standard to insure accurac 
in the final analysis. Qualified instructors fror 
the Environmental Protection Agency and th 
Georgia Department of Natural Resources a< 
companied the guardsmen on their first sarr 
pling weekend to direct the procedure and tecr 
niques for sampling. Consistency in samplin 
times from month to month also is a must. Whc 
other organization than the military could b 
better suited for scheduled dependability? 

The samples are taken in bottles either lov 
ered by a rope from a bridge or flung from th 
shore. The bottle then is tightly capped and 
label on top is filled out with the date, tinr 
exact location and the name of the perse 
taking the sample. 

When all the scheduled water sites ha\ 
been sampled, the bottles are returned to tr 
armory where a chemical stabilizer, mercur 
chloride, is added. Mercuric chloride is a high 
poisonous and potent substance that kills cf 
ganic growth in the water but at the same tin 
maintains the chemical status just as it was 
the lake. This preservation of the water samp 
expedites the job of the person analyzing it ar 
insures accuracy. This chemical must be add< 
within three hours from the time the water 
taken from the lake, so Guardsmen samplii > 
in remote spots must add the chemical in tl 
field. The samples must also be kept cool an- 
out of the direct rays of the sun. A bulk shi: 
ment of all the samples is made once a morf 
to the National Environmental Research Cenis 
in Corvallis, Oregon. 

When the year's study is completed and ti 
phosphate levels have been analyzed, a su r 
mary report will be prepared for each lake. Tli 
final analysis will contain a comprehensi/ 
summary, augmented by available historic 
facts on the lakes and the sewage treatrru I 
plants nearby. This final report will be reviews 
by members of the analysis teams, the Envir< 
mental Protection Agency's regional personi 
and appropriate state officials for any recoi 
mendations on control strategy for the lak 
The information revealed through this rep J 
should prove invaluable to authorities w 
oversee the state's water quality control p' 
grams. 

So look again at that glass of water. Ne ' 
take its purity or abundance for granted, l»| 
realize that measures are being sought to c I 
tect it. Come join the National Guard, the p '[■ 
lie officials, the scientists and the concert I 
private citizens who want to see our lal«ej 
rivers and streams clean and beautiful fore>e 




( hemicals are added to the water samples to preserve the matter for later analysis. This 
i ust be done shortly after the sample is taken if the analysis is to be accurate. Each sample 
r ust be clearly identified with all pertinent data. Captain Johnny Brown and CW-4 R. 
I 'hittemore prepare the sample for transportation from the collection site to the armory. 




BooH 

Reviews 



THROUGH THE FISH'S EYE by 

Mark Sosin and John Clark, Outdoor 
Life/Harper & Row, 233 pages, 
$7.95. 

This is one of those very rare 
prizes, a book that every fisherman 
should own. Most books for anglers 
emphasize one or another aspect of 
the sport at the expense of others: 
coldwater buffs ignore warmwater 
techniques, saltwater fishermen snear 
at freshwater aficiandoes. But Sosin 
and Clark cut across the boundaries 
imposed by techniques to present a 
book that will be invaluable to any- 
one interested in gamefish. 

Subtitled "An Angler's Guide to 
Gamefish Behavior," the book sum- 
marizes in a very readable form a 
great deal of professional research on 
species of interest to sportsfishermen. 
But even well-written summaries of 
scientific data can be deadly boring if 
the information isn't made relevant to 
the reader. Sosin and Clark sustain 
our interest by relating each bit of 
information to practical problems 
every fisherman must face at one time 
or another during his career. 

For example: we all know that fish 
seem to feed less during cold weather, 
but Sosin and Clark inform us that 
digestion in a largemouth bass that 
might take 1 8 hours during the sum- 
mer may take more than four days 
in the winter. 

We know that trout feed on various 
aquatic insects, but that it sometimes 
is hard to tempt big trout with dry 
Hies. In through the fish's eye, we 
learn that both brown and rainbow 
trout shift over to a primary diet of 
fish quite abruptly after they reach a 
size somewhere between 9 and 12 
inches. 

Saltwater fishermen know that 
bucktails or jiijs are deadly in bright 
sunlight, but less successful in dim 
light. Sosin and Clark suggest that a 
strip bait will improve our luck by 
adding a smell to attract gamefish into 
the area so they can sec the bait. 

This collaboration between a noted 



writer and respected fisheries biologist 
should lead the way to other such 
joint efforts. Its only problem is that 
it does not contain a bibliography, 
which is rather surprising, since Clark 
probably would never have consid- 
ered publishing any of his 50 or so 
scientific papers without one. It is 
unfortunate that they left out the 
bibliography, but it's not enough of 
a drawback to avoid buying the book. 
For we all need to know more 
about our quarry. Not just to capture 
him more efficiently, although this 
book ought to help in that; but be- 
cause any sportsman should try to 
understand and respect his game. 
THROUGH THE FISH'S EYE pro- 
vides a marvelous introduction to 
the world of our finned quarry. 

—TCM 



WILD RIVER, by Laurence Pringle, 

J. B. Lippincott Co., 128 pages, 

$15.00 

A beautiful book about a beautiful 
subject, wild river should be read by 
everyone and treasured by those who 
love rivers. Detailed yet interesting 
narrative accompanies beautiful pho- 
tographs. 

Undoubtedly wild river is the 
best treatment of the complex riverine 
eco-system that this reader has seen. 
A major fault, however, is a lack of 
space given to the lowland river; al- 
though the Suwannee is mentioned 
several times, the Altamaha is not, 
and much of the book is applicable to 
coldwater streams alone. 

Few rivers remain in the whole 
country that can be called wild — and 
even fewer can be fitted into the bu- 
reaucratic definition of a wild river. 
Georgia is fortunate enough to have 
a few wild rivers ana portions of wild 
rivers left, regardless of semantic 
nuances. 

—BW 



BACKPACKERS DIGEST by C. R. 

learn and Anne S. Tallman, Digest 
Books, Inc., 288 pages, $5.95 (paper- 
bound). 

Digest books are a lot like R-rated 

s: they sometimes manage to 

ir interest, but rarely man- 

>ur desires. The 

backpack] m by Learn and 

nan is n< nt. 



This profusely illustrated volume 
purports to examine "every facet of 
the sport," but to extract the informa- 
tion is like trying to count the facets 
of a wedding ring while shaking hands 
with the bride. From first aid to 
photography, from packs to parkas, 
the authors flit back and forth, light- 
ing here and there to toss off a tidbit 
or two before darting off into some- 
thing else. 

Unless you particularly enjoy look- 
ing at pictures, you'd be better off 
passing up this rather badly written 
tome in favor of one of the books 
reviewed here in March. Either 
Fletcher's complete walker or 
Wood's pleasure packing will give 
you more useful information more 
coherently. Fletcher's, particularly, 
will help you appreciate the unique 
rewards of this rather un-American 
sport that involves so much walking 
and so little riding. 

The problem with this "digest," as 
with many of the works spawned by 
the new backpacking craze, is that it 
lacks any coherent overview of the 
sport, any sense that there might just 
be an aesthetic unique to 'his en- 
deavor. Oh, the authors are aware 
of the more overt ethics of the sport: 
don't litter, don't start uncontrollable 
fires, don't do anything to demean 
the next guy's experience. 

But that there might be something 
more important about backpacking 
than is paraphernalia seems to es- 
cape them. And so this book intended 
for beginners omits a reasoned dis- 
cussion of why one might want to 
backpack. The authors provide a 
quotation from a "renowned back- 
packer" that suggests a gaggle of 
arguments in support of the sport, 
but its very eagerness obscures the 
goal: backpacking, we find, will bring 
us closer to nature, work us into good 
health, draw us night unto fishing 
and hunting paradises, help us weld 
a more perfect union with our fam- 
ilies. 

All of which leads us to see back- 
packing as a utilitarian endeavor, a 
means to some end beyond itself. So, 
of course, a book on backpacking 
must also introduce us to citizen's 
band radios and fishing rods, binocu- 
lars and knives, guns and cameras. 
But to help us to slow the freeway 
pace our lives have taken on is be- 
yond the purview of these books. 
And to help us understand and ap- 



preciate the tiny bits of wildness w 
have left? Well, there's only so muc 
room in a book, you know . . . 

— TCA 



FLY FISHING DIGEST by Bill Wa 
lace, Digest Books Inc., 256 page: 
$4.95 (paperbound) 

Like many other Digest Book 
fly fishing digest contains a fe 
tidbits for the veteran, but makt 
a more satisfying main course for tr 
novice. While the experienced, esp« 
cially among fly fishermen, want teel 
nical information, the novice is happ 
if he can find a lot of general inform; 
tion without a great deal of effort. Tl 
fly fishing digest is for the la 
ter group, and is especially wor 
reading by those who think they mig 
like to take up fly fishing. 

Wallace is experienced fly fishe 
man and his comments are based < 
field observations. He says, "Whi j 
I first started fly casting ... I we j 
up rivers, down canyons, fished sma I 
er lakes and ponds, but the total ta ;> 
for 2 weeks was only 3 small bro i 
trout, the biggest running all of I 
inches. Actually I hooked 4, but 
seagull swooped down and grabb ■> 
one before I could get it to shon . 

Good basic information is given i 
knots, lines, backing, and leaders; i 
overview of various tackle comrm i 
cially available is included. One s<< 
tion of the book is devoted to teachi 1 
the novice to fly cast in thirty minu t 
— no, it won't make an expert out I 
you in thirty minutes, but is w' 
worth reading before, and after, yc i 
first attempt with a fly rig, but > ] 
will have a better grasp of the pr i 
ciples involved and know what ) j 
are trying to do. 

A fly fisherman's look at some ■ 
the freshwater species that are 1 j 
quently fished for with flies is £ i 
included. For those who want 
really get into it, there is a 60-p J 
chapter explaining how to tie y i 
own flies; and a directory of fly tac < 
and tying material will help loc a 
uncommon supplies. 

For the knowledgable fly fisl e 
man, the book has little to offer, ) 
for the beginner, fly fishing dig | 
provides a simple introduction to I. 
fascinating fishing technique. 

_r 






Outdoor 
Calendar 




Campers in 20 of Georgia's state 

arks will be treated to an original 

rama played under the stars this 

ummer. TOKALITTA, a play about 

ie early settlement of Savannah and 

Nations between Indians and settlers 

l lere, will be presented by students 

I om DeKalb Community College. 

he play was written by Jon Downs, 

; irector of the school's Speech and 

I »rama Department, and is produced 

I y the Parks and Recreation Division 

; f the Department of Natural Re- 

• mrces. 

There will be no admission charge 
t > the performances, which will be- 
i n at 8:30 p.m. on the following 
[ ates: 

/ micalola Falls — August 9 

1 lackburn — July 12 

C loudland Canyon — July 6, August 
3, August 31 

fort Mountain — July 5, August 2, 

i August 30 

f ranklin D. Roosevelt — July 8, Au- 
gust 5, September 2 

i lijah Clark — August 1 8 

t eorgia Veterans — July 26, August 

i 23 

i ard Labor Creek — July 22, August 
19 

Hgh Falls — July 19 

I dian Springs — July 21, August 16 

t >hn Tanner — July 7, August 4, Sep- 
tember 1 

t ttle Ocmulgee — June 30, July 28, 

, August 25 

\> agnolia Springs — July 20, August 
17 

,V istletoe — July 21 

j :mulgee National Monument — 
July 1, July 29, August 26 

^ :d Top Mountain — August 2, Au- 
gust 29 

ed Bingham — July 27, August 24 
galoo — August 12 

>':toria Bryant — July 15 
''•gel— -July 13, August 10 

— Allen Coggins 



Management 
Area 


Stream 


July 


August 


September 


BLUE RIDGE 


Jones Creek 


Sat., Sun. 
Wed. 4th 


Sat., Sun. 


Sat., Sept. 1 
Sun., Sept. 2 
Mon., Sept. 3 




Montgomery 


Sat., Sun. 
Wed., Thu. 

Sat., Sun. 
Wed. 4th 


Sat., Sun. 
Wed., Thu. 

Sat., Sun. 


Sat., Sept. 1 
Sun., Sept. 2 
Mon., Sept. 3 




Nimblewill 


Sat., Sept. 1 
Sun., Sept. 2 
Mon., Sept. 3 




Noontootley 


Every Day 


Every Day 


Sat., SeDt. 1 
Sun., Sept. 2 
Mon., Sept. 3 




Rock Creek 


Sat., Sun. 
Wed., Thu. 


Sat., Sun. 
Wed, Thu. 


Sat., Sept. 1 
Sun., Sept. 2 
Mon., Sept. 3 


CHATTAHOOCHEE 


Chattahoochee 


Sat., Sun. 
Wed. 4th 


Sat., Sun. 


Sat., Sept. 1 
Sun., Sept. 2 
Mon., Sept. 3 




Dukes 


Sat., Sun. 
Wed., Thu. 


Sat., Sun. 
Wed., Thu. 


Sat., Sept. 1 
Sun., Sept. 2 
Mon., Sept. 3 


CHESTATEE 


Boggs 


Sat., Sun. 
Wed., Thu. 


Sat., Sun. 
Wed, Thu. 


Sat., Sept. 1 
Sun., Sept. 2 
Mon., Sept. 3 




Dicks 


Wed., Thu. 
Sat., Sun. 


Sat., Sun. 


Sat., Sept. 1 
Sun., Sept. 2 
Mon.. Sept. 3 




Waters 


Sat., Sun. 
Wed. 4th 


Sat., Sun. 


Sat., Sept. 1 
Sun., Sept. 2 
Mon., Sept. 3 


LAKE BURTON 


Moccasin 


Sat., Sun. 
Wed., Thu. 


Sat., Sun. 
Wed., Thu. 


Sat., Sept. 1 
Sun., Sept. 2 
Mon., Sept. 3 




Wildcat 


Sat., Sun. 
Wed. 4th 


Sat., Sun. 


Sat., Sept. 1 
Sun., Sept. 2 
Mon., Sept. 3 


LAKE RUSSELL 


Middle Broad 


Sat., Sun. 
Wed. 


Sat., Sun. 
Wed. 


Sat., Sept. 1 
Sun., Sept. 2 
Mon., Sept. 3 


WARWOMAN 


Finney 


Wed., Thu. 


Sat., Sun. 


Sat., Sept. 1 
Sun., Sept. 2 
Mon., Sept. 3 




Sarahs 


Wed., Thu. 


Sat., Sun. 


Sat., Sept. 1 
Sun., Sept. 2 
Mon., Sept. 3 




Walnut Fork 


Sat., Sun. 


Wed., Thu. 






Hoods Creek 


Sat., Sun. 


Wed., Thu. 





Outdoors 

it) gecrgia 



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BOARD OF 
NATURAL RESOURCES 

James Darby 

Chairman 

Vidalia-lst District 

William Z. Camp, Sec. 
Newnan— 6th District 

Leo T. Barber, Jr. 
Moultrie— 2nd District 

Dr. Robert A. Collins, Jr. 
Americus— 3rd District 

George P. Dillard 
Decatur— 4th District 

Rankin M. Smith 
Atlanta-5th District 

Leonard E. Foote 
Marietta-7th District 

Henry S. Bishop 
Alma-8th District 

Clyde Dixon 
Cleveland-9th District 

Leonard Bassford 
Augusta-lOth District 

Jimmie Williamson 
Darien— Coastal District 

Wade H. Coleman 
Valdosta— State at Large 

James D. Cone 
Decatur— State at Large 

A. Calhoun Todd, Jr. 
Macon— State at Large 



EARTH AND WATER DIVISION 
Sam M. Pickering, Jr., Director 

ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION DIVISION 
R. S. Howard, Jr., Director 

GAME AND FISH DIVISION 
Jack Crockford, Director 

PARKS AND RECREATION DIVISION 
Henry D. Struble, Director 

OFFICE OF PLANNING AND RESEARCH 
Chuck Porrish, Director 

ADMINISTRATIVE SERVICES 
v H. Fittman, Director 

IC RELATIONS AND 
OTION SECTION 

H. E. (Bud) Van Orden, Chief 



Jimmy Carter 
Governor 

Department of Natural Resources 



Joe D. Tanner 

Commissioner 



George T. Bagby 
Deputy Commissioner 









FEATURES 

Richmond Hill State Park . . . . T. Craig Martin 

Wildlife Profiles: Skunks Aaron Pass 

Saltwater— With Style T. Craig Martin 

1973-1974 Hunting Regulations 



DEPARTMENTS 



Letters 



Outdoor World 



Outdoor Calendar 



FRONT COVER: 30 miles off Savannah. Photo by Bob Wilson. 
BACK COVER: Young night herons. Photo by T. Craig Martin. 



Outdoors 

iij georgia 

August, 1973 Volume II Numbe 

Outdoors in Georgia is the official monthly magazine of the Georgia Departr e 
of Natural Resources, published at the Department's offices, Trinity-Washini t 
Building, 270 Washington Street, Atlanta, Georgia 30334. No advertising accef < 
Subscriptions are $3 for one year or $6 for three years. Printed by Willi " 
Printing Company, Atlanta, Georgia. Notification of address change must inc J 
old address label from a recent magazine, new address and ZIP code, with 30 i c 
notice. No subscription requests will be accepted without ZIP code. Articles > 
photographs may be reprinted when proper credit given. Contributions are v 
come, but the editors assume no responsibility or liability for loss or damag 
articles, photographs, or illustrations Second-class postage paid at Atlanta, Geo 3 

MAGAZINE STAFF 

Phone 656-3530 

H. E. (Bud) Van Orden 
Editor-in-Chief 

Bob Wilson Editor Dick Davis Staff V I ' 

Liz Carmichael Jones . . . Art Director Aaron Pass Staff V rjl 

Jim Couch .... Staff Photographer T. Craig Martin Staff V '' 

Bob Busby .... Staff Photographer Linda Wayne . . Circulation Mai 3 ' 



EDITORIAL 



It's Not Too Early 



A Hunting Regulations Issue in August? You 
st! Now is the time for hunters to take a look 
: the regulations and start thinking again about 
anting safety. Learning the rules and knowing 
3\v to make a hunt a success are important; but 
i ost important is making a safe hunt. The finest 
unt can be marred in a single, thoughtless 

cond. 

One of the new hunting regulations this year 
s as enacted in the interest of safety. "Every per- 
< n hunting deer in Georgia during the open sea- 
< n for firearms hunting shall be required to 
j/ :ar outer garments of daylight fluorescent 
: ange color. A total of 500 square inches of 
; ylight fluorescent orange material is required 
p an outer garment, above the waistline, and in- 
1 iding the head covering". 
[ A number of other states have enacted similar 
I luirements and in every instance the number 
I hunting accidents has decreased. This is our 



goal too. Georgia had 1 3 fatal hunting accidents 
last season; and this single new regulation, we 
hope, will bring about a dramatic decrease. 

Another way that all hunters can help lessen 
the number of hunting accidents is to become 
trained in hunting safety. Some 17 states now re- 
quire completion of a hunter education course 
before a hunting permit is issued. At least five 
other states have mandatory training up for con- 
sideration. 

Such training is not now required in Georgia, 
but it is being offered for those who wish to take 
advantage of it. Georgians traveling to some 
other states to hunt, need to complete such a 
course before they will be issued the necessary 
permits. 

Read the 1973-1974 Georgia Hunting Regu- 
lations in this issue, learn the tricks of success- 
ful hunting, but above all learn to be a safe 
hunter. 






Address: Richmond Hill, Ga. 31324 

Superintendent's Telephone: (912) 756-3763 

Size: 190 Acres 

Elevation: 15 feet 

Location: 25 miles south of Savannah, off U.S. 
17 at the end of Ga. 67 spur 

Distance from: 

Atlanta . . .279 Savannah . 

Columbus . . 283 Valdosta . . 142 



ities: 30 campsites (30W/30E), dump station, 
area, boat ramp, boat dock, 
r, pioneer camp. 





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fficbmotyd Hill 
_-— _ State Park 





Photo by T. Craig / C 



Ricl?n?oi>d Hill 



by T. Craig Martin 



Nestled in a bend of the Ogeechee River 

jar Savannah, Richmond Hill State Park offers 

iitors a blend of outdoor activities, exqui- 

beauty, and historic significance. 

one of the smaller state parks, 

res. Richmond Hill serves as a fine 

long Georgia's coast. Savan- 

lisine, lovely architecture, 



and important historical sites — is only abou 
miles north of the park. Fort McAllister, an 1 
portant Civil War fortification, stands nex:c 
the park. And water sports, particularly G;" 
gia's fine saltwater fishing, beckon from all sii>. 
The park itself offers 30 campsites on Sa' <e 
Island, all with water and electrical hookK 
Also on the island are a comfort station vh 



lowers and toilet facilities, a play area for 
hildren, and a boat ramp and dock on Redbird 
'reek. The mainland portion of the park — 
'hich is connected to the island by a causeway 
-includes a pioneer camping area, dump sta- 
on, picnic area, rest station, and launching 
imp. 

Fishing from the Ogeechee's bank usually is 
roductive, and boaters who head upstream will 
nd a variety of freshwater species. But down- 
ream, toward the Intracoastal Waterway and 
le saltwater at the head of the Ogeechee, is 
here the speckled trout and channel bass lurk, 
long with black drum and sheepshead, striped 
ass and flounder. 

Most of those who venture toward the coast, 
)wever, will want to follow the example of 
cal guides, who explore these waters in big 
>ats with fairly high gunwales to combat the 
:casionally heavy waves. The water isn't al- 
ways rough, but when it is, there's little use in 
. shing for a sturdier craft. 

Freshwater tackle is fine for the inshore fish- 

r g, although most locals seem to prefer slightly 

iger, stiffer rods to handle the heavier weights 

d longer lines left out between bait and bob- 

r in trout fishing. Bait and tackle are available 

arby, and guides can be found by checking 

th local fish camp operators. 

A sunrise over the Ogeechee seen through the 

i rk's magnificent live oaks is a truly spectacu- 

. sight. The old gnarled trees and their tinsel 

; Spanish moss assume fantastic shapes in the 

3 f-light — shapes to stir and kindle the imagi- 

3 ion. And in the late spring when the mag- 

j> ias are in bloom, all of Savage Island seems 

i >hed with a delectable scent. 

I 7 ort McAllister stands next to the park, and 

wacts nothing from its beauty. Unlike stone 

| 3rick forts, this massive earthwork fortifica- 

v I blends harmoniously with its surroundings, 

I curves fitting the shape of the land, its colos- 

I strength coming from the earth itself. The 

fi on Navy's most terrible weapons could only 

m tch the surface of this fort, and it was left to 

( - eral Sherman to take it from behind. 

I here was, indeed, a standoff between Fort 
Jpiyiister, the southernmost of the forts pro- 
[ P ng Savannah, and the Union Navy's iron- 




Photo by T. Craig Martin 

Fort McAllister stands next to the park, 
and is a major attraction for its visitors. The 
earthwork fortification survived several attacks 
by tlie Union Navy, only to be taken from 
behind by General Sherman's troops. 



The park's two boat ramps provide ready 

access to both fresh and salt-water fishing. These 

boaters entering the Ogeechee can head 

upriver for fresh-water species, or turn 

downstream toward the saltwater. 

Photo by Bob Wilson 






•r*. 




clads. The ironclads could do little more than 
rearrange the sandy slopes protecting the fort, 
and the fort's guns could only scratch the iron- 
clads. Three times during 1863 ironclads and 
their support ships attacked the fort. Three times 
they were unsuccessful. 

In December of 1864, however, Sherman ar- 
rived. The fort fell after a 15-minute battle that 
Sherman called "the handsomest thing I have 
seen in this war." 

During the 1930's this whole area was part of 
Henry Ford's 70,000 acre plantation called 
Richmond Hill. Here Ford attempted a "private 
TVA," a huge self-help project designed to reno- 
vate the area and provide work for its residents. 
He helped rebuild Fort McAllister and other 
local facilities, began a medical aid program, 
and financed several businesses that offered 
work to local people. 

Sharp-eyed visitors can find indications of the 
major pre-Ford industry: moonshining. There 
are several pits on Savage Island that were used 
to store liquor, and old bottles or stoppers used 
in its manufacture turn up fairly regularly. 

Although Richmond Hall State Park is rather 
small in size, it is rich in beauty and history. 
And it offers the water sportsman the best of 
two worlds, freshwater fishing upstream, salt- 
water angling downstream. 




Photo by Bob V 



Photo by T. Craig A : 




Wildlife 
Profiles: 

Skunks 



y Aaron Pass 

rt by Liz Carmichael Jones 





The spotted skunk (Spilogale pu- 
torius) is a bit smaller, being about the 
size of a rabbit. The spotted skunk's 
body is basic black but this species 
has several interrupted white stripes, 
giving it a blotched overall appear- 
ance. 



The striped skunk (Mephitis me- 
phitis) is the larger of the two Georgia 
species. About the size of a small 
housecat, the striped skunk could 
hardly be mistakenly for any other 
native animal. It has a jet black body 
with two white stripes running the 
length of its back, meeting at the rear 
of the skull. The top of the head is 
white, and a thin white stripe runs 
down the forehead between the eyes. 



These well-known members of the 
) asel family are found all over the 
t te, and are popularly known as 
lolecats," or "civet cats" and by 
t ter local names. (Such creatures as 
i ets and polecats actually exist but 
are native to Europe, Asia, and 
t them Africa. The first settlers mis- 

enly applied these names to skunks 
n 1 the usages have lingered to this 

3'-) 

3ne peculiar feature of skunks 
r eh lingers for a long time is their 
t it, which they use as a very effec- 
defense mechanism. All members 
the weasel family (including the 
v ts and polecats) have glands which 
* duce a strong musk, but only the 
>i ik hase developed this apparatus 
| i high degree of efficiency. The 
»l mcy of skunk musk is renowned 
}<■ almost always leaves a lasting 
H ression on a victim. 



Actually the skunk is a very peace- 
ful fellow and only wishes to be left 
that way. He uses his spray as a means 
of self defense when injured or mo- 
lested, and normally gives fair warn- 
ing by doing a "handstand" on his 
forepaws before releasing the musk. 
The spray is reported to have an ac- 
curate range of 10-15 feet depending 
on the degree of aggravation of the 
individual skunk. The best advice is 
to give skunks, particularly those 
doing handstands, a wide berth. 

Skunks usually den in burrows 
abandoned by other animals, under 
houses, or in natural cavities in rock- 
piles or the roots of a windfallen tree. 
They do not hibernate, but will hole 
up during bad weather. Skunks have 
one litter of four to seven young per 
year, which are born blind and help- 
less but are soon able to follow the 
mother in single file. The young be- 



come independent by late summer. 

Skunks, unlike their weasel rela- 
tives are not fierce and aggressive 
predators, but prefer to scavenge for 
an omnivorous diet. Skunks are rela- 
tively slow and lethargic creatures 
and their effective defense system 
leaves them few natural enemies. 
They do take some prey, mostly small 
mammals, birds and amphibians, but 
they also grub for insect larvae and 
eat some vegetable matter. They also 
raid garbage cans and poultry houses 
when the opportunity arises. 

Due to the skunk's excellent de- 
fenses and adaptibility these species 
are in no danger of decline. Man 
might be considered a predator on 
skunks, since they arc commercially 
trapped for fur, but with present trap- 
ping regulations this predator has 
caused no significant decline in the 
state's skunk population. 



Saltwater 



with Jtyk 




Photo by T. Craig M i 



By T. Craig Martin 

The brilliant green shape bounded over the 
turquoise water like a hunk of jade skipped 
across a farm pond. Once, twice, three times it 
appeared. Then the trolled balao disappeared 
as the line snapped out of the outrigger, and 
the heavy boat rod leaped into a throbbing arc. 
FISH ON! FISH ON! went up the cry as a wait- 
ing angler dashed to the rod in hopes of boating 
one of the sea's most beautiful creaTures, the 
dolphin. 

A scene from the Florida Keys? No, this excit- 
ing moment took place only a few miles south- 
east of Savannah, in an area readily available 
to the many Georgians who pass up this state's 
offshore fishing as they head south to the Keys 
to the Gulf. The same boat on the same day 
Spanish and king mackerel, bonito, and 
:k. Cobia, bluefish, and sailfish might 
found as well. So there really is no 
2ave Georgia waters if you want to 
saltwater fishing. 



Not convinced? Then stop by Savanna I 
Tidewater Marina and talk to Captain Joi 
Wegener, or any of the other skippers that si 
from there. They'll tell you Georgia's offshc r 
fishing ranks right up with the best in the wore 
and they might even take you out to see < 
yourself. 

Or follow Captain John as he takes his ' 
foot Hatteras out for a day off the Geon i 
coast. Aboard are the skipper and his wt 
Ruby, young First Mate Bob Edwards, Fatl i 
Wilfred Dumm of Savannah's Benedictine /Vi 
tary School, Atlantan Jack Mott, and a cou > 
of Outdoors in Georgia staffers. A motley crtv 
perhaps, but one that ought to suggest "if tl t 
can do it, I can ..." 

The day begins early, with dockside assem ) 
at 5:30 a.m., and will end fairly late, but r 
fishing in between makes up for the exhausti ) 
By 6 the Lady Barbara is under way, beginn r 
a 2V2 hour cruise to the prime fishing grourd 



ie course is about 125 degrees, and will carry 
ie ship some 35-45 miles southeast of Savan- 
□h, although trolling begins within the first 20 
tiles. 

/Vrs. Wegener has soothed the landlubbers' 
■omachs with coffee and and donuts by the 
me prime fishing appears, and the mate has 
gged four trolling lines with balao while the 
uests napped. But by 8:30 or so the ragged 
ottom that fish favor has appeared on the 
epth finder, and everyone musters aft to wait 
)r the first strike. 

The rods, by the way, are heavyweight boat 
lodeis, equipped with saltwater reels and 30 
- 50 pound line. Two lines stream out behind 
jtriggers, two skim along behind the boat, 

hich trolls about three to five miles an hour 





Father Wilfred Diimm had to expend more than a little effort 
to bring in this amberjack. The fish opens its mouth to 
create tremendous drag, a drag that has to be overcome by the 
angler's muscle. This one went back after being tagged. 

Photos by T. Craig Martin 



>r mackerel and dolphin. The bait, balao (or 
:allyhoo"), is a small billfish that has been im- 
c led on a hook, then wired to its shaft. 
, Soon a line whips taut and "Father Willie" 
) :es to the fighting chair. He's in no mean con- 
t i ion, this priest, but the battle soon has him 
a eating and puffing as he struggles to gain 
be on his unseen adversary. For long moments 
1< battle goes on: the fish hangs back, the man 
'jjpnizingly tugs the rod tip toward the sky, 
l< n drops it back as he reels frantically, then 
J Is upward again. And the man wins, this 
•Pie. Slowly, very slowly, a brown and white 
h pe takes form behind the boat, that of a fish 
|i h its mouth gaping open to form a sea 
n hor, a technique that creates a tremendous 
o tacle for the angler. 

, ^ sad sigh goes up from those who can iden- 
|> him, for it is an amberjack (Seriola 
onerili), a fish generally considered inedible, 
<jtl ough great sport. He's tagged and sent 





Even the glorious dolphin mounts a 
fine defense when hooked, .link Mott 
landed hi.s, hut he earned the prize. 



back, a gesture of cooperation with studies be- 
ing carried on by the Woods Hole Oceanogra- 
phic Institution. 

The next battle begins with an incredible 
lecp, and there can be no doubt that the adver- 
sary is a king mackerel (Scomberomorus cav- 
alla). Six feet or more into the air he slashes, 
tearing ihe line off the outrigger and carrying it 
singing off behind the boat. This mackerel is 
less lucky than many of his fellows: so far we've 
lost about ten carefully rigged balao to his kin, 
and mate Bob sighs in relief as we finally hook 
one. 

The battle itself is not quite so grim as the 
struggle with the amberjack, although this king 
weighs about 15 pounds. His sleek shape is 
made for running and leaping, not for dogged 
struggle against a stiff rod and heavy line. He's 
soon consigned to the live well to wait for the 
sharp knife that will carve him into delicious 
steaks. 




A few more mackerel are hung and lost, one 
or two brought to gaff. And then, then comes 
that indescribable instant when the dolphin 
charges across the water at our bait: he is like 
an arrow of green fire, a spear of iridescent 
emerald, a flash of icy chartreuse. Jack Mott 
takes over the fighting chair and the waving 
rod; and he watches helplessly as the fish 
speeds away against the reel's full drag, seem- 
ingly unhampered by the pull of the boat or the 
heavy tension on the line. Finally he tires (or 
becomes bored) and turns back toward the Lady 
Barbara. Mott spins the reel, trying to gain line 
before the dolphin dashes away again; and 
gains a little. So it goes for minute after minute, 
until the small bull dolphin finally wears down. 

As he comes alongside, other colors stand 
out: the royal blue along his spine and dorsal 
fin, the green shading to yellow along his sides, 
the brilliant blue spots scattered along his sides. 
A glorious creature, game,- powerful, aggres- 
sive, and, finally, exquisite food for man. 

Other dolphins are landed, a couple by Mrs. 
Wegener, and two are brought alongside with 
freshwater tackle by experimenting Outdoors in 
Georgia staffers, only to be missed by the gaff. 

One of these intrepid staffers, however, lost 
some 50 yards of line and his bait to something 
out there: it hit, turned, and ran, stopping for 
nothing until the anguished reel gave way and 
the line popped like sewing thread. Which sug- 
gests that he who fishes for offshore species with 
light tackle had better be ready to absorb major 
losses in line and mangled equipment. But noth- 
ing that day compares with the thrill of battling 
those dolphin on equal terms: 14 pound line 
against their 20-25 pound weight, light rod 
against their grim strength, freshwater reel 
against their fiery runs. They can be bested in 
such an encounter, but the man who does so 
will have earned his victory. 

Later in the day Captain John finds some 
bonito. If the dolphins are the most brilliant 
fighters around, the bonito are the most dogged. 
They also are the largest fish of the day, aver- 
aging about 25 pounds; but it is not so much 
their size as their astonishing strength that im- 
presses the anglers. Again and again they wear 
the fishermen down, pull and haul on the line 
until the angler's eyes bulge and muscles 
cramp, until his entire body aches and sweats 
and strains and he forgets everything but the 
few inches of line that must be gained. 

The bonito (Sarda sarda) is related to the 
tuna— indeed some of that "tuna" sold in stores 
is, in fact, bonito. These are deepbodied, power- 
ful fish, who specialize in long tearing runs and 




Captain John took a few moments off to land a bonito. But he 
scorned the chair, preferring instead a fighting belt to hold the rod. 

Photos by T. Craig Martin 





bull-like resistance. And all we can think o\ 
"if this critter fights like this, what does a 5 
pound tuna feel like?" 

As the sun wanes, Captain John turns towc 
shore, pausing only briefly to sample the fla 
ing schools of Spanish mackerel (Scombe 
morus maculatus), for the tired anglers are 
eager to rig the light tackle that makes th< 
fish a sporting proposition. As he guides 
Lady Barbara in, the exhausted fishermen 
treat into his air conditioned cabin to relax w 
liquid refreshment and discuss the day's battl 

An idyllic day, a day to be remembered 
years as a perfect example of the comfort o 
strain, relaxation and tension that combine 
make offshore fishing a superb sport. 

But carpets and air conditioning, handcrafl 
rods and teak decks are not necessary to the i 
joyment of this sport. An open, but sturdy, n 
about will serve as well on calm days, anc 
skilled angler with adequate tackle will outf 
the clumsy man with superb gear. 

All that one really needs to sample Georgi 
offshore fishing is a seaworthy boat with 
moderately powerful engine (preferably w 
some sort of auxiliary power), a reliable cc 
pass, a good depth finder (to locate the rid* 
and dropoffs that indicate good fishing), c 
some fairly sturdy tackle. Heavy freshwc 
tackle is fine for trolling, and probably provi 
better sport if not as much meat. There's alw 
the chance of losing all the gear, but that hin 
danger adds a tang to the fishing. 

Big spoons and feathered jigs work well 
mackerel and dolphin, but balao seems the \ 
of choice. It's best to watch a pro rig these 
before trying it, for there's definitely a wr<» 
way. 

There are guides and charter boats availcl 
all along the coast, but they often specialize 
meat, rather than sport, fishing. They troll 
day, never stopping, which forces their cli< I 
to use too-heavy tackle to combat the drac 
the boat as they fight the fish. The light ta< 
man will do well to reach an understanci 
with the skipper before leaving port: the kc 
must stop— sometimes, indeed, it must fol ( 
the hooked fish— if light tackle is to work. 

But whatever tackle he uses, or howeve 
chooses to reach the fishing grounds, Georc i 
offshore sportsman can expect great fisl i 
and superb sport. All of the species mention 
here are waiting out there, along with the r 
big game fish, the billfish. There's no nee I 1 
drive or fly to exotic climes to find them; \> 
head for Georgia's coast: an ocean of ex 'M 
ment stands waiting. 




Ruby Wegener and Jack Moll struggle with a pair of 15-pound 
bonito, a struggle that only seems a mismatch. The bonito held 
their own quite adequately against the heavy tackle. 



Photo Ly T. Craig Martin 



Photo by Bob Wilson 




As the sun goes down and the 
fishermen relax in air-conditioned 
comfort. Captain John heads the 
Lad) Barbara toward her home 
berth at Savannah's tidewater 
Marina. 



1973 
1974 

HUNTING 
REGULATIONS 
& 

MANAGEMENT 
AREA GUIDE 




GEORGIA 
HUNTING REGULATIONS 

Seasons and Bag Limits 

PURPOSE 

Georgia's hunting regulations, seasons and bag limits 
are set by the Board of Commissioners of the Department 
of Natural Resources, acting on the recommendations of 
the Department's trained game management specialists 
and experienced neld personnel. License fees and general 
laws are determined by the Georgia General Assembly. 

This book is intended as a popular guide. For the exact 
wording of the game laws and regulations, see the Georgia 
Code and the current copy of the Department of Natural 
Resources, Game and Fish Division regulations on file at 
all county courthouses. 

LICENSE REQUIREMENTS 

To pay for Georgia's wildlife conservation efforts, all 
hunters 16 years of age or over are required to have a 
valid hunting license with them while hunting, except 
when hunting on lands owned by them or their immediate 
family residing in the same household. 

Bowhunters must have a valid Bow and Arrow Hunting 
license to hunt with archery tackle. 

Residents who are 65 years of age or over may obtain 

lorary license free of charge by application to 

the License Division, Department of Natural Resources. 

Non-residents must have the appropriate non-resident 

as shown below. 

BIG GAME LICENSE Anyone who hunts deer or 

in Georgia must have a valid Big Game License 



in addition to the regular hunting license or a Bow and 
Arrow License. (The regular hunting license is required 
for all hunting with a gun, the bow and arrow license is 
required for all hunting with a bow.) Those residents spe- 
cifically exempted from purchasing a regular hunting 
license are also exempted from purchasing a big game 
license. Complimentary licenses are available through 
the License Division, Department of Natural Resources. 
Residents under 16 and over 65 and landowners hunt- 
ing on their property must have complimentary deer tags 
issued by the License Division, Department of Natural 
Resources to take deer. Non-residents must purchase all 
appropriate licenses, regardless of age. 

LICENSE FEES 

Resident Licenses 

Hunting License $ 4.25 

Hunting and Fishing Combination 7.25 

Bow and Arrow Hunting License 3.25 

Trapping License 5.25 

Big Game License 3.25 

Non-Resident Licenses 

Hunting License (10 day trip) $15.25 

Season Hunting License 25.25 

Archery License (10 day trip) 12.50 

Season Archery License 25.25 

Big Game (season) 10.25 

Public Hunting Preserve Permit 5.25 

Private Hunting Preserve Permit 12.50 

Trapping License 100.25 



ILLEGAL HUNTING METHODS 

It is illegal . . . 

To hunt from a public road or road intended for public 

use. 
To hunt from an automobile, airplane, or power boat. 
To hunt while under the influence of an intoxicating 

beverage. 
To destroy wildlife dens or habitat to drive out game. 
To take deer in a stream or lake. 
To use pits, cages (except in legal trapping), drugs, 

poisons, chemicals, smoke, gas, explosives, fitchew, 

artificial light or mechanical device, other than a 

firearm or bow and arrow to hunt game. 
To trap wildlife except those specified in the trapping 

regulations in this state. 
To use an electronic call to take game birds or animals. 
To use an electronic call to take fox. 
To hunt game birds or animals over bait. 
To sell, offer to sell, buy, or offer to buy any wildlife. 
To hold any wild game animal in captivity without a 

permit. 
To import any wildlife and stock it into the wild. 
To hunt on the lands of another without permission. 
To hunt or have a firearm in a state or federal park. 
To discharge a firearm on Sunday, except as provided 

by Georgia Law. (26-9919). 

GENERAL REGULATIONS 

LEGAL HOURS Except as specifically provided, legal 
hunting hours for all game birds and game animals shall 
begin thirty (30) minutes before sunrise and close thirty 
(3D) minutes after sunset on all open dates. 

WANTON WASTE It shall be unlawful for any person 
to kill or cripple any game bird or game animal without 
making a reasonable effort to retrieve the game and in- 
clude it in his daily bag limit. 

HUNTING ACCIDENTS Any person who causes or 
is involved in a hunting accident in which a human being 
is killed or injured by means of a firearm or bow and 
arrow must identify himself, give what assistance he can 
to the victim, and immediately report the accident to the 
nearest office of the Department of Natural Resources, 
Game and Fish Division, State Patrol, or county sheriff's 
office. 

REQUIRED CLOTHING: Every person hunting deer in 
Georgia during the open season for firearms hunting shall 
be required to wear outer garments of daylight fluorescent 
orange color. A total of 500 square inches of daylight 
fluorescent orange material is required as an outer gar- 
ment, above the waistline, and including the head cover- 
ing. 

MAXIMUM LIMITS 

The maximum number of deer which may be killed by 
any person during the entire season on State managed 
hunts is two (2), only one of which may be taken on any 
one managed hunt. 

The maximum number of deer that may be killed by 
any person by any means during the entire open and 
managed seasons shall be two (2), only one of which may 
be a doe. 

The maximum number of turkey that may be killed by 
any person by any means during the entire open and 
managed seasons shall be two (2). 

REPORTING KILL 

Each deer and each wild turkey killed must be reported 
in writing to the Department of Natural Resources, Game 
and Fish Division, within five days after killing. 

TAGGING KILL 

Every person killing a deer shall, before removing the 
carcass from the place of kill, detach from his license the 
appropriate tag and shall attach such tag to the carcass of 
his kill. The tag shall be properly filled out and shall re- 
main on the deer at. all times until it has been processed 
for consumption. It shall be unlawful for any person to 
have possession of a deer that is not properly tagged. Any 
deer found not properly tagged will be confiscated, and 
the person in possession thereof shall be guilty of a mis- 
demeanor and punished as provided by law. 

No private or commercial cold storage plant, processing 
plant, or carrier shall accept for storage, processing, ship 
ment or for any other purposes, any deer that is not prop- 



erly tagged. Any deer found at any place or in the pos- 
session of any person, that is not properly tagged, shall be 
confiscated, and the person in possession theseof shall be 
guilty of a misdemeanor and punished as provided by law. 

Deer tags are not transferable nor can they be re-used. 

PROOF OF SEX OF DEER The head of all deer shall 
remain on the carcass until such time as the carcass is 
processed or surrendered to a storage facility for process- 
ing or storage. 

The killing of antlerless deer in this State is illegal at 
any time except in areas as specifically provided in this 
regulation. It shall be illegal and a violation of this regu- 
lation for any person to knowingly possess the meat of 
any deer which has been killed illegally in this State or in 
any other state. It shall be illegal for any person to know- 
ingly conceal the illegal killing of any deer by any person 
or persons whether by accident or otherwise. 

FIREARMS LAWS/LEGAL HUNTING WEAPONS 

DEER WEAPONS Firearms for hunting deer are 
limited to 20 gauge shotguns or larger loaded with slugs 
or buckshot, muzzle loading rifles of .40 caliber or larger, 
or to rifles using any center fire cartridge .22 caliber or 
above with the following exceptions: .218 Bee; .22 Hornet; 
25-20; .256 Magnum; .30 cal. Army carbine; 32-20; 32-40; 
.357 Magnum; .38 Special: 38-40; and 44-40. 

PRIMITIVE WEAPONS Those weapons which may 
be used during primitive weapons hunts shall include: 
long bows, muzzle loading rifles of .40 caliber or larger 
and muzzle loading shotguns of 20 gauge or above. Muz- 
zle loading shotguns must be loaded with single ball am- 
munition for deer. 

SMALL GAME AND VARMINTS Firearms for hunt- 
ing small game and non-game species shall be limited to 
shotguns with No. 4 shot or smaller, .22 rimfire rifles, the 
.30 cal. Army carbine, the 32-20, or any center fire rifles 
with bore diameter of .257 or smaller, all caliber pistols, 
muzzle loading firearms and long bows, except on man- 
agement areas. 

PLUG SHOTGUNS When hunting wildlife, shotguns 
must be plugged to limit them to a capacity of net more 
than three (3) shells in the magazine and chamber com- 
bined. The plug must be a one-piece metal or wooden 
plug, incapable of being removed through the loading end 
of the magazine. 

BOWS/ARCHERY Long bows for the purpose of tak- 
ing deer and turkey shall be legal during the regular hunt- 
ing season and must have a minimum recognized pull of 
40 pounds at 28 inches. Arrows must be broadhead type 
with a minimum width of % inches. 

The use of cross bows or compound bows for hunting 
within this State is prohibited. 

FIREARMS ON ARCHERY HUNTS It shall be ille- 
gal for any archery hunter to have in his possession any 
type of firearm while hunting with bow and arrow during 
archery season. Bows may be used during the regular fire- 
arms deer season, but hunters must abide by firearms bag 
limits. 

REGULATED AREAS 

CLOSED AREAS All counties or parts of counties not 
specifically opened by law or regulation arc closed to the 
taking of game birds and game animals. 

Counties listed as being open for hunting do not include 
those portions of the county or counties lying within game 
management areas, except when such management areas 
are specifically open. 

STATE AND FEDERAL PARKS Hunting on or the 
possession of firearms on any State or federal Park is 
hereby prohibited. 

GAME MANAGFMENT AREAS All game manage- 
menl areas are closed to the taking of an) wildlife except 
during special seasons. 

The possession of firearms or bows within any game 
management area shall be prohibited except as otherwise 
provided by law or regulation. 

The transportation of loaded firearms in or upon motor 
vehicles within public game management areas is herein 
prohibited. 

lor more information on the hunt schedule and regu- 
lations applying to Wildlife Management Areas, consult 
Georgia Wildlife Management Area Regulations 1973- 
74" elsewhere in this booklet. 



WARNING 
Hunting Without Permission 

It is illegal to hunt on private property without 
first obtaining permission from the owner. Wildlife 
rangers, sheriffs, and deputy sheriffs all actively en- 
force this law. If you are questioned while hunting 
on the lands of another, you should be able to 
prove that you have permission to hunt, although 
written permission is not required. Many timber 
companies will allow hunting on their lands, but 
require hunters to pick up a free permit or to notify 
the company of the names and addresses of persons 
in your hunting party, exactly where you plan to 
hunt and how long. 



WILDLIFE REGULATIONS 

GAME ANIMALS The following animals are hereby 
proclaimed and declared to be game animals and are pro- 
tected except during the specified open hunting seasons: 
all members of the family Alligatoridae and Crocodyli- 
dae, Bear, Deer, Opossum, Rabbit, Raccoon, Sea Turtles 
and their eggs, and squirrel. 

GAME BIRDS The following birds are hereby pro- 
claimed and declared to be game birds and are protected 
except during specified open hunting seasons: Turkey, 
Quail, Grouse, Doves, Hybrid-Pheasants (Phasianus colchi- 
cus talischenis), Duck, Geese, Brant, Rails, Red Jungle 
Fowl, Gallinules, Coots. Woodcock, and Snipe. 

FUR BEARING ANIMALS The following animals 
are hereby proclaimed and declared to be fur bearing ani- 
mals and are protected except during specified open trap- 
ping seasons: Mink, Otter, Muskrat, Skunk and Weasel. 

TOTALLY PROTECTED SPECIES Those species of 
wildlife which are totally protected and may not be taken 
at any time, by any means, except as specifically provided, 
include: all members of the family Alligatoridae and 
Crocodylidae, Bears, Cougar (Felis concolor), all birds of 
the order Raptorcs (Hawks and Eagles), and Sea Turtles 
and their eggs. 

UNPROTECTED SPECIES Those species of wildlife 
which are unprotected and may be taken at any time in- 
clude: Armadillos, Beaver, Bobcat, Coyotes, Fox, Eng- 
lish Sparrows and Starlings. 



POSSESSION, SALE OR TRANSPORTATION 
OF ALLIGATORS AND THEIR HIDES No per- 
son shall buy, sell or possess any untanned hide or 
skin from an animal of the family Alligatoridae 
and Crocodylidae within this State, whether or not 
such hide or skin was taken within this State or else- 
where. All such hides and skins are declared to be 
contraband and shall be seized and disposed of as 
directed by the Director. 

No members of the family Alligatoridae or 
Crocodylidae shall be transported into this State 
from any place in which the taking of such species 
is prohibited. All such species are hereby declared 
to be contraband and shall be seized and disposed 
of as directed by the Director. Any person found 
in possession of such species shall be guilty of a 
misdemeanor and punished as provided by law. 



IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE Any person, firm or 
corporation desiring to import any live wildlife into this 
State from any point outside this State must first file with 
the Department of Natural Resources, Game and Fish 
Division an application to import such wildlife. Wildlife 
that the Department approves for importation into this 
State shall first be certified by the U. S. Department of 
Agriculture as being disease and parasite free. The wild- 
life must then be held in quarantine for at least twenty 
(20) days. At the end of this period, wildlife shall be in- 
spected by a wildlife biologist from the Department of 
Natural Resources, Game and Fish Division who shall 
determine the health and well being of the wildlife at that 
time. If such wildlife are not deemed an undesirable spe- 
holding permit will be issued after the above re- 
are met. No wildlife shall be imported into 
any person, firm, or corporation for release 



MIGRATORY GAME BIRDS 

Seasons and bag limits for migratory game birds are set 
each year in compliance with Federal guidelines and are 
not available until August. Information on those seasons 
will be available by Sept. 1, 1973. 

HUNTING SEASONS 

ALLIGATOR No open season. 

BEAR No open season. 

DEER Archery The open season for hunting deer with 
bow and arrow in Game Zones I, la, II, III, IV and V, 
shall be from September 29 through October 27, 1973, in 
any county, or part thereof, having a legal firearms deer 
season. Bag limit is two (2) bucks or one (1) buck and one 
(1) doe. Hunting with dogs prohibited except in such areas 
and during such times as dogs are legal under firearms 
hunting regulations. 

Exception: The open season for hunting deer with bow 
and arrow in Game Zone VI shall be from September 29 
through October 19, 1973, in any county, or part thereof 
having a legal firearms deer season. Bag limit is two (2) 
bucks or one (1) buck and one (1) doe. Hunting with dogs 
prohibited. 

Notice: Archery equipment may be used during fire- 
arms hunts, however, all hunters must abide by firearms 
regulations as to bag limits. 

DEER Firearms GAME ZONE I (see map): Open sea- 
son November 3 through November 24, 1973. Bag limit 
two (2) bucks. Hunting with dogs prohibited. The follow- 
ing counties in Game Zone I are closed to the taking of 
deer except as otherwise provided: That portion of Bar- 
tow and Cherokee Counties between Knox Bridge and 
McKasky Creek lying south of Ga. Highway #20 to Lake 
Allatoona: also that portion of Cherokee County bounded 
on the north by Ga. #20, on the east by Ga. #5, and on 
the west by Lake Allatoona: Catoosa, Murray, Pickens, 
that portion of Walker County bounded on the north by 
Ga. #193, on the west by Hog Jaw Road and Cove Road, 
on the south by Ga. #239 and the Chattooga-Walker 
County line, on the east by Bronco Road, and Whitfield 
County. The counties of Fulton, DeKalb, and Cobb are 
also closed to the taking of deer. 

GAME ZONE I-A (see map):>Open season November 
3 through December 1, 1973. Bag limit two (2) bucks. 
Hunting with dogs prohibited. Provided however that 
Hart County shall be closed to the taking of deer. 

GAME ZONE II (see map); Open season November 3 
through December 1, 1973 in all counties in Game Zone 
II, except Bibb and Clayton Counties. Bag limit two (2) 
bucks. Hunting with dogs prohibited. 

GAME ZONE II (see map): Bonus Hunt. The follow- 
ing counties in Game Zone II will be open for a bonus 
hunt December 26, 1973 through January 1, 1974: Bald- 
win, Bleckley, Butts, Clarke, Columbia, Coweta, Craw- 
ford, Elbert, Fayette, Glascock, Greene, Hancock, Harris, 
Heard, Henry, Houston, Jasper, Jones, Lamar, Lincoln. 
Macon, Meriwether, Monroe, Morgan, McDuffie, New- 
ton, Oconee, Oglethorpe, Peach, Pike, Pulaski, Putnam, 
Richmond, Rockdale, Schley. Spalding, Talbot, Taliafer- 
ro, Taylor, Troup, Twiggs, Upson, Walton, Warren, 
Wilkes and Wilkinson. Bag limit two (2) bucks. Hunting 
with dogs prohibited. 

GAME ZONE II (see map): Either Sex Hunt. The fol- 
lowing counties in Game Zone II will be open for the 
taking of deer of either sex on December 1, 1973 and 
January 1, 1974: Baldwin, Butts, Columbia, Crawford, 
Glascock, Hancock, Henry, Jasper, Jones, Lamar, Lin- 
coln, Macon, Monroe, McDuffie Newton, Putnam, Spald- 
ing, Talbot, Taliaferro, Taylor, Twiggs, Upson, Warren, 
Wilkes and Wilkinson. Bag limit two (2) bucks or one (1) 
buck and one (1) doe. Hunting with dogs prohibited. 

GAME ZONE II (see map): Either Sex Hunt. The fol- 
lowing counties in Game Zone II will be open for the 
taking of deer of either sex on December 1, 1973: Green, 
Morgan, Oglethorpe and Pike. Bag limit two (2) bucks or 
one (1) buck and one (1) doe. Hunting with dogs pro- 
hibited. 

GAME ZONE III (see map): November 3. 1973 through 
January 1, 1974. Bag limit two (2) bucks. Hunting with 
dogs permitted in Baker, Calhoun, Decatur, Dougherty. 
Early, Grady, Mitchell, Seminole and Thomas Counties. 

GAME ZONE III (see map): Eithei Sex Hunt. The fol- 
lowing counties in Game Zone III will be open for the 
taking of deer of either sex for two days, December 31, 



GAME ZONES 
OF 

GEORGIA 




1973 and January 1, 1974: Chattahoochee and Muscogee. 
Bag limit two (2) bucks or one (1) buck and one (1) doe. 
Hunting with dogs prohibited. 

Hunting with dogs prohibited in Muscogee, Chattahoo- 
chee, Randolph, Clay, Quitman and Miller Counties. 

GAME ZONE III (see map): Either Sex. The following 
counties shall be open for the taking of deer of either sex 
on January 1, 1974: Baker, Calhoun, Dougherty and 
Thomas. Bag limit two (2) bucks or one (1) buck and one 

(1) doe. Hunting with dogs allowed. 

Hunting with dogs will be allowed from December 17, 
1973 through January 1, 1974 in Marion, Stewart, Terrell 
and Webster Counties. 

GAME ZONE IV: November 3 through November 24, 
1973 in the following counties: that portion of Dodge 
County lying west of Georgia Highway 230 and north of 
U.S. Highway 280: and that portion lying south of U.S. 
Highway 280 and west of Georgia Highway 117 south- 
west of Rhine, Georgia; Dooly, Laurens, Lee, Montgom- 
ery, Sumter, Telfair, Wheeler and Wilcox. Bag limit two 

(2) bucks. Hunting with dogs prohibited except as herein 
provided. Treutlen County closed to the taking of deer at 
any time. 

Johnson County shall be open for still hunting deer 
November 3 through January 1, 1974. Dogs will be al- 
lowed in that portion of Johnson County lying east of the 
Ohoopee River from December 3. 1973 to January 1. 
1974. Bag limit two (2) bucks. 

Hunting with dogs allowed in that portion of Wilcox 
County lying east of U.S. Highway 129 and north of U.S. 
Highway 280 on November 22, 23 and 24. 1973. 

That portion of Dodge County lying west of Georgia 
Highway 230 and north of U.S. Highway 280 shall be 
open for the taking of deer with dogs on November 22, 
23 and 24, 1973. 

GAME ZONE V: November 3, 1973 through Decem- 
ber 1, 1973 in the following counties as provided herein: 
Appling, Atkinson, Ben Hill, Berrien. Brooks, Coffee. Col- 
quitt, that portion of Echols County lying west of the 
Alapaha River, Irwin, Jeff Davis, Lanier, except that por- 
tion lying north of the Seaboard Coastline Railroad and 
east of the Alapaha River and southeast of U.S. Highway 
221, Lowndes, Tift and Worth. Bag limit two (2) bucks. 
Hunting with dogs prohibited. 

Hunting with dogs allowed in Colquitt County on 
November 9 and 10 and November 23 and 24, 1973. Bag 
limit two (2) bucks. 

October 20, 1973 through January 1. 1974 in the fol- 
lowing counties as provided herein: Clinch County, except 
that portion lying in the southwest corner of the County, 
bordered on the north by the Seaboard Coastline Rail- 
road and on the east by Suwannoochee Creek, and ex- 
cept that portion lying north of Arabia Bay Wildlife 
Management Area and between U.S. Highway 221 and 
U.S. Hughway 441, all of which exceptions are closed: 
Echols County east of U.S. Highway 129 and south of 
Georgia Highway 187: and Lanier County north of the 
Seaboard Coastline Railroad and east of the Alapaha 
River and southeast of U.S. Highway 221. Bag limit two 
(2) bucks. Hunting with dogs allowed. 

November 26 through December 1, 1973 in that por- 
tion of Atkinson County lying south of the Seaboard 
Coastline Raihoad and east of U.S. Hwy. 221: that por- 
tion of Berrien County lying east of U.S. Hwy. 129. south 
of the Alapaha River, north of Ga. Hwy. 76 and west of 
Ga. Hwy. 135. Bag limit two (2) bucks. Hunting with dogs 
allowed. 

October 20 through November 17, 1973 in Ware Coun- 
ty, except that portion lying north of U.S. 82 and those 
portions lying within the outermost boundaries of Way- 
cross State Forest WMA, which portions are closed to 
deer hunting. Bag limit two (2) bucks. Hunting with dogs 
allowed. 

GAME ZONE VI: October 20, 1973 through January 

1, 1974. All counties in Game Zone VI will be open with 

the following exceptions: that portion of Charlton County 

lying northwest of the Okefenokee Swamp, which is 

closed; that portion of Pierce County lying west of U.S. 

2 and Pleasant Hill Church Road; that portion of 

Pierce County lying in the northeast corner bounded on 

ihe west by U.S. #82 and on the south by Ga. #32, and 

that portion of Pierce County lying in the southeast cor- 

inded on the east by Ga. #15 and on the west by 

K2, which portions are closed: that portion of 

ounty lying west of Jesup which is bounded on 



the north by Ga. #169 and on the south by U.S. #82, 
which is closed. Bag limit two (2) bucks. Hunting with 
dogs allowed. 

November 1 through 24, 1973 in Toombs County. Dog 
hunting will be allowed only in that portion of Toombs 
County lying south of Georgia Highway 107 and 56. Bag 
limit two (2) bucks. 

GAME ZONE VI (see map): Either Sex Hunt. The fol- 
lowing counties in Game Zone VI will be open for the 
taking of deer of either sex on January 5, 1974: Burke, 
Effingham, Jefferson, Jenkins, Screven and Washington. 
Bag limit two (2) bucks or one (1) buck and one (1) doe. 
Hunting with dogs prohibited. Emanuel County closed to 
deer hunting. 

The marshes and islands lying east of the Intercoastal 
Waterway in Bryan. Camden, Chatham, Glynn, Liberty 
and Mclntoch Counties will be open for the taking of 
deer of either sex on October 20 through January 1, 1974. 
Bag limit two (2) bucks or one (1) buck and one (1) doe. 
Hunting with dogs allowed; provided however, that 
Sapelo and Blackbeard Islands are closed to all hunting 
except as otherwise specifically provided. 

FOX There shall be no closed season on the taking of 
fox. 

It shall be unlawful for any person to take or attempt 
to take any fox, within the State, by use or aid of re- 
corded calls or sounds or recorded or electronically ampli- 
fied imitations of calls or sounds. 

GROUSE October 13, 1973 through February 28, 
1974. Bag limit three (3) daily; possession limit six (6). 

WILD HOGS Hogs are considered non-game animals 
in Georgia. They are legally the property of the land- 
owner, and cannot be hunted without his permission, ex- 
cept on public lands. Firearms are limited to shotguns 
with Number 4 shot or smaller, .22 rimfire rifles, center- 
fire rifles with bore diameter .257 or smaller, the .30 cal. 
Army Carbine, the .32/20, all caliber pistols, muzzle 
loading firearms and bows and arrows. 

OPOSSUM October 13, 1973 through February 28, 
1974 in Carroll, Fulton, DeKalb. Gwinnett, Barrow, Jack- 
son, Madison, Elbert, and all counties north of those 
listed. No bag limit. Night hunting allowed. 

All counties south of the above named counties are 
open year round for the taking of opossum. No bag limit. 
Night hunting allowed. 

QUAIL November 20, 1973 through February 28, 
1974. Statewide season. Bag limit twelve (12) daily; pos- 
session limit thirty-six (36). 

RABBIT November 20, 1973 through February 28, 
1974, in all counties, statewide. Bag limit ten (10) daily. 

RACCOON October 13, 1973 through February 28, 
1974 in Carroll, Fulton, DeKalb, Gwinnett, Barrow, Jack- 
son, Madison, Elbert and all counties north of those listed. 
Bag limit one (1) per night per person. Night hunting al- 
lowed. All counties south of the above named counties 
are open year round for the taking of raccoon. No bag 
limit. Night hunting allowed. 

SEA TURTLES There is no open season on sea turtles 
and their eggs. 

SQUIRREL (1) August 18 through September 8, and 
October 13, 1973 through February 28, 1974 in Harris, 
Talbot, Upson, Monroe, Jones, Baldwin, Hancock, War- 
ren, M^Duffie and Columbia Counties and all counties 
Iving north of these counties. Bag limit ten (10) daily. 

(2) October 20, 1973 through February 28, 1974 state- 
wide. Bag limit ten (10) daily. 

TURKEY November 20, 1973-February 28, 1974 in 
Baker, Calhoun, Decatur, Early, Grady. Mitchell, Thomas 
Counties. Bag limit two (2) Turkey. 

NOTE: Spring Gobbler Seasons for 1974 will not be set 
until February 1974. Information on these dates and 
hunts will be available from the Public Relations and 
Information Division by February 15, 1974. 

TRAPPING SEASONS 

TRAPPING Raccoons may not be trapped in Carroll, 
Fulton. DeKalb, Gwinnett. Barrow. Jackson. Madison, 
and Elbert Counties or any county lying north of these 
counties. There shall be no closed season for the trapping 
of raccoon in any of the counties south of the above listed 
counties. The trapping season for opossum, muskrat, otter, 
mink and skunk shall be November 20, 1973 through 
February 28, 1974. There shall be no closed season on the 



trapping of fox, bobcat or beaver in this State. No other 
wildlife except those specified may be trapped at any time 
within this State. 

The use of traps on any wildlife management area by 
any persons not authorized by the Game and Fish Divi- 
sion. Department of Natural Resources, is hereby pro- 
hibited. 

FUR, HIDE AND PELT REPORTS Within ten (10) 
days after the close of trapping season, all trappers must 
report the number of furs, hides or pelts which have 
been laken during the open season and the person, firm or 
corporation to whom sold. Such reports must be made to: 
Department of Natural Resources. Game and Fish Divi- 
sion, Trinity-Washington Street Building, 270 Washington 
Street, S.W.. Atlanta, Georgia 30334. 

EXPORTATION OF FURS, HIDES OR PELTS Any 
person, firm or corporation who shall ship, transport or 
otherwise convey any furs, hides or pelts from any point 
within this State to any point outside this State shall file 
with the Department a written report of the number and 
type of furs, hides or pelts exported from this State and 
name and address of the person, firm or corporation to 
whom such furs, hides or pelts were shipped. Such reports 
must be submitted at least three (3) days prior to ship- 
ment, and failure to submit such a report will result in 
revocation of license in addition to criminal proceedings. 
Any furs, hides or pelts shipped, transported or otherwise 
conveyed from any point inside this State to any point 
outside this State contrary to any provisions of these regu- 
lations shall be declared contraband and seized and dis- 
posed of as provided by law. 

SPECIAL PERMITS 

TRAINING DOGS Any resident or non-resident who 
trains hunting dogs in this State must first meet the fol- 
lowing requirements: 

(a) Must possess a valid hunting license . 

(b) No firearms, axes, climbers or other equipment for 
taking game may be carried or possessed, except hand 
guns with blank or solid ball ammunition may be carried 
for training pointing dogs only. 

(c) The running *of deer with dogs except during the 
lawful open season for hunting deer with dogs is pro- 
hibited. 

(d)No game may be taken by any means except during 
the lawful open seasons. 

FIELD TRIAL PERMITS Applications to conduct 
field or retriever trials must be made to the Director of 
the Game and Fish Division not less than two (2) weeks 
prior to the proposed trial. 

Permits granted for conducting field or retriever trials 
must be posted at the hunt headquarters or in that area 
where scores from the hunts are posted. 

Specified wildlife may be pursued by dogs under con- 
trol, but may not be taken except during the lawful open 
seasons. 

The Director shall have the right to reject any applica- 
tion when, in his opinion, it is in the best interest of wild- 
life conservation. 

No field or retriever trials shall be held within this State 
without first obtaining the permit required by this regula- 
tion. 

Non-residents competing in licensed field trials will not 
be required to obtain a non-resident hunting license for 
competing. 

TAXIDERMIST PERMIT A taxidermist permit shall 
be required of all persons engaging in the preservation or 
mounting of any wildlife or any parts thereof. This per- 
mit shall authorize the holder thereof to have in his pos- 
session at his place of business any wildlife legally caught, 
killed or taken, for the sole purpose of preserving or 
mounting such wildlife. 

Taxidermists shall keep a written record of all wildlife 
received by them, showing the name and address of the 
owner, number and species and the date received. All such 
reports and specimens shall at all times be available for 
inspection by any representative of the Department of 
Natural Resources. Game and Fish Division. 

A special permit is required before mounting any total- 
ly protected species. 

There shall be no charge for the permit. 



MILITARY POSTS 

Information regarding the regulations for hunting on 
Military installations may be obtained by writing the 
Provost-Marshal at the respective posts. 

FORT BENNING 

Deer: (Firearms) Either Sex. December 15, 1973 
through January 1, 1974. Hunters will be allowed to take 
one buck and one doe, or two bucks. Each antlerless deer 
must be tagged on the date killed at the Fort Benning 
checking station with a special antlerless deer tag. During 
deer season, only pointing and retrieving dogs will be 
allowed. 

FORT GORDON 

(1) Deer: (Archery) Either Sex. Open dates September 
29 through October 19. 1973. Bag limit two (2) bucks or 
one (1) buck and one (1) doe. 

(2) Deer: (Firearms) Buck Only. Open dates October 
20, 1973 through January 1. 1974. Hunters will be al- 
lowed to take two buck deer with visible antlers. No dog 
hunting will be allowed. 

(3) Deer: (Firearms) Either Sex. Open dates November 
22, 1973 through November 24, 1973 and December 26, 
1973 through January 1. 1974. Hunters may take one 
deer of either sex. No hunting with dogs allowed. 

(4) All hunters are subject to post regulations. All hunt- 
ing is by permit only. Check with Provost Marshal's Office 
before hunting. Fach deer killed must be tagged with a 
deer tag on date killed at the Fort Gtrrdon checking sta- 
tion. 

FORT STEWART 

(1) Deer: (Archery) Either Sex. Open dates September 
29 through October 19, 1973. Bag limit two (2) bucks or 
one (1) doe and one (1) buck. 

(2) Deer: (Firearms) Buck Only. Open dates October 
20, 1973 through January 1, 1974. Hunters may take two 
(2) buck deer. 

(3) Deer: (Firearms) Either Sex. Open dates November 
19 through 24. 1973, and December 17. 1973 through 
January 1, 1974. Hunters may take one (1) deer of either 
sex. 

(4) General Regulations. All hunters must comply with 
current Fort Stewart hunting regulations as well as appli- 
cable Federal and State hunting regulations. Special safety 
regulations must be complied with. All hunting is by per- 
mit only. All hunters must check in with the Provost 
Marshal Reservation Enforcement Section before and 
after hunting. Hunting with dogs is prohibited except that 
bird dogs or retrievers may be used to hunt upland game 
birds (other than wild turkey) and waterfowl. Use or pos- 
session of buckshot is prohibited. 



REPORT VIOLATORS 

Because Georgia's wildlife belongs to everyone, the 
game law violator is a thief. You can help preserve Geor- 
gia's wildlife by reporting violations, along with the car 
tag number on the violator's car, a brief description, the 
location, time, and other helpful information. Rangers 
may be reached by calling the nearest district office of 
the Division, your local sheriff or police department, or 
the ranger's home. 

Game and Fish Division offices and their telephone 
numbers are: 

Albany 912-435-0068 

Atlanta 404-656-3510 

Brunswick 912-265-1552 

Calhoun 404-629-8674 

Cordele 912-273-8945 

Ft. Valley 912-825-8248 

Gainesville 404-536-6062 

Macon 912-742-1335 

Manchester 404-846-2541 

Mctter 912-685-2145 

Richmond Hill 912-756 -3336 

Thomson 404-595-4211 

Walton 404-557-2227 

Way cross 912-283-6639 



1973-74 WILDLIFE MANAGEMENT AREA REGULATION 



MANAGED HUNTS SCHEDULE 

(Hunts marked "QH" with a number are limited quota 
hunts. Number of hunters allowed is indicated. Hunters 
will be determined by drawings in advance of the hunt. 
For details on each area, consult the directory.) 

DEER HUNTS 



SMALL GAME 






PRIMITIVE WEAPONS 




A reus 


Dates 


B. F. Grant (Either Sex) 


Nov. 5-10 


Bullard Creek (Either Sex) 


Nov. 19-24 


Chickasawhatchee (Either Sex) (QH 400) 


Nov. 9-10 


*Clark Hill (Buck Only) 


Oct. 29-31 


(Either Sex) 


Nov. 1-2 


Coleman River (Either Sex) 


Dec. 31-Jan. 5 


Johns Mtn. (Either Sex) (QH 500) 


Jan. 3-4 


Snwannoochee (Either Sex) 


Nov. 19-24 


Warwoman (Either Sex) 


Oct. 22-27 


ARCHERY (EITHER SEX) 


Alapaha 


Nov. 5-10 


Allatoona 


Oct. 22-27 


Berry College 


Nov. 12-17 


Blue Ridge 


Nov. 5-10 


Brunswick Pulp & Paper 


Sept. 29-Oct. 20 


Bullard Creek 


Oct. 29-Nov. 3 


Cedar Creek 


Nov. 7-10 


Chickasawhatchee 


Oct. 26-27 


Clark Hill 


Oct. 29-Nov. 2 


Johns Mtn. 


Oct. 8-13 


Lake Russell 


Oct. 15-20 


Oaky Woods 


Oct. 13-27 




(Fri.. Sat. only) 


Ocmulgee 


Oct 13-27 




(Wed.Thurs., Sat.) 


Ogeechee 


Oct. 10-27 




(Wed, Fri., Sat.) 


Piedmont National (Federal) 


Oct. 1-13 


Blackbeard Island (Federal) 


Oct. 16-19 




Nov. 20-23 




Dec. 27-29 


Wassaw Island (Federal) 


Nov. 20-23 




Dec. 11-14 


Ft. Gordon 


Sept. 29-Oct. 19 


Ft. Stewan 


Sept. 29-Oct. 19 


FIREARMS (BUCK ONLY) 


Alapaha 


Nov. 26-Dec. 1 


Allatoona (QH 600) 


Nov. 26, 27, 28 


Arabia Bay 


Oct. 29-Nov. 3 


Berry College (QH 600) 


Oct. 29, 30, 31 


B. F. Grant 


Nov. 19-24 


Blue Ridge 


Nov. 19-24 


Brunswick Pulp & Paper 


Oct. 20-Jan. 1 


Bullard Creek 


Dec. 3-8 


Cedar Creek 


Nov. 19-24 


Chattahoochee 


Nov. 19-24 


Chestalee 


Nov. 26-Dec 1 


Chickasawhatchee (QH 400) 


Nov. 16-17. Dec. 7-8 


Clark Hill 


Nov. 19-24 


•Cohutla 


Nov. 26-Dec. 1 


Coleman River 


Nov. 19-24 


Lake Burton 


Nov. 26-Dec. 1 


Lake Russell (QH 1 000) 


Nov. 26-Dec. 1 


Oaky Woods 


Nov. 19-24 




Dec. 12-15 


Ocmulgee 


Nov. 3, Nov. 5-10 




Nov. 21-24 


Ogeechee 


Nov. 3, Nov. 5-10 




Nov. 19-24 


Pigeon Mtn. 


Dec. 3-8 


Snwannoochee 


Dec. 17-22 




Dec. 31-Jan. 5 


Swallow Creek 


Nov. 26-Dec. 1 


Warwoman 


Nov. 26-Dec. 1 


Waycross 


Dec 3-8 


♦Piedmont National (Federal) (QH 500) 


Oct. 22-27 


Ft. Gordon 


Oct. 20-Jan. 1 


Ft. Stewart 


Oct 20-Jan. 1 



FIREARMS (ANTLERLESS) 

A reas Dates 

Allatoona (QH 3()0) Jan. 1 

I! 1 •". Grant (QH 700) Dec. 11.15 

Cedai (. reek (QH 1200) Jan. 4-5 

(lark Kill (QH 300) Dec 8 

1 ake Burton (Qll 500) Jan. 12 

»Oak> Woods (500 hunter limit) Dec. 21-22 

Ocmulgee (QH 500) Dec. 8 

FIREARMS (EITHER SEX) 
(QH 300 prs.) Fathei Son Hunt Dec 27, 28 29 
ational (Federal) (QH 2000) Nov. 3. 10, 17 

Dec 15-Jan. 1 
Nov. 22-24 
Dec 26-Jan. 1 
Nov. 19-24 
Dec I7-Jan. 1 

indei this area elsewhere in guide. 



Aiapaha— Jan. 5-19; Feb. 2-16 

Allatoona — State Seasons 

Albany Nursery — Dove only on Wednesdays during both seasons 

Arabia Bay— Jan. 5-19; Feb. 2-16 

Baldwin State Forest — State Seasons 

Berry College— Dec 22-29; Jan. 12-26 

B. F. Grant— Aug. 18-Sept. 5; Oct. 13-31; Dec. 19-Jan. 30 

(Wed. & Sat. only) 
Blue Ridge— Aug. 18-31; Oct. 15-Nov. 2; Dec. 3-31; Jan. 14-Feb. 16 
Brunswick Pulp & Paper — State Seasons — Mon.-Sat. 
Bullard Creek— Jan. 5-19; Feb. 2-16 
Cedar Creek— Aug. 18-Sept. 8; Dec. 1-22; Jan. 9-Feb. 28 

(Wed., Fri, Sat.) 
Chattahoochee— Aug. 18-31; Dec. 3-31; Jan. 19-Feb. 23 
Chestatee— Aug. 18-31; Dec. 3-31: Feb. 1-23 
Chickasawhatchee — Dove Only — Sat. during first season. Other small 

game Jan. 4-5; Jan. 18-19; Feb. 1-2; Feb. 15-16 
Clark Hill— Aug. 18-Sept. 8; Nov. 28-Dec. 5; Dec. 12-Fcb. 28 

(Wed. & Sat. only) 
Cohutta— Dec. 8-29; Jan. 12-19; Feb. 9-23 
Coleman River— Aug. 18-Sept. 8; Dec. 3-Jan. 31 
Cooper's Creek— Aug. 18-Sept. 8; Nov. 26-Jan. 31; Feb. 9-23 
Coosawattee — Dec. 3-Jan. 12 
Fendig (Rayonier) Area — Jan. 5-19; Feb. 2-16 
Grand Bay — State Seasons 
Johns Mtn.— Dec. 22-29; Jan. 12-26 
lake Burto"— Aug. 18-31; Dec. 3-Jan. 5; Feb. 9-23 
Lake Russell— Aug. 18-31; Dec. 3-Jan. 5 
Lake Seminole — State Seasons 
Little River — State Seasons 
Little Satilla— Jan. 5-19; Feb. 2-16 
Oaky Woods — Sat. only — First Dove Season 

Dec. 5-8; Dec. 29-Feb. 28 (Wed. & Sat. only) 
Ocmulgee — Sat. only — First Dove Season 

Dec. 12-Feb. 28 (Wed. & Sat. only) 
Ogeechee — Sat. only — First Dove Season 

Aug. 15-Sept. 8; Dec. 5-Feb. 28 (Wed. & Sat. only) 
Pigeon Mtn— Dec. 22-29; Jan. 12-26 
Rich Mtn.— Dec. 3-Jan. 12; Feb. 9-23 
Suwannoochee — Jan. 7-19; Feb. 2-16 

Swallow Creek— Aug. 18-Sept. 8; Oct. 14-Nov. 2; Dec. 3-31 
Talking Rock — Dec. 3-Jan 13 
Warwoman— Aug. 18-31; Dec. 3-29; Feb. 9-23 
Waycross— Jan. 3-5; Jan. 10-12; Jan. 17-19; Feb. 2-16 
Whitesburg — State Seasons 

Piedmont National (Federal) — Squirrel — Aug 18-Sept. 8 (No Sunday) 
Quail and Squirrel— Nov. 20-Feb. 28 
(Tues. & Sat. only) 



MAPS 

Maps of the various game management areas will be 
available at the checking station during the hunts, or from 
any office of the Game and Fish Division in advance. 

FIRE SAFETY 

Since many of the areas are leased for public hunting 
from private timberland owners, at no cost to hunters, 
hunters using the areas are urged to be especially careful 
with fires by cautiously extinguishing all discarded 
matches, cigarettes, and camp fires. 

GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS OF ALL 
MANAGEMENT AREAS: 

(1) Hunters on management areas during small game 
hunts will be restricted to the possession of pointing and 
retriever dogs only, except as otherwise provided. All dogs 
entering wildlife management areas will be kept on a leash 
except when hunting, and hunters must remove their dogs 
from the area when they check out. 

(2) Vehicles and effects are subject to being searched 
for illegal game. 

(3) Persons under the influence of intoxicants will be 
barred from hunting. 

(4) Hunting within 200 yards of any building, main 
road, and pastures or fields containing livestock is pro- 
hibited. Carrying loaded firearms in, or shooting from 
automobiles is prohibited. Target practice is prohibited on 
all areas. 

(5) During the managed deer hunts, children under 12 
years of age will not be allowed to go on managed areas; 
those between the ages of 12 and 16 must be accompanied 
by an adult. 

(6) No person shall be eligible to receive a permit who 
has been convicted of a violation of game laws, rules or 
regulations, within three years prior to the hunt. 

(7) Each hunter killing a deer must immediately stop 
hunting and report same on date killed to the State Game 
& Fish Division checking station on the area. 



Tennessee 



North Carolina 

Coleman River WM^,.-- 



HUNTING AREAS 

SEORGII! 




(Lake #Sem^iole WatetfowM.o. 
WMA j 



Florida 



(8) All management area gates, except those at the 
checking station will be kept closed and may not be used 
for access. 

(9) Shotguns must be plugged to limit them to a capac- 
ity of three shells for all wildlife. Firearms for hunting 
deer are limited to 20 gauge shotguns or larger loaded 
with slugs, muzzle loading rifles .40 caliber or larger, or 
rifles using any center fire cartridge with expanding bullet 
.22 caliber or above with the following exceptions: .218 
Bee: .22 Hornet: 25-20; .256 Magnum: .30 cal. Army 
carbine; 32-20; 32-40; .357 Magnum: .38 Special; 38-40; 
and 44-40. No hunter will be allowed to use or possess 
buckshot while hunting on a Wildlife Management Area. 
Firearms for small game shall be limited to shotguns 
loaded with No. 4 shot or smaller, .22 rimfire rifles, .30 
army carbine, 32-20 or any center fire rifle with bore di- 
ameter of .257 or smaller, muzzle loading firearms, pistols, 
or bow and arrow with blunt points. 

(10) Upon violation of any game law, rule or regula- 
tion, permittee shall be expelled immediately from the 
management area and p. osecuted. 

(11) Check-in time on all big game hunts will be from 
8 a.m. to 10 p.m. on the day before the hunt opens and 
daily during the hunts from 5 a.m. to 8 p.m. No one per- 
son will be allowed to check in more than 12 persons. All 
hunters must check out by 8 p.m. on the last day of the 
hunt. All hunters will be required to leave their big game 
license at the checking station. 

(12) Pre-hunt scouting and camping will be allowed on 
the two days immediately prior to the hunt opening on all 
areas, except as specifically provided herein. 

(13) All hunt camps must be removed no later than 
12 Noon one day after the hunt closes. Camping in. or 
driving motor vehicles upon food plantings will be pro- 
hibited. 

(14) There shall be a limit of two deer per hunter per 
year on all State Managed Areas; only one of which may 
be killed on any one Managed Hunt. 

(15) All motor vehicles whether used for hunting or 
other purposes will be restricted to improved roads or 
other areas as designated by the Director. "Improved 
Roads" as outlined herein shall mean those roads which 
receive maintenance for the purpose of access. 

(16) Legal Hours: All opening dates begin 30 minutes 
before sunrise on the opening date, and all closing dates 
end 30 minutes after sunset on the closing date. Hunting 
hours are from 30 minutes before sunrise until 30 minutes 
after sunset, all dates inclusive. Exception: Hunting hours 
on the Special Raccoon Hunts are from 6 p.m. to 6 a.m. 

(17) All hunters must possess a valid hunting license; 
those hunters hunting big game (deer and/or turkey) must 
possess a valid big game license. Permits are required on 
all managed hunts except those specified within these 
regulations. 

(18) During either sex hunts, hunters will be allowed to 
take only one deer. 

(19) During buck only hunts, hunters will be allowed 
to take only one buck deer with visible antlers. 

(20) During antlerless hunts, hunters will be allowed 
to take only one antlerless deer. 

(21) During small game hunts, hunters will be allowed 
to hunt any small game in season subject to State Seasons, 
Regulations am 1 Bag Limits, except as otherwise provided. 

(22) No night hunting will be allowed on any State 
Wildlife Management Area except during Special Rac- 
coon Hunts or as otherwise provided. 

(23) Special Raccoon Hunts are restricted to the use of 
.22 rimfire rifles only. Hunters will be allowed to hunt 
raccoons with tree dogs and no dogs will be allowed ex- 
cept tree dogs. All hunts will be subject to State Regula- 
tions and Bag Limits. Owners are responsible for their 
dogs, and any damage they may do to game other than 
raccoons. Dogs chasing deer will be barred from any fur- 
ther hunting. 

(24) Every person hunting deer during the firearms 
managed hunts must wear outer garments of daylight 
fluorescent orange color. A total of 500 square inches of 
daylight fluorescent orange material is required as an 
outer garment, above the waistline, and including the 
head covering. 

REGULATIONS OF THE U.S. FORFSF SFR- 

HALL APPLY ON ALL GAME MANAGF- 

NT AREAS LOCATED ON NATIONAL FORESTS. 

I Many Management Areas hase special regulations 



which apply to that area only. These special regulations 
may be listed under the area heading elsewhere in this 
guide or will be posted on the area itself. 

Hunters who have killed only one deer prior to the 
managed hunts may buy a permit. Under no conditions, 
by any method or methods anywhere in the State, may a 
hunter take more than two deer during the entire deer 
season, including all State and federal managed hunts. 

CAMPING, ACCOMMODATIONS 

Camping is not allowed on game food plots on the man- 
aged areas. However, camping on other portions of the 
areas is usually allowed. Check information under indi- 
vidual areas. Suggested campsites are shown on maps of 
the areas. Information on the best campsites is contained 
in the area-by-area description in this folder. For informa- 
tion on excellent U.S. Forest Service campgrounds near 
management areas in addition to that given in this folder, 
write the Forest Supervisor, U.S. Forest Service, P.O. 
Box 1437, Gainesville, Ga. 30501. For information on 
State Parks, write Public Relations and Information, De- 
partment of Natural Resources, 270 Washington St., S.W., 
Atlanta, Georgia 30334. 

QUOTA HUNTS: COMPUTER DRAWING: (1) Par- 
ticipants for all quota hunts will be selected by a com- 
puter drawing which will be held at the Atlanta Office of 
the Department of Administrative Services on or before 
October 15, 1973. Participants will be drawn from all 
applications which are submitted on forms provided by 
DNR and received in that office no later than September 
10. 1973. 

(2) No more than one (1) person may apply on each 
application and any person who makes more than one 
application will be disqualified from all hunts. PARTY 
APPLICATIONS for up to five (5) persons will be ac- 
cepted. Persons applying as a party should EACH fill out 
separate applications, making identical hunt choices, and 
then submit them all in ONE envelope. If an envelope 
contains two or more applications, they will be con- 
sidered a party application. Each party will be treated 
as one "choice" by the computer, the same as a single. 
The entire party will be selected or rejected. 

(3) The "Father and Son" Hunt scheduled for the 
Cedar Creek Area, December 27-29. 1973, has the fol- 
lowing special rules. (See "Cedar Creek" for a description 
of the hunt.) ONLY a juvenile between the ages of 12 and 
16 may apply for this hunt. He must be accompanied by 
an adult during the hunt but the adult does not need a 
permit and SHOULD NOT APPLY for the hunt himself. 
If a juvenile is applying as a member of a party for other 
hunts and is interested in attending the "Father and Son" 
Hunt, he should make a separate application marking 
only this hunt and mail it as an individual; or he and up 
to four (4) other juveniles may send their applications in 
one envelope as a party for this hunt. This is the only 
case in which more than one application could be ac- 
cepted for an individual. 

(4) NO MONEY is to be submitted with the applica- 
tion. Incorrect applications will be rejected without notifi- 
cation. Those persons not chosen for the hunt will be 
notified by mail. Those persons chosen to participate will 
be mailed a ticket which, when presented to the check 
station attendant on the proper area, along with the $5 
fee, will admit the bearer to the hunt. TICKETS ARE 
NOT TRANSFERABLE. 

(5) All quota hunts hereinafter provided for shall be 
subject to the quota hunt regulations contained in this 
Section. 

ARCHERY REGULATIONS: (1) Archery hunters must 
be equipped with bows with minimum recognized pull of 
40 pounds at 28 inches of draw and broadhead arrows % 
inches wide or wider. Firearms, crossbows, and mechani- 
cal bows are prohibited. 

(2) All resident archery hunters must possess a valid 
State Resident Bow and Arrow Hunting License and a Big 
Game License, in addition to an area permit. Non-resi- 
dents must possess a Non-resident Archery License and a 
Non-resident Big Game License, in addition to an area 
permit. Permits will be available at the checking station 
at a cost of $5 per hunt. 

(3) All archery hunts hereinafter provided for shall be 
subject to the archery regulations contained in this section. 
PRIMITIVE WEAPONS REGULATIONS: (1) For the 
purpose of this regulation, "primitive weapons" are de- 



fined as long bows, muzzle loading rifles .40 caliber and 
above and muzzle loading shotguns 20 gauge and above, 
which must be loaded with single ball for deer. Conven- 
tional breech loading firearms and pistols are prohibited. 

(2) All primitive weapons hunts hereinafter provided 
for shall be subject to the primitive weapons regulations 
contained in this section. 

ALAPAHA AREA 

(11 Deer: (Archery) Either Sex. Open dates November 
5 through 10, 1973. No pre-hunt scouting allowed. $5 
permit required. 

(2) Deer: (Firearms) Buck Only. Open dates November 

26 through December 1, 1973. No pre-hunt scouting al- 
lowed. $5 permit required. 

(3) Small Game: Open dates January 5 through Janu- 
ary 19, and February 2 through February 16. 1974. No 
pre-hunt scouting will be allowed. No permit required. 

General Information 

The Alapaha Wildlife Management Area consists of 
approximately 20,000 acres of land in private ownership 
and leased by the Georgia Game and Fish Division for 
public hunting. The terrain is flat in character and inter- 
spersed with mixed pine-hardwood and pine-palmetto 
vegetative types. Some low "wet-weather ponds" occur 
in some portions of the area. 

The Alapaha Area was established in early 1969. It has 
good small game populations, including gray squirrels, fox 
squirrels, rabbits, and a fair population of quail. Deer are 
also well established on the area. 

Camping is not permitted on the area, however, there 
are motel and hotel facilities available at Nashville, Geor- 
gia (approx. 15 miles away), at Pearson (approx. 10 miles 
away), and at Douglas, Georgia (approx. 18 miles away). 
Arthur Harper of Willacoochee, Ga., is the area manager. 
DIRECTIONS FROM TIFTON AND WAYCROSS: 

Go to Willacoochee on U. S. Hwy. 82. Willacoochee is 

27 miles east of Tifton and 41 miles west of Waycross. 
The boundary of the area will be noticed along the high- 
way. 

DIRECTIONS FROM ATLANTA AND MACON: 

Take Interstate Hwy. 75 to Tifton. Turn east on U. S. 
Hwy. 82 and drive 27 miles to Willacoochee. Boundary 
of area will be noticed along highways #135 and U. S. 82 
approximately 3 miles out of Willacoochee on each high- 
way. 

ALLATOONA AREA 

(1) Deer: (Archery) Either Sex. Open dates October 22 
through October 27, 1973. 

(2) Deer: (Firearms) Buck Only. Open dates November 
26, 27 and 28, 1973. QUOTA HUNT. Quota: Six hundred 
(600) hunters by computer drawing. 

(3) Deer: (Firearms) Anterless. A one-day hunt Janu- 
ary 1, 1974. QUOTA HUNT. Quota: Three hundred 
(300) hunters by computer drawing. All does taken on this 
hunt must be taken to the checking station for field dress- 
ing by the Game & Fish Division personnel. 

(4) Small Game: Hunters will be allowed to hunt any 
small game in season, subject to State Seasons, Regula- 
tions, and Bag Limits, except during managed deer hunts. 
No permit required. 

(5) General Regulations: The area which shall be 
opened for deer hunting during these dates shall be that 
area which is bounded on the north by Georgia Highway 
20, on the west by McKasky Creek and on the south and 
east by Lake Allatoona. Hunters will not be allowed to 
use boats to gain access to the area during the managed 
deer hunts. 

General Information 

The Allatoona Public Hunting Area consists of 28.000 
acres of U.S. Army Corps of Engineers and Georgia 
Kraft Company timberland surrounding Lake Allatoona 
in Bartow and Cherokee counties. The Allatoona area was 
first opened for public small game hunting in 1963. and 
for deer hunting in 1966. 

Boundary lines are marked by signs of the State Game 
and Fish Division, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, and 
Georgia Kraft or Rome Kraft signs, as well as by yellow 
paint bands around boundary trees. 

Camping is allowed. Numerous good campsites are 
available free of charge on several Corps of Engineers 
recreation areas dotting the lake, at Redtop Mountain and 



George Washington Carver State parks, and at several 
private camps. Tommy Jenkins of Rt. 2, Cartersville, Ga., 
is the area manager. 

DIRECTIONS FROM ATLANTA TO THE MACE- 
DONIA AND PROCTERS BEND SECTIONS (DEER 
HUNT AREA): 

Go to Cartersville. Turn right on Ga. 20 and go 8.5 
miles to the Macedonia Recreation Area sign. Turn right 
and go 1.8 miles to the intersection. To go to the Mace- 
donia Recreation Area, turn right and travel 2.7 miles. To 
go to Procters Bend section, turn left and go 0.5 miles, 
then turn right and go 1.9 miles. Then turn right again 
and go 3.2 miles. 

ALTAMAHA WATERFOWL 
AREA (DARIEN) 

(1) General Regulations: Hunters will be allowed to 
hunt any game in season as provided by State Law and 
Bag Limits except deer on Butler Island and Champ- 
ney Island. The refuge portion of Butler and Champney 
Islands is closed at all times. Deer hunting is permitted 
on Wrights, Cambers and Lewis Islands only. No dogs 
allowed for deer hunting. Dove hunting will be permitted 
on Butler Island on Saturdays only during the dove sea- 
son, except those Saturdays managed duck hunts are held. 
Dove hunting will be allowed on Mondays through 
Saturdays on Champney, Wrights, Rhetts, Rock de Dun- 
dy, Broughton, Cambers and Lewis Islands during the 
season. "" 

(2) Waterfowl: 

(a) Hunting for waterfowl will be allowed on Butler 
Island during waterfowl season by permit only. Permits 
must be applied for by mail beginning October 1, 1973. 
All letters of application must specify the date requested 
with a second choice if desired in the event the first date 
is filled. Applications will be accepted on a first come, 
first served basis and all applicants must enclose a fee of 
$5 per day per person in check or money order payable 
to the Georgia Game & Fish Division. Applications 
should be addressed to Game Management Section, Box 
1097, Brunswick, Georgia. 

(b) Hunters whose applications are accepted will be 
mailed their permits. All applications that could not be 
filled due to dates selected being filled will have their 
$5 refunded. 

(c) Assignments for blinds for each day's hunt will be 
made at the area headquarters the evening prior to each 
hunt. Each blind is assigned a number which is drawn at 
random. Blinds are assigned in the order in which appli- 
cations were received and processed. Hunters will be as- 
signed to the blind selected at the checking station the 
morning of the hunt. Hunters who have their permits do 
not have to come to the area until the morning of the 
hunt. All hunters should be at the checking station no 
later than 5:15 a.m. 

(d) The Game & Fish Division will furnish blinds, 
boats and decoys to accommodate 60 hunters per day, 
and all hunters must hunt from blinds as assigned. Trans- 
portation will be furnished to the boats. Hunting hours 
will be from 30 minutes before sunrise (same as Federal 
Migratory Waterfowl Regulations) until 12 noon. Hunts 
will be conducted on Saturdays only and the last day of 
the open season. Hunters will be limited to not more than 
25 shells to carry out on the area. 

(e) All hunters 16 years old or older will be required to 
have a Federal Migratory Bird Hunting Stamp in addi- 
tion to a valid Georgia Hunting License. 

(f) Waterfowl hunting will be allowed Mondays 
through Saturdays on Champney. Wrights, Rhetts. Rock 
ilc Dundy, Broughton, Cambers and I ewis Islands during 
waterfowl season. No permit required. 

(3) Small Game: 

(a) Butler Island: Hunting for rabbits will be permitted 
on Butler Island after the termination of duck season 
Hunting of rabbits with firearms will be allowed west of 
1-95 only. Rabbils may be hunted with slingshots anil 
bows and arrows cast of 1-95. No dogs will be allowed 
except retrievers for duck and dove hunting. No permit 
required. 

(b) Other Islands: Rabbit hunting is permitted on all 
except refuge portions of the other islands of the Alta- 

maha Area Morulas through Saturday during rabbit sea- 



son. All rabbit hunts are subject to State regulations and 
bag limits. No dogs allowed. No permit required. 

ALBANY NURSERY AREA 

Small Game: Dove hunting only on Wednesday after- 
noon during both segments of the open dove season only 
on designated sections. Check schedule at office on area 
before hunting. No permit required. 

General Information 

The Albany Nursery Area consists of some 300 acres 
of land owned by the State Game and Fish Division. 
Approximately % of the area consists of fields. Brown 
top millet, corn and soybeans are grown on the nursery 
area. The area is on flat level ground with a clay soil. 
Biologist in charge of the area is Bill Wilson. 
DIRECTIONS FROM ALBANY: 

Drive 1 1 miles west on Ga. 234 (Gillonville Highway) 
turn right on Tallassee Road. Drive approximately 2 miles 
to entrance marked by Game and Fish Division sign. 

ARABIA BAY AREA 

(1) Deer: (Firearms) Buck Only. Open dates October 
29 through November 3, 1973. No pre-hunt scouting al- 
lowed. Free permits will be available at the checking 
station. 

(2) Small Game: Open dates January 5 through 19, 
and February 2 through February 16, 1974. No special 
permit or fee is required. 

General Information 

The Arabia Bay Game Management Area consists of 
45,000 acres of land owned by Mr. Alex Sessoms and 
the International Paper Company. The terrain is flat 
piney-woods and palmetto interspersed with creek swamps 
typical of the coastal plains area in Clinch County. 

The Arabia Bay area was established in 1960. Squirrel 
hunting is good on the area's hardwoods, with fair quail 
and rabbit hunting. There are a few wild turkeys on the 
area. Denny Hill is the area manager. 

Camping is not allowed on the Arabia Bay area. The 
nearest developed camping area is near Fargo at the 
Stephen Foster State Park in the Okefenokee Swamp. 
Hunters using the Park must keep firearms stored in 
vehicles while inside the Park. 
DIRECTIONS FROM WAYCROSS AND YALDOSTA: 

Go to Homerville. Take U.S. 441 north 7 miles to area 
boundary. 
DIRECTIONS FROM ATLANTA AND MACON: 

Go to Pearson. Take U.S. 441 south for 7.2 miles to 
area boundary. 

B. F. GRANT AREA 

(Formerly Piedmont Experiment Station) 

(1) Deer: (Primitive Weapons) Either Sex. Open dates 
November 5 through November 10, 1973. 

(2) Deer: (Firearms) Buck Only. Open dates November 
19 through November 24, 1973. See Special Regulations 
at the checking station. 

(3) Deer: (Firearms) Antlerless. Open date December 
11. 1973 and December 15, 1973. QUOTA HUNT. 
Quota: Seven hundred (700) hunters by computer draw- 
ing. Separate permit required for each hunt. 

(4) Small Game: Open dates August 1? through Sep- 
tember 5, and October 13 through 31, 1973, and Decem- 
ber 19, 1973 through January 30, 1974 on Wednesdays 
and Saturdays only. No permit is required. See Special 
Regulations daily at the checking station. Hunt camp con- 
struction and pre-hunt scouting allowed one day prior to 
hunt. 

General Information 
The B. F. Grant Game Management Area consists of 
20.000 acres of mixed timber and open lands in Putnam 
County. 

Quail, rabbit, and dove hunting will be good on open 
ol the Station designated as open for hunting, along 
iod squirrel hunting in the hardwoods. 
ping is allowed on the Piedmont Fxperiment Sta- 
ll designated sites. The nearest developed campsite 
U.S. Forest Service off Ga. 212 on Lake Sin- 
! abor Creek State Park is located off 1-20 
8 two miles north of Rutledge. 



DIRECTIONS FROM ATLANTA AND MACON: 

Go to Eatonton. Turn west on Georgia 16 and travel 
0.7 miles to paved road (Oak Way). Turn right on the 
paved road and go 9.1 miles to the checking station. 

BALDWIN STATE FOREST 

Small Game: Hunters will be allowed to hunt any small 
game in season subject to State Seasons, Regulations and 
Bag Limits. No special permit or fee is required. Dogs 
may be used for small game hunting. Trail dogs may be 
used for small game. 

General Information 

Baldwin State Forest Area consists of some 5.000 acres 
of former pasture land in the early stages of reforestation. 
It is primarily open land with less than 10 percent of the 
area now covered with forest. There are two ponds on the 
area. Food has been planted for small game. Prime spe- 
cies available on this area are quail and doves. 
DIRECTIONS FROM MILLEDGEVILLE: 

Drive 4 miles south of town on U.S. 441. Entrance to 
Baldwin State Forest is on the left (east) side of the road, 
marked by State Forestry Commission sign. 

BERRY COLLEGE AREA 

(1) Deer: (Archery) Either Sex. Open dates November 
12 through 17, 1973. 

(2) Deer: (Firearms) Buck Only. Open dates October 
29, 30, and 31, 1973. QUOTA HUNT. Quota: Six hun- 
dred (600) hunters by computer drawing. 

(3) Small Game: Open dates December 22 through 29, 
1973 and January 12 through 26, 1974. A permit is re- 
quired and will be available at the checking station. There 
will be no fee charged for small game permits. 

(4) General Regulations: Pre-hunt scouting will be al- 
lowed one day prior to all managed deer hunts. Camping 
is permitted in designated sites; hunters are requested to 
clean up camp sites of all litter. Facilities will be provided 
at the checking station for disposal of litter. All vehicles 
are required to stay on public roads during managed 
hunts. The checking station will be located at the junction 
of CCC Road and Old Summerville Road. On the Refuge 
section of the Berry College Area there is no open season 
for the taking of any wildlife. 

General Information 

The Berry College Wildlife Management Area consists 
of some 30,000 acres of mixed pine and hardwoods ad- 
jacent to Berry College and Berry Academy in Floyd 
County north of Rome. Approximately 13,000 acres of 
this land is included in the public hunting area, with the 
remainder designated as a wildlife refuge with no hunting 
allowed. 

The Berry College Area was created in 1970 and open 
to hunting for the first time during the 1971 season. The 
mountain slopes in the area contain mixed pine and hard- 
wood forests. Mature pine is the dominant species in the 
valley. Camping is allowed on the public hunting area 
only during managed hunts. There is an excellent deer 
population and fair small game population. Frank Early 
of Mt. Berry, Georgia is the area manager. 
DIRECTIONS FROM ROME: 

Drive north on U.S. Hwy. #27 to junction of Old 
Summerville Rd. Turn left on Old Summerville Road and 
proceed 1 mile to junction with CCC Road. Check station 
at crossroads. 

BLUE RIDGE AREA 

(1) Deer: (Archery) Either Sex. Open dates November 
5 through 10, 1973. 

(2) Deer: (Firearms) Buck Only. Open dates November 
19 through 24. 1973. 

(3) Small Game: Open dates August 18 through August 
31, 1973: October 15 through November 2; and Decem- 
ber 3 through December 31, 1973; and January 14 
through February 16, 1974. No permit required. Camp- 
ing is permitted. 

(4) Special Raccoon Hunt: Open dates October 19 and 
20: December 7 and 8; and December 28 and 29, 1973. 
A $1 per night permit is required. All hunters may check 
in beginning at 6 p.m. on days of the hunt and must 
check out no later than 6 a.m. on Sundays. Camping will 
be permitted. 

General Information 

The Blue Ridge Game Management Area consists of 



40,000 acres of National Forest timberland located on the 
Blue Ridge Mountain Divide along the Appalachian Trail 
north of Dahlonega in parts of Lumpkin, Fannin, Daw- 
son, and Union Counties. 

The Blue Ridge area has good grouse and squirrel hunt- 
ing. Two checking stations on the area will be used, one 
in the Rock Creek or northern portion, and one in the 
Jones Creek or southern portion. H. C. Cruce, Margaret, 
Ga., is the upper area manager, W. R. Sutton, Rt. 1, 
Dahlonega, Ga., is the lower area manager. 

Camping is permitted: The best campsites on Blue 
Ridge are located in the northern portion of the area at 
at the Forest Service recreation areas of Deep Hole, 
Frank Gross, and Rock Creek. 
DIRECTIONS FROM DAHLONEGA: 

To the Rock Creek checking station, take U.S. High- 
way 19 north 9.3 miles to Stone Pile Gap. Go left on 
Georgia Highway 60 for 18.7 miles to Margaret, Georgia, 
then turn left on the National Fish Hatchery Road and 
go 2.8 miles to the checking station. 

To the Jones Creek checking station, travel 9.0 miles 
west on Georgia Highway 52 to Grizzle's Store. Turn 
right and go 2.4 miles. Turn right and travel 2.4 miles 
more to the checking station. 

BRUNSWICK PULP & PAPER 
COMPANY AREA 

(1) Deer: (Archery) Either Sex. Open dates are Sep- 
tember 29. through October 20. 1973. Hunters may take 
one deer of either sex. No permit is required. 

(2) Deer: 

(a) (Firearms) Buck Only. Open dates are October 20, 
1973 through January 1, 1974 on all areas with exception 
of Sansavilla Compartment (A). Tracts other than Sansa- 
villa Compartment (A) will be open for still hunting for 
deer Mondays through Saturdays as per State Seasons and 
Regulations. The Sansavilla Tract shall be divided into 
two compartments with that portion west of Howard 
Road being designated as "Compartment A" and that por- 
tion east of Howard Road designated as "Compartment 
B." "Compartment A" on Sansavilla will be open for 
hunting deer with dogs on Wednesdays and Saturdays 
only. Hunters who wish to dog hunt should notify the 
Brunswick Office of the State Game & Fish Division and 
specify the date they want to hunt. Applicants will be on 
a first come, first served basis, and not more than one 
date may be selected by a hunter or group at one time. 
Applicants must pick up their permit at the Brunswick 
Office not more than three days prior to the hunt. In the 
event more than one hunter from a party makes applica- 
tion or a group attempts to monopolize the hunt, that 
application list will be screened in the Brunswick Office 
and names struck from the application list who have ap- 
plied previously. At the time the permit is picked up, the 
names and addresses of all hunters who will participate 
in a given hunt must be listed and typed on the permit. 
No substitutes may be made after the application is picked 
up from the office. Applications must be made in person 
or by mail. Telephone calls will not be accepted. All dogs 
must wear collars with owner's name and address. 

(b) Firearms are restricted to shotguns with slugs or 
buckshot during dog hunts. On areas when and where 
deer hunting is restricted to still hunting, legal deer rifles 
as well as shotguns with slugs will be allowed. 

(c) No still hunting will be allowed in Compartment A 
on Wednesdays and Saturdays. Still hunting will be al- 
lowed in this Compartment on Mondays, Tuesdays, 
Thursdays and Fridays. 

(3) Small Game: Hunters will be allowed to hunt any 
small game in season subject to State Regulations. Seasons 
and Bag Limits on Mondays through Saturdays. Dogs for 
small game hunting will be limited to pointing dogs and 
retriever dogs only. No permit is required. 

General Information 

The Brunswick Pulp and Paper Company Game Man- 
agement Area lies on 60.000 acres of timberland divided 
into five sections or tracts in Glynn, Camden, Wayne, and 
Brantley counties. The area consists of flat cut-over piney 
woods with some palmetto understory and hardwood 
creek bottoms. Many sites have been prepared for tree 
planting. These sites offer good quail hunting. 

There is extensive swampland along the Altamaha 
River and other smaller streams in the area, providing 
fair hunting for ducks and squirrel hunting. 



The area offers good deer hunting as its main attrac- 
tion. There are no turkeys on the area and few doves are 
to be found during the season. Camping, fires and Sunday 
hunting are not allowed on the area. The nearest camping 
development is at Crooked River State Park, 12 miles 
from Kingsland, off U.S. 17, off Georgia 40 Spur. Hunters 
using the park must keep firearms stored in vehicles while 
inside the park. Bob Sires is refuge manager. 
DIRECTIONS FROM BRUNSWICK: 

Atkinson Track (Glynn County): Go north on U.S. 341 
to Everett City, south of Jesup. Turn right on the Alta- 
maha Park Road. Go 2.8 miles, turn right at the dirt road, 
which leads into the area. (20 miles from Brunswick). 

Sansavilla Tract (Glynn and Wayne Counties): Go 
north on U.S. 341 to Mount Pleasant, South of Jesup. 
Turn right and cross the railroad into the area. (20 miles 
from Brunswick). 

Tyler Tract (Wayne County): Go north on U.S. 341 to 
Mount Pleasant south of Jesup. Turn left on the Post 
Road and go 2.3 miles to a dirt road on the right which 
leads into the area 1 mile away. (23 miles from Bruns- 
wick). 

Harrington Track (Brantley and Glynn Counties): Go 
north on U.S. 341 to junction of Georgia 32. Turn left on 
Georgia 32 and go 13.5 miles to Post Road. Turn left and 
go 2.3 miles. The area boundary signs are on both sides of 
Post Road at this point. 

Lampa Doshia Tract (Camden County): Go south on 
U.S. 17 for 13 miles. Turn left at the first paved road after 
crossing the Satilla River 6.9 miles. Turn right on dirt 
road and go 3 miles to the Ella Park CiTurch. Turn left at 
crossroad beyond church and go 1.6 miles to area bound- 
ary signs. 

BULLARD CREEK AREA 

(No pre-hunt scouting allowed for any hunts.) 

(1) Deer: (Archery) Either Sex. Open dates are October 
29 through November 3, 1973. 

(2) Deer: (Primitive Weapons) Either Sex. Open dates 
November 19 through November 24, 1973. $5 permit 
available at check station. 

(3) Deer: (Firearms) Buck Only. Open dates December 
3 through December 8, 1973. $5 permit available at check 
station. 

(4) Small Game: Open dates January 5 through Janu- 
ary 19 and February 2 through February 16. 1974. Hunt- 
ing from vehicles and horses will be prohibited, and all 
vehicles must remain on improved roads. All hunters may 
check in beginning at 6 a.m. daily and must check out by 
7:30 p.m. No permit is required. No pre-hunt scouting is 
allowed. 

General Information 

The Bullard Creek Game Management Area consists of 
20,000 acres of timberland owned by the Continental Can 
Company on the south bank of the Altamaha River in 
Appling and Jeff Davis counties. 

Bullard Creek was created in 1961, and is an uplands 
area of mixed hardwoods and pines, with extensive river 
swamps. Spring gobbler hunts have been conducted on the 
area for the past three years. The area has a fair turkey 
population along with fair deer, quail." squirrel, and rabbit 
hunting. It was first opened for deer hunting in 1967. The 
area manager is Joe Clements, Baxley, Ga. 

Camping is not allowed on the Bullard Creek area. The 
nearest developed camping area is at Gordonia Altamaha 
State Park at Reidsville. Hunters using the Park must 
keep firearms stored in vehicles while inside the park. 
DIRECTIONS FROM HAZLEHURST: 

Take U.S. 221 north for 6.5 miles. Turn right onto dirt 
road at entrance sign and go 4.5 miles to the checking 
station on the right. 

CEDAR CREEK AREA 

(1) Deer: (Archery) Either Sex. Open dates are Novem- 
ber 7 through 10, 1973. 

(2) Deer: (Firearms) Buck Only. Open dates November 
19 through November 24. 1973. 

(3) Deer: (Firearms) Antlcrless. Open dates January 4 
and 5, 1971 only. QUOTA HUNT. Ouota: One-thousand 
two hundred (1200) hunters by computer drawing. 

(4) Deer: (Firearms) Either Sex. "Father and Son" 
Hunt. Open dates December 27 through 29, 1973 only. 



QUOTA HUNT. Quota: Three hundred (300) pairs by 
computer drawing. Each pair shall consist of one juvenile 
between the ages of 12 and 16 years and his or her father 
or responsible adult. Only one (1) firearm shall be allowed 
per pair. All juveniles shall be required to have a permit 
and only juveniles shall be authorized to discharge a 
firearm. 

(5) Small Game: Open dates Wednesdays, Fridays and 
Saturdays during the following periods: August 18 
through September 8, December 1 through December 22, 
1973 and January 9 through February 28, 1974. No per- 
mit is required. 

(6) Hunt camp construction and pre-hunt scouting al- 
lowed one day before hunt. 

General Information 

The Cedar Creek game management area consists of 
40,000 acres of Oconee National Forest and private tim- 
berland in rolling wooded terrain in the rich Piedmont 
section of Middle Georgia near Monticello in Jones, Jas- 
per, and Putnam counties. 

There are no developed campsites on the area, but 
camping will be permitted. A good Forest Service camp- 
ground is located nearby off Ga. 212 on Lake Sinclair. 
DIRECTIONS FROM ATLANTA: 

Go to Monticello. Take Georgia Highway 16 east to the 
fork at the city limits. Take the right fork on Georgia 212 
and go 12 miles. Turn right on the dirt road at the large 
redwood management area sign. Travel 500 yards to the 
checking station. 
DIRECTIONS FROM MACON: 

Take U.S. 129 north through Gray and proceed 15 
miles. Turn left on Ga. 212. Travel 5.7 miles and turn left 
on dirt road at the large redwood management area sign. 
Go 500 yards to the checking station. 

CHATTAHOOCHEE AREA 

(1) Deer: (Firearms) Buck Only. Open dates November 
19 through November 24, 1973. 

(2) Small Game: Open dates August 18 through August 
31, 1973 and December 3 through December 31, 1973 
and January 19 through February 23, 1974. No permit 
required. Camping will be permitted. 

(3) Special Raccoon Hunt: Open dates October 26 and 
27, 1973, November 30 and December 1 and December 
21 and 22, 1973. A $1 per night permit is required. 
Hunters may check in beginning at 6 p.m. on days of the 
hunt and must check out no later than 6 a.m. on Sundays. 

General Information 

The Chattahoochee Game Management Area lies on 
20,000 acres of National Forest timberland on the head- 
waters of the Chattahoochee River drainage north of 
Robertstown in portions of White, Union, and Towns 
counties. 

The area has good grouse and squirrel hunting. A. C. 
Abernathy, Hiawassee, Ga., is the area manager. 

Camping is allowed. Good campsites are located in the 
Forest Service recreation areas of Unicoi Gap, and An- 
drews Cove, in addition to Unicoi State Park on Smith 
Creek. Good undeveloped sites are available on Dukes 
Creek. 
DIRECTIONS FROM GAINESVILLE: 

Go to Robertstown. Travel 0.3 miles north on Ga. 17 
and U.S. 75 to the first bridge. Turn left across the bridge, 
then turn right at the first road. Go 2.8 miles to the check- 
ing station. 

CHESTATEE AREA 

(1) Deer: (Firearms) Buck Only. Open dates November 
26 through December 1. 1973. 

(2) Small Game: Open dates August 18 through August 
31, 1973, and December 3 through December 31, 1973, 
and February 1 through February 23, 1974. No permit 
required. Camping will be permitted. 

(3) Special Raccoon Hunt: Open dates October 19 and 
20, November 16 and 17, and December 14 and 15, 1973. 
A $1 per night permit is required. Hunters may check in 
•>eginning at 6 p.m. on days of the hunt and must check 

out no later than 6 a.m. on Sundays. Camping will be per- 
mitted. 

General Information 
hestatee Game Management Area lies on 25,000 
Forest Service timberland on the headwaters of 



the Chestatee River drainage north of Dahlonega in parts 
of Lumpkin, Union, and White Counties. 

The area has fair grouse and squirrel populations, and 
some turkeys. Roosevelt Key, Rt. 3, Cleveland, Ga., is the 
area manager. 

Camping is allowed. Forest Service campsites are lo- 
cated at the Woody Gap, Dockery Lake, and DeSoto 
Falls recreation areas. Good undeveloped campsites are 
available on Boggs Creek, Dicks Creek, and Waters 
Creek. 
DIRECTIONS FROM GAINESVILLE: 

Go to Cleveland. Take U.S. 129 north 10.5 miles to the 
checking station at Turner's Corner at the junction of 
U.S. 129 with U.S. 19. 

CHICKASAWHATCHEE AREA 

(1) Deer: (Archery) Either Sex. Open dates October 26 
and 27, 1973. No pre-hunt scouting. 

(2) Deer: (Primitive Weapons) Either Sex. Open dates 
November 9 and 10, 1973. QUOTA HUNT. Quota: Four 
hundred (400) hunters by computer drawing. No pre-hunt 
scouting. 

(3) Deer: (Firearms) Buck Only. Open dates November 
16 and 17, 1973 and December 7 and 8, 1973. No pre- 
hunt scouting. QUOTA HUNT. Quota: Four hundred 
(400) hunters by computer drawing. 

(4) Small Game: (Dove only) Dove hunting is per- 
mitted in specified fields on Saturday afternoons only dur- 
ing the September dove season. No permit is required. 
Hunters will be allowed to take other small game in sea- 
son, excluding waterfowl on January 4 and 5, January 18 
and 19, February 1 and 2 and February 15 and 16, 1974. 
No permit is required. 

(5) Check-in time on small game hunts other than Sep- 
tember dove hunts shall begin at 6 a.m. 

General Information 

The Chickasawhatchee Game Management Area con- 
sists of 26,000 acres of timberland owned by the Saint Joe 
Paper Company southwest of Albany in Baker, Calhoun, 
and Dougherty counties and was created in 1964. 

The area is primarily rolling timbered uplands of mixed 
hardwoods and pines interspersed by low-lying swamp 
areas. This type of habitat is extremely favorable to the 
area's excellent existing deer herd, but is extremely poor 
for quail, with less than one percent of the area consisting 
of open fields or woodlands suitable for quail and quail 
hunting. The area has an excellent grey squirrel popula- 
tion in the hardwood sections, along with a good popula- 
tion of rabbits around the edges of cut-over areas. There 
are a few turkey flocks on the area, but the population has 
not yet reached a huntable number and the suitability of 
the habitat for turkeys is declining every year. 

Camping is not allowed on the Chickasawhatchee area. 
The nearest developed camping area in Albany at Chehaw 
State Park. Hunters using the Park must keep firearms 
stored in vehicles while inside the Park. Herbert Adams 
is refuge manager. 
DIRECTIONS FROM ALBANY: 

Take Georgia 91 south for four miles to the junction 
with Georgia 62. Turn right on Georgia 62 and go west 
8.2 miles to the checking station on the left side of the 
road. 

CLARK HILL AREA 

(1) Deer: (Archery) Either Sex. Open dates October 
29 through November 2, 1973 in Compartments 1 
through 7. 

(2) Deer: (Primitive Weapons) Buck only on October 
29 through October 31, and either sex on November 1 
and 2, 1973, in Compartments 8, 9, 10 and 11 only. 

(3) Deer: (Firearms) Buck Only. Open dates November 
19 through November 24, 1973. 

(4) Deer: (Firearms) Antlerless. A one-day hunt Decem- 
ber 8, 1973. QUOTA HUNT. Quota: Three hundred (300) 
hunters by computer drawing. 

(5) Small Game: Open dates August 18 through Sep- 
tember 8, 1973 and November 28 through December 5, 
1973 and December 12, 1973 through February 28, 1974 
on Wednesdays and Saturdays only. No permits required. 

(6) Camping: SPECIAL NOTE: In area 4, 5, 6 and 7 
of the Clark Hill Management Area camping will be al- 



lowed only within that area lying within 50 yards of the 
main road. All other parts of the above-mentioned areas 
are closed for camping. Hunt camp construction and pre- 
hunt scouting allowed one day prior to hunt. 
THE SAFETY ZONE WILL BE OBSERVED ON ALL 
HUNTS, AND IT IS A VIOLATION TO BE FOUND 
HUNTING INSIDE THE SAFETY ZONE. 
General Information 

The Clark Hill Game Management Area consists of 
10,^00 acres of timberland owned by the U.S. Army 
Corps of Engineers on the shores of Clark Hill Reservoir 
near Thomson, Ga., in McDuffie and Wilkes Counties. 

Clark Hill is the smallest game management area in 
the State, but has a relatively high deer population of 
smaller-than-average size animals, with a high hunter 
success rate. Clark Hill has the best turkey population of 
all the State game management areas, along with a good 
rabbit population and fair quail and squirrel populations. 

Camping is allowed. However, camping will be allowed 
only in that area lying within 50 yards of the main road- 
way on areas 4, 5, 6, and 7. The only developed campsite 
on the area is the Corps of Engineers' Hart Creek Recrea- 
tion Area off U.S. 78. 
DIRECTIONS FROM ATLANTA AND ATHENS: 

Go to Washington. Travel 14 miles on U.S. 78. Turn 
left on the dirt road at the large redwood management 
area sign. Go 2.5 miles to the checking station. 
DIRECTIONS FROM AUGUSTA: 

Go to Thomson. Take U.S. 78 north 1 1 miles. Turn 
right on the dirt road at the large redwood management 
area sign. Go 2.5 miles to the checking station. 

COHUTTA AREA 

(1) Deer: (Firearms) Trophy Buck Only. Open dates 
November 26 through December 1, 1973. Hunters may 
take one (1) antlered buck with a minimum antler size of 
1 forked antler (3 points) or more. Hunters may take any 
number of hogs. 

(2) Small Game: Open dates December 8 through 
December 29, 1973; and January 12 through January 19, 
and February 9 through February 23, 1974. No permits 
required. 

(3) Special Raccoon Hunt: Open dates Saturday nights 
only: October 20 through November 17, 1973 and Decem- 
ber 8, 1973 through January 19, 1974. No permit re- 
quired. 

(4) General Regulations: The Cohutta Game Manage- 
ment Area is composed of those lands beginning at the 
intersection of U.S. 411 and the Georgia-Tennessee line 
thence running easterly along said line to Tumbling Creek 
Road (FSR-22); thence running southerly down Tumbling 
Creek Road to Watson's Gap; thence continuing in a 
southerly direction down Three Forks Road (FSR-64) to 
Dyer Gap: thence down Flat Top Mountain Road (FSR- 
64-A) to Flat Top Mountain; thence in a southerly direc- 
tion down the ridge of Flat Top to Fowler Gap to Wolf- 
pen Gap to Wolfpen Gap Road to East Mountaintown 
Creek Road to Mountaintown Creek Road; thence wester- 
ly along Mountaintown Creek Road to Holly Creek Gap 
Road (FSR-90): thence northwesterly along Holly Creek 
Gap Road to Potato Patch Road (FSR-68); thence south- 
westerly along Potato Patch Road to Holly Creek Road 
to Forest Service Road 130 thence northwesterly along 
Forest Service Road 130 to U.S. 411 at Crandall; then 
north along U.S. 41 1 to the point of beginning. 

General Information 

The Cohutta Game Management Area lies on 95.000 
acres of National Forest timberland in portions of Mur- 
ray, Gilmer, and Fannin Counties. It is the largest man- 
agement area in the state. 

An extensive deer stocking program has been com- 
pleted and a huntable population has been established. 
Hunting is usually good fo rsquirrels, and grouse, except 
in poor mast years. Hunting is poor for rabbits and rac- 
coons. Fox hunting is not allowed. 

Camping is allowed on the management area on the 
U.S. Forest Service's Conasauga Lake Recreation Area, 
and nearby at Fort Mountain State Park, Chatsworth. 
J. G. Dover, Larry Ross and Philip Hackney are the area 
managers. 
DIRECTIONS FROM ELLIJAY: 

Go west on U.S. Hwy. 76 4 miles to East Mountain- 
town Creek Road (Co. Rd. 91009). Turn right and go 7 



miles to Holly Creek Gap, turn right. Drive 3.3 miles to 
the Potato Patch Check Station. 
DIRECTIONS FROM CHATSWORTH: 

Go north on U.S. Hwy. 411 to Eton. Turn right at traf- 
fic light and follow road for 15.6 miles up Holly Creek 
Road to Potato Patch Check Station. 
DIRECTIONS FROM CISCO: 

Take Ga. Hwy. 2 3 miles to junction with West Cow- 
pen Road. Check station at junction. 
DIRECTIONS FROM BLUE RIDGE: 

Go 3.4 miles north on Ga. Hwy. 5 to junction with Ga. 
Hwy. 2. Turn left on Ga. Hwy. 2; proceed 10.1 miles to 
Watson Gap Check Station (temporary). 

COLEMAN RIVER AREA 

(1) Deer: (Firearms) Buck Only. Open dates November 
19 through November 24, 1973. 

(2) Deer: (Primitive Weapons) Either Sex. December 
31, 1973 through January 5, 1974. Hunters may take one 
(1) deer of either sex. No dogs allowed. 

(3) Small Game: Open dates August 18 through Sep- 
tember 8; December 3, 1973 through January 31, 1974. 
No special fee or permit is required. Camping will be 
permitted. During big game hunts, small game hunting is 
not permitted. 

General Information 

The Coleman River Game Management Area consists 
of 13,000 acres of U.S. Forest Service timberland on the 
North Carolina border in ( Rabun Couot-y. 

The area features good grouse and squirrel hunting, 
but rabbit hunting is poor. There are few wild turkeys on 
the area. Coleman River has the largest bear population 
of any area in North Georgia, but not in huntable num- 
bers. 

The Coleman River area is one of the most rugged 
and primitive sections of Georgia, with very steep moun- 
tains of mixed hardwoods. Four-wheel drive vehicles are 
recommended for traveling on the area's extremely rough 
roads. 

The nearest developed campsites are those of the U.S. 
Forest Service located nearby on the Tallulah River, but 
primitive camping is allowed on the area. Black Rock 
Mountain State Park is located 3 miles north of Clayton. 
DIRECTIONS FROM GAINESVILLE: 

Go to Clayton. Take U.S. Highway 76 west 8.0 miles 
to Tallulah River Road, turn right and go 4.3 miles to 
the checking station at the junction. 

COOPER'S CREEK AREA 

(1) Deer: There is no open season for the taking of 
deer. 

(2) Turkey: There is no open season for the taking 
of turkey. 

(3) Small Game: Open dates August 18 through Sep- 
tember 8, 1973 and November 26, 1973 through January 
31, 1974 and February 9 through 23, 1974. No permit is 
required. 

(4) Special Raccoon Hunt: Open dates December 7, 
1973 through February 2, 1974. Friday and Saturday 
nights only. No permit required. 

General Information 

This area covers 28,000 acres of the Cooper's Creek 
Watershed in the Chattahoochee National Forest. The 
terrain is typical of the Southern Appalachians, mountain- 
ous with a mature timber stand predominately of hard- 
wood. The area has been restocked with deer and wild tur- 
key and huntable populations are expected in 3 to 5 years. 
Grouse and squirrel are present. 

The area has two Forest Service campgrounds and good 
access from the several roads that cross the area. 

Eugene Burnette is the area manager. 
DIRECTIONS FROM DAHLONEGA: 

Travel north on U.S. Highway 19 for 9 miles to junc- 
tion of Georgia Highway 60. Take Georgia Highway 60 
north 19 miles to Cooper Creek Grocery and turn right 
on U.S.F.S. road 4. 

COOSAWATTEE AREA 

(1) Dee-: No open season for the taking of deer. 

(2) Turkey: No open sea-son for the taking of turkey. 

(3) Small Game: Open dates December 3, 1973 through 
January 12, 1974. No permit required. 



(4) Special Raccoon Hunt: Open dates Saturday nights 
only, October 20, 1973 through January 5, 1974. No per- 
mit required. 

(5) General Regulations: The Coosawattee Wildlife 
Management Area consists of those lands in Gilmer and 
Murray Counties bounded on the north by Georgia High- 
way #282. on the west by U.S. Highway 411, on the 
south by Georgia Highway #156 and Flat Creek Road 
and on the east by Georgia Highway #5. 

General Information 
The Coosawattee Wildlife Management Area, estab- 
lished in 1971. consists of two tracts of land in Gilmer 
County owned by Georgia Power Company, Georgia 
Kraft and other private land owners, totaling 24,000 
acres. The main portion of the area is located 2 miles 
south of Ellijay off Ga. 282. There is good small game 
hunting on the area now. Biologists are working to estab- 
lish deer and turkey for future hunting. This is rugged 
terrain. The use of 4-wheel drive vehicles is recom- 
mended. Danny Dobson is area manager. 

DIRECTIONS FROM ELLIJAY: 

To reach the main tract of the Coosawatte Area, drive 
2 miles south of Ellijay on Ga. 5. Management area 
boundary signs will be visible from the highway. Ga. 282 
skirts the border of the area. 

GRAND BAY AREA 

Hunters will be allowed to hunt any game in season 
subject to State seasons, regulations, and bag limits. No 
special permit or fee is required. 

General Information 

The Grand Bay Game Management Area consists of 
9,000 acres of National Forest Land in Lowndes and 
Lanier counties, primarily flat pineland and dense palmet- 
to with hardwood creek bottoms. 

The Grand Bay Area was stocked with deer in 1963. 
The area now offers fair hunting for doves, rabbits and 
ducks and good hunting for squirrels and quail. Raccoons 
are plentiful. J. L. Rentz is the area manager. There are 
no developed campsites, but camping is permitted. The 
nearest state park is Reed Bingham off Ga. 37 between 
Adel and Moultrie. 
DIRECTIONS FROM VALDOSTA: 

Take Georgia Highway 125 to Barretts Community. 
Turn east at sign and follow dirt road 2 miles to manage- 
ment area. Other entrances to the area are found 7 miles 
southwest of Lakeland, Georgia on U.S. Highway 221 and 
10 miles northeast of Valdosta on U.S. Highway 221. 

FENDIG (RAYONIER) AREA 

Small Game: Open dates January 5 through January 
19, and February 2 through February 16. No permit re- 
quired. No check in or check out required. 

JOHNS MOUNTAIN AREA 

(1) Deer: (Archery) Either Sex. Open dates October 8 
through 13, 1973. 

(2) Deer: (Primitive Weapons) Either Sex. Open dates 
January 3 and 4, 1974. QUOTA HUNT: Quota: Five 
hundred (500) hunters by computer drawing. All does 
must be carried to check station for fie'd dressing by 
Game & Fish personnel. 

(3) Small Game: Open dates December 22 through 
December 29, 1973; January 12 through January 26, 
1974. No permit required. 

(4) Special Raccoon Hunt: Open dates December 22 
and December 29, 1973; and January 12 and January 26, 
1974. No permit is required. 

General Information 

John's Mountain Game Management Area is made up 
of 20,000 acres of National Forest and private timberland 
in mountainous Northwest Georgia north of Calhoun in 
parts of Floyd, Gordon. Walker, and Whitfield counties. 

r : stablished in 1957, John's Mountain was first opened 
for hunting in 1962 for bucks only. Raiford Russell. Cal- 
houn, Ga., is the area manager. 

;;mping is allowed. Developed campsites are available 
Forest Service Recreation Areas of the Pocket Pic- 
i Dry Branch, and Keown Falls. 



DIRECTIONS FROM CALHOUN: 

Take Ga. 143 north 6 miles to Sugar Valley. Turn left 
and travel without turning for 6 miles to Lake Marvin 
and the checking station at the Pocket. 
DIRECTIONS FROM LAFAYETTE: 

Travel Ga. 143 to Villanow. Turn right on dirt road 
leading to the Pocket Picnic Area and travel 8.4 miles to 
the checking station. 

LAKE BURTON AREA 

(1) Deer: (Firearms) Buck Only. Open dates November 
26 through December 1, 1973. 

(2) Deer: (Firearms) Antlerless. Open date January 12, 
1974. Quota: Five hundred (500) hunters by computer 
drawing. All does must be carried to the check station for 
field dressing by Game & Fish personnel. 

(3) Small Game: Open dates August 18 through August 
31; and December 3, 1973 through January 5, 1974 and 
February 9 through 23, 1974. No permit required. Camp- 
ing will be permitted. 

General Information 

The Lake Burton Game Management Area consists of 
15.000 acres of National Forest timberland in mountain- 
ous Northeast Georgia near Clayton in Rabun County 
near picturesque Lake Burton. 

Lake Burton has an excellent grouse and good squirrel 
population and a few turkeys. Allen Padgett is the area 
manager. 

Camping is allowed. There are no developed campsites 
on the area; however, an excellent State Park campground 
is located at the Lake Burton Hatchery. The nearest 
Forest Service campsites are 1 1 miles away on the Tallu- 
lah River. 
DIRECTIONS FROM GAINESVILLE: 

Go to Clarkesville. Take Ga. 197 north 21.0 miles to 
the checking station at the Lake Burton Fish Hatchery 
on Moccasin Creek. 

LAKE RUSSELL AREA 

(1) Deer: (Archery) Either Sex. Open dates October 15 
through October 20, 1973. 

(2) Deer: (Firearms) Buck Only. Open dates November 
26 through December 1, 1973. Bag limit one (1) buck 
deer. QUOTA HUNT. Quota: One Thousand (1.000) 
hunters by computer drawing. 

(3) Small Game: Open dates August 18 through August 
31 and December 3, 1973 through January 5, 1974. No 
permit required. 

(4) Special Raccoon Hunt: Open dates November 9 and 
10; November 16 and 17 and December 7 and 8, 1973. 
Camping will be permitted. Permit required, $1 per 
hunter. 

General Information 

The Lake Russell Game Management Area is located 
on 17,000 acres of National Forest and private timber- 
land northeast of 100 acre Lake Russell in Habersham, 
Stephens, and Banks counties. 

The area has a relatively high population of smaller- 
than-average deer, with a high percentage of hunter suc- 
cess. Jack L. Andrews, Rt. 1, Baldwin, Ga., is the area 
manager. 

Camping is allowed. Forest Service campsites are lo- 
cated at Lake Russell, Nancytown, and Fern Springs 
recreation areas. 
DIRECTIONS FROM GAINESVILLE: 

Go to Cornelia. Take U.S. 123 northeast 6.8 miles to 
the Old Guard Camp Road. Turn right and go by Thiokol 
plant on left. Go. 0.6 miles, turn left at the first dirt road, 
and go 0.2 miles to the checking station. 

LAKE SEMINOLE AREA 

(Primarily Waterfowl) 

Hunters will be allowed to hunt any game in season 
subject to State Regulations, Seasons and Bag Limits. 
Camping will be permitted. No hunting will be allowed 
on the refuge area at any time. No hog hunting will be 
allowed on the islands in the Chattahoochee River. Deer 
hunting is restricted to still hunting only; no dogs allowed. 
General Information 

The Lake Seminole Waterfowl Public Hunting Area 
consists of 3,000 acres of U.S. Army Corps of Engineers 



owned shoreline and islands scattered around the edges of 
Lake Seminole in the extreme southwestern tip of Georgia 
bordering Alabama and Florida. 

Good duck hunting is readily available on the Seminole 
area in season, along with good quail, rabbit, and squirrel 
hunting, and some deer, dove, and wild hog hunting. No 
hunting is allowed within the marked boundaries of 250 
acres of refuge at the fork of Spring Creek and the Flint 
River. 

Good camping facilities and numerous hard-surface 
boat laurching ramps are readily available on the lake at 
several Corps of Engineers recreation areas and at Semi- 
nole State Park on Ga. 253 near its intersection with Ga. 
39. The best motel and eating facilities are in Bainbridge 
and Donaldsonville. Facilities on the lake itself at four 
major fishing camps include boat and motor rentals, 
snacks, cabin rentals, camp sites, and seasonal cafe and 
guide service. Hunters should have advance reservations, 
due to the popularity of the lake year-round. 

For assistance or information from the State Game and 
Fish Commission on the area, check with the Brinson 
Station of the Commission on the Spring Creek Bridge of 
Ga. 253, or call Bainbridge 246-4093. Keith O'Mary is 
area manager. 

LITTLE RIVER 

(1) Deer: No open season. 

(2) Small game: Hunters will be allowed to hunt any 
small game in season, subject to State Seasons, regulations 
and bag limit. No permit required. 

General Information 

The Little River area consists of approximately 17,000 
acres on the Southeastern shore of Lake Allatoona. The 
land is owned by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers and 
by the Georgia Kraft Company and is managed by the 
Game and Fish Division for public small game hunting 
opportunity. The area consists of much cutover timber- 
land and some mature hardwood forest adjacent to the 
lake. There is good hunting for quail and rabbit in the 
cutover areas and squirrels in the hardwoods. The deer 
population is low and no deer hunting is allowed. 
DIRECTIONS FROM ATLANTA: 

Go to Acworth. Follow Ga. 92 north 11.0 miles to the 
intersection with Ga. 205. Turn left on Ga. 205 and go 
3.2 miles to Little River. 
DIRECTIONS FROM CANTON: 

Take Ga. 205 south 6.8 miles to Little River. 



and has an excellent squirrel population. In sections where 
timber is in the early stages of growth, quail hunting is 
possible. The area has a fair deer population. The first 
deer hunt on the area was held in 1967. 

Some bear are present in the area, but not in huntable 
numbers. 

Robert Hackley is the area manager. 

Camping will be allowed on the area during the deer 
hunts, but not allowed during small game hunts. 
DIRECTIONS FROM PERRY: 

Take Georgia 127 east for eight miles to Kathleen, 
which is located at the junction of 127 with Georgia 247. 
Turn right on 247 and go one mile to a Game and Fish 
road sign. Turn left on the dirt road and go three miles to 
the checking station. 

OCMULGEE MANAGEMENT AREA 

(1) Deer: (Archery) Either Sex. Open dates October 13 
through October 27, 1973 on Wednesday, Thursday and 
Saturday only. No permit required. 

(2) Deer: (Firearms) Buck Only. Open dates November 
3, November 5 through November 10, 1973 and Novem- 
ber 21 through November 24, 1973. Only one permit is 
required. 

(3) Deer: (Firearms) Anterless. Open date December 
8, 1973. QUOTA HUNT. Quota: Five hundred (500) 
hunters by computer drawing. 

(4) Small Game: Saturday only throughout the first 
dove season. Open dates December_J2, 1973 through 
February 28, 1974, Wednesday and Saturday only. No 
permit required. No motorcycles, motor scooters or simi- 
lar vehicles will be allowed on the area at any time. 

(5) Pre-hunt scouting and hunt camp construction al- 
lowed one day prior to deer hunts only. 

General Information 

The Ocmulgee Area consists of 28.000 acres of river 
bottoms with mixed hardwoods and predominantly pine 
forests. The area offers good deer hunting with some of 
the largest bucks in the state being taken here. There is 
also good hunting for squirrel, dove, ducks and quail. 
Jack Scott, Route 5, Cochran, is the area manager. 
DIRECTIONS FROM MACON: 

Drive south to the junction of U.S. 129 and Ga. 96 at 
Tarversville. Turn right onto Ga. 96 and proceed approxi- 
mately 3 A mile to a paved road leading to the right. Fol- 
low this road 4 miles to signs leading to the checking 
station. 



LITTLE SATILLA 

Small Game: Open dates January 5 through 19 and 
February 2 through February 16, 1974. Small game may 
be hunted in season subject to State Regulations and Bag 
Limits. No permit required. 

OAKY WOODS AREA 

(1) Deer: (Archery) Either Sex. Open dates October 13 
through October 27, 1973 on Friday and Saturday only. 
No permit required. 

(2)- Deer: (Firearms) Buck Only. Open dates November 
19 through November 24, 1973 and December 12 through 
15, 1973. Only one permit is required. Pre-hunt scouting 
and hunt camp construction will be allowed one day prior 
to the managed deer hunt only. 

(3) Deer: (Firearms) Antlerless. Open dates December 
21 and 22, 1973. Limit 500 hunters on a first come, first 
served basis. Bag limit one (1) deer of either sex. 

(4) Small Game: Saturday only through the first dove 
season. December 5 through December 8; December 29, 
1973 through February 28, 1974 on Wednesday and 
Saturday only. No permit is required. No motorcycles, 
motor scooters or similar vehicles will be allowed on the 
area at any time. 

General Information 

Oaky Woods is mostly forest lands with extensive hard- 
in 1966 consists of 37,000 acres of forest lands owned by 
the Georgia Kraft Company and Continental Can Co. 
The newly established area is located along the Ocmulgee 
River in Houston, and Pulaski counties. 

Oaky Woods is mostly forest land with extensive hard- 
woods. It has outstanding potential for small game hunt 
ing. Some of the land is in the Ocmulgee River Swamp 



OGEECHEE AREA 

(1) Deer. (Archery) Either Sex. Open dates October 10 
through October 27, 1973 on Wednesday, Friday and 
Saturday only. No permit required. 

(2) Deer: (Firearms) Buck Only. Open dates November 
3, November 5 through November 10, 1973 and Novem- 
ber 19 through November 24, 1973. Only one permit is 
required. 

(3) Small Game: Saturday only during the first dove 
season. Open dates August 15 through September 8 and 
December 5, 1973 through February 28. 1974 on Wednes- 
day and Saturday only. Hunt camp construction and pre- 
hunt scouting allowed on day prior to hunt. 

General Information 

The Ogeechee area consists of 24,000 acres in two 
tracts along the Ogeechee river in middle Georgia. The 
area is typical river bottom swamp with hardwoods along 
the streams and pine on ridges. 

There is presently a substantial deer population on the 
area in huntable numbers. Some turkey are present ami 
are hoped to develop into a huntable population under 
protection. Squirrel hunting is good along the streams and 
rabbit and quail are numerous in cleared areas. 

Camping is permitted but there are no improved camp- 
ing areas. Joe Smallwood is the area manager. 
DIRECTIONS FROM WARRENTON: 

do south on Ga. 16 to Jewell Community. Road enters 
area. 

PIGEON MOUNTAIN AREA 

(1) Deer: (Firearms) Buck Only. Open dates December 
3 through December 8. 1973. 

(21 Small (lame: Open dates December 22 through 



December 29, 1973 and January 12 through January 26, 
1974. No special fee or permit is required. 

(3) Special Raccoon Hunt: Open dates December 22 
and December 29, 1973 and January 12 and January 26, 
1974. No permit required. 

(4) The Pigeon Mountain Wildlife Management Area 
consists of that portion of Walker County bounded on 
the north by Ga. # 193, on the west by Hog Jaw Road 
and Cove Road, on the south by the Chattooga County 
line and on the east by Bronco Road and Chandler Road. 

General Information 

The Pigeon Mountain Wildlife Management Area con- 
sists of 17,500 acres of private land in southwest Walker 
County west of LaFayette, Ga. The topography is typical 
of the Lookout Plateau region and the vegetation type is 
oak-hickory, with some stands of pine. The area, estab- 
lished in 1970, already supports a fair deer population. 
H. M. Rodgers is area manager. 
DIRECTIONS FROM SUMMERVILLE: 

Take Ga. 48 west to Cloudland, turn right on Ga. 239 
and go about 8.0 miles to Haywood's Store. Turn right on 
dirt road for 1 mile to checking station at intersection. 

RICH MOUNTAIN AREA 

(1) Deer: No open season for the taking of deer. 

(2) Turkey: No open season for the taking of turkey. 

(3) Small Game: open dates December 3, 1973 through 
January 12, 1974, and February 9 through 23, 1974. No 
permit required. 

(4) Special Raccoon Hunt: Open dates Saturday nights 
only. October 20, 1973 through January 5, 1974. No per- 
mit required. 

(5) General Regulations: The Rich Mountain Wildlife 
Management Area consists of those lands in Gilmer and 
Fannin Counties bounded on the west by Georgia High- 
way #5, on the north by Rock Creek Road, on the east 
by Aska Road and Big Creek Road and on the south by 
Georgia Highway # 52. 

General Information 

This area consists of 25,000 acres of rugged mountain 
terrain. The area is managed by agreement with U.S. 
Forest Service, Georgia Power and several private land- 
owners in the area. 

Mature hardwood timber dominates the area. Deer 
have been stocked and it is hoped will develop into a 
huntable population within 3-5 years. Squirrels are numer- 
ous and there are some grouse. Turkey are present but 
scarce and the area will be stocked as birds become avail- 
able. Bear are present and Rich Mountain represents one 
of the few areas of suitable black hear habitat left in 
North Georgia. 

Access is extremely difficult on the area's few roads. A 
four wheel drive vehicle is highly recommended. Camping 
is permitted but there are no developed campsites. 

David Davis is area manager. 
DIRECTIONS FROM ELLIJAY: 

Go north on Ga. 5 miles to Whitepath Community 
Area is on right. Or, go east from Ellijay on Ga. 52 three 
miles to Turnipseed Road. Turn left to enter area. 

SUWANNOOCHEE AREA 

(1) Deer: (Primitive Weapons) Either Sex. Open dates 
November 19 through November 24, 1973. Permits will 
be available at the checking station. $5 permit required. 
No pre-hunt scouting allowed. 

(2) Deer: (Firearms) Buck Only. Open dates December 
17 through December 22, 1973. A permit is required 
and will be available at the checking station at a cost 
of $5. 

(3) Deer: (Firearms) Buck Only. Open dates December 
31, 1973 through January 5, 1974. A permit is required 
and will be available at the checking station at a cost 
of $5. 

(4) Small Game: Open dates January 7 through Janu- 
ary 19, 1974 and February 2 through February 16, 1974. 
Gates will be opened at 5 a.m. and closed at 7:30 p.m. 
No permit or fee required. No check in or check-out 
required. 

General Information 
The Suwanoochee Game Management Area consists of 
',000 acres of low-lying timherland owned primarily by 
.angdalc Company and Southern Resin Chemical Co. 



near Homerville in Clinch, Echols, and Lanier counties 
near Suwanoochee Creek in South Georgia. 

Suwanoochee is the second largest state management 
area, and was first opened for buck-only deer hunting in 
1963. Along with fair deer hunting, the area has fair 
quail, rabbit, and squirrel hunting. There are no turkeys 
on the area. J. C. Rentz, Lake Park, Ga., is the area 
manager. 

There are no developed campsites on the area, but 
camping is allowed adjacent to the checking station. The 
nearest developed campsite is approximately 30 miles 
away at Stephen Foster State Park. 
DIRECTIONS FROM VALDOSTA: 

Turn east on U.S. 84. Go 13 miles to Stockton. Turn 
south on U.S. 129, and go 5 miles to the checking station 
on left. 

SWALLOW CREEK AREA 

(1) Deer: (Firearms) Buck Only. Open dates November 
26 through December 1, 1973. 

(2) Small Game: Open dates August 18 through Sep- 
tember 8, 1973; October 14 through November 2, 1973; 
and December 3 through December 31, 1973. No special 
fee or permit required. Camping will be permitted. 

(3) Special Raccoon Hunt: Open dates October 13 
through October 20 and December 3 through December 
31, 1973. No permit required. 

General Information 

The Swallow Creek Game Management Area consists 
of 20,000 acres of U.S. Forest Service timberland in 
Towns County on the North side of the Blue Ridge 
Divide. 

Swallow Creek is an extremely mountainous, steep, 
rugged area of mixed hardwoods and some pine. Four- 
wheel drive vehicles are recommended for traveling the 
area's very steep and rugged roads. 

The Swallow Creek area has a fair deer population, and 
a few turkeys. Grouse and squirrel hunting is good, with 
fair rabbit hunting and no quail. James F. Shuler, Rt. 1, 
Blairsville, Ga., is the area manager. 

Camping is allowed but there are no developed camp- 
sites on the Swallow Creek area. The nearest developed 
campsite is on Ga. 197 at the Lake Burton Fish Hatchery. 
DIRECTIONS FROM GAINESVILLE: 

Go to Robertstown. Take Ga. Highway 75 north to 
U.S. Highway 76 Junction where the checking station is 
located. 

TALKING ROCK AREA 

(1) Deer: No open season for the taking of deer. 

(2) Turkey: No open season for the taking of turkey. 

(3) Small Game: Open dates December 3, 1973 
through January 13, 1974. No permit required. 

(4) Special Raccoon Hunt: Open dates Saturday nights 
only. October 20, 1973 through January 5. 1974. No per- 
mit required. 

(5) General Regulations: The Talking Rock Wildlife 
Management Area consists of those lands in Gordon, Gil- 
mer, Murray and Pickens Counties, bounded on the west 
by U.S. Highway #411 and on the north and east by 
Georgia Highway #156 and on the south by Georgia 
Highway #53. 

General Information 
The Talking Rock Wildlife Management Area consists 
of 20,000 acres of timberland owned by the Georgia Kraft 
Company and the Hiwassee Land Company and other 
private landowners lying in Pickens, Gordon, and Gilmer 
counties. The terrain is rugged with a good many cutover 
areas. The deer population is presently low but restocking 
efforts are underway and the area has excellent potential. 
Small game hunting is good for squirrels in their hard- 
wood timber and for quail in the cutover areas. 

DIRECTIONS FROM JASPER: 

Driving west on Ga. Hwy. #53 to Hinton, Ga. (Junc- 
tion of Ga. #53 and Ga. #156) which is adjacent to the 
area. Ga. Hwy. #53 constitutes the S.E. boundary and 
Ga. Hwy. #156 the N.E. boundary of the area. U.S. 
Hwy. #411 from its junction with Ga. #53 north to 
junction with Ga. #156 is area's western boundary. 

WARWOMAN AREA 

(1) Deer: (Primitive Weapons) Either Sex. Open dates 



October 22 through October 27, 1973. 

(2) Deer: (Firearms) Buck Only. Open dates November 
26 through December I, 1973. 

(3) Small Game: Open dates August 18 through August 
31, 1973; and December 3 through December 29, 1973; 
and February 9 through February 23, 1974. No check- 
in or check-out will be required. No permit is required. 
Camping will be permitted. 

(4) Special Raccoon Hunt: Open dates November 9 and 
10; December 7 and 8; and December 14 and 15, 1973. 
$1 perm't required. 

General Information 

The Warwoman Game Management Area is located on 
14,000 acres of National Forest timberland in extremely 
rugged and isolated mountain terrain on the headwaters 
of the Chattooga River in Rabun County east of Clay- 
ton, Ga. 

While the average size of the deer taken on Warwoman 
ranks next to Cedar Creek, hunter pressure is consider- 
ably less, due to the rugged country and the difficulty of 
hunting it. Four-wheel drive vehicles are essential for 
motor travel inside the area on jeep trails. George Speed, 
Clayton, Ga., is the area manager. 

Camping is allowed, but there are no developed camp- 
sites on the area. Black Rock Mountain State Park is lo- 
cated 3 miles north of Clayton on U.S. 441 and U.S. 23. 
DIRECTIONS FROM GAINESVILLE: 

Go to Clayton on U.S. 23. Turn right on U.S. Highway 
76 and go one block. Turn left on Warwoman Road and 
go 3.8 miles to the checking station. 

WAYCROSS STATE FOREST AREA 

(1) Deer: (Firearms) Buck Only. Open dates December 
3 through December 8, 1973. No pre-hunt scouting al- 
lowed. Permit available free of charge at check station. 
No pre-hunt scouting allowed. 

(2) Small Game: Open dates January 3 through 5; 
January 10 through 12 and January 17 through 19, 1974 
and February 2 through February 16, 1974. No permit 
required. 

General Information 

The Waycross State Forest Game Management Area 
consists of 37,500 acres of timberland owned by the 
Georgia Forestry Commission in Ware County. 

Waycross State Forest was created in 1960, and con- 
sists largely of flat coastal plains piney-woods carpeted by 
palmetto. The area has a fair deer population, and a few 
turkeys. Quail hunting on the area is good, with fair rab- 
bit and squirrel hunting. W. T. Hewitt, Waycross, Ga., is 
the area manager. 

Camping is not allowed on the area, but a developed 
camping area is adjacent to it at Laura Walker State Park. 
Hunters using the Park must keep firearms stored in 
vehicles while inside the Park. 
DIRECTIONS FROM WAYCROSS: 

Take U.S. 1 south from the Waycross city limits 3.6 
miles to the area boundary. 
DIRECTIONS FROM BRUNSWICK: 

Go to Hoboken. Take U.S. 84 west for 3.1 miles to the 
area boundary. 

WHITESBURG AREA 

(Carroll-Douglas Area) 

Hunters will be allowed to hunt any game in season 
subject to State regulations, seasons, and bag limits. 
General Information 

The Whitesburg Public Hunting Area consists of 28,000 
acres of Georgia Kraft Company timberland in several 
large scattered blocks in Carroll and Douglas counties on 
the west bank of the Chattahoochee River below Atlanta. 
The Whitesburg area was opened for hunting in 1964. 
Boundaries of the area are marked by yellow signs and by 
the Georgia Kraft double blue paint bands on border 
trees. 

No developed campsites are available on the area, but 
camping is allowed. 
DIRECTIONS FROM ATLANTA: 

Take Ga. 166 west. Travel 36 miles to the junction of 
Ga. 5 and Ga. 166. Turn south on Ga. 5 and go 12 miles 



to Whitesburg, which is located in the approximate cen- 
ter of the major land blocks. 
DIRECTIONS FROM NEWNAN: 

Take U.S. Alternate 27 north and go 9 miles to Whites- 
burg. 

WILDLIFE REFUGES (Federal) 

Managed by U.S. Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife 

Regulations governing hunting on Blackbeard Island 
National Wildlife Refuge, Piedmont National Wildlife 
Refuge and Savannah National Wildlife Refuge may be 
obtained by writing to U.S. Bureau of Sport Fisheries and 
Wildlife, Peachtree-Seventh Building, Atlanta. Ga. 30323. 
PIEDMONT NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE 

(1) Deer: (Archery) Either Sex. October 1 through Oc- 
tober 13, 1973. Permits may be obtained at the Piedmont 
National Wildlife Refuge headquarters at Round Oak, 
Georgia 31080 any time during the hunt or the week 
preceding it. 

(2) Deer: (Trophy Hunt) Buck Only. Open dates Octo- 
ber 22 through October 27, 1973. Hunters will be al- 
lowed to take one buck deer with at least four points on 
a side. Five hundred (500) hunters limit. Rifle or shotgun. 
Computer permit required. 

(3) Deer: (Firearms) Either Sex. Open dates November 
3, November 10 and November 17, 1973. Hunters will be 
allowed to take one deer of either sex. Two thousand 
(2,000) permits per hunt. Rifle or shotgun. Computer per- 
mit required for each one day hunt. ~~ 

Applications for computer permits for the trophy buck 
hunt and firearms deer hunt will be available from the 
Piedmont headquarters during the month of August, and 
must be received in the Atlanta Office by September 7. 

(4) Small Game: Squirrel — August 18 through Sep- 
tember 8, 1973 daily except Sundays. Quail and Squirrel 
— Tuesdays and Saturdays, November 20, 1973 through 
February 28, 1974. No permit required. 

(Deer scouting will be allowed only on September 29 
and 30.) 

BLACKBEARD ISLAND NATIONAL 
WILDLIFE REFUGE 

Archery hunt for deer (Either Sex). Open dates are 
October 16 through October 19; November 20 through 
November 23; and December 27 through December 29, 
1973. Permit required, available from the Refuge head- 
quarters at Savannah. National Wildlife Refuge, Route 1, 
Hardeeville. South Carolina 29927 after September 1. 

WASSAW ISLAND 

Archery hunt for deer (Either Sex). Open dates are 
November 20 through November 23 and December 1 1 
through December 14, 1973. Permit required, available 
from the Refuge headquarters at Savannah National 
Wildlife Refuge, Route 1, Hardeeville, South Carolina 
29927 after September 1. 




Letters 



LIKES AND GRIPES 

When the magazine format changed 
last year, I was angry and had no in- 
tention of renewing my subscription. 
But the quality and interest of the ar- 
ticles since January 1973 have changed 
my opinion. The articles on Georgia, 
fishing, and back packing have been 
very interesting. My check for a three 
year subscription is enclosed and my 
confidence in your publication has been 
restored. It compares favorably with a 
similar publication by the State of 
Louisiana. 

May I also offer one suggestion? An 
occasional article on the environment, 
and ecology would add some interest. 
Maybe a primer on ecology and the 
slate's involvement in ecology would 
be helpful. 

R. E. Stapleton 
Atlanta 



I do not wish to renew my subscrip- 
tion. I have watched a very good hunt- 
ing and fishing magazine be turned into 
a weirdo-hippie-backpackers ecological 
handbook. This wasn't the original pur- 
pose of this magazine and for that rea- 
son only, I wish not to renew. 

If I may pass along some advice. I 
would suggest that your department do 
a study on the popularity of your maga- 
zine. I feel assured that the sportsman's 
c'ubs across the state hate the new 
format. 

Lamar E. Zipperer 
Athens 

When the purpose changed, we 
changed magazines, but we feel the larg- 
er scope of the new, larger magazine 
includes that of the old one. A reader- 
ship survey was done before the new 
magazine was brought out, and readers 
indicated an interest in articles such as 
those now included. 



Enclosed is a change of address I 
thought I had already sent in. I did not 
use the form provided in the December 
issue. The picture on the back was too 
pretty and just fit an empty picture 
frame I had. 

Anyway, enclosed please also find my 
check for $5.00 for two years subscrip- 
tion for my husband (and me). I'm not 
much of a sportsman but I love the ar- 
ticles in the magazine. Keep up the 
good work. 

Frances Anderson 
Toccoa 



I feel the monthly magazine I now 
receive (Outdoors In Georgia) is not in 
'he best interest of the hunter and fish- 
erman as the magazine I subscribed to 
several years ago, "Georgia Game and 
Fish." 

The "Georgia Game and Fish" mag- 

izine always kept me up to date on all 

game thai is in season this month, next 

and closing dates on 



time not published in the once a year 
game regulations. 

If these items are not included in 
future issues I feel that your magazine 
(also mine) is not in the best interest 
of Georgia "outdoorsmen." I will not 
renew my subscription if this important 
information is not included. 
Lee W. Swails 
Pearson 

We hope you have remained a sub- 
scriber long enough to get this issue. 
The only season not included is for 
duck, and we just don't have it yet. 
Also hope you noticed the fishing regu- 
lations and dates in the April issue — 
earliest ever! 



Am delighted to renew my subscrip- 
tion to "Game and Fish," "Outdoors in 
Georgia" magazine for one great reason. 
The 1973 Georgia Tide Tables are now 
included. Not only for one month, but 
the whole year. 

This is wonderful to those living in 
Coastal areas or even near by. 
Elizabeth R. Kelly 
Mcintosh 

We plan to include the next year's 
tide tables for the Georgia coast in each 
December issue. Those who were not 
subscribers in December or failed to 
save the tables can get a copy by writ- 
ing or calling us at 656-3530. 



You mention the following in the 
October, 1972, issue, page 11: 

"Obtain a compact, step-by-step 

well-illustrated guide showing how 

to dress a deer" 

Why not include this compact illus- 
trated guide as a section in our "Out- 
doors in Georgia" magazine? 

I like your new format and read it 
monthly — cover to cover — stay with it 
and congratulations on a job done well. 
C. T. Shaw 
Smyrna 

We do have a guide to field dressing 
deer available without charge. An ar- 
ticle on the subject also appeared in 
G\me & Fish about two years ago; but 
it might be time for another one. 



LIKES PAINTINGS 

A friend of mine who I mounted a 
bass for, showed me one of your maga- 
zines the other day. It was the May 1973 
Vol. II No. 5 edition. In it were two 
color plates of a redbreast and a bluegill. 
Being a taxidermist, I noticed the detail 
of these art works and I believe they are 
the best I've seen. If possible I would like 
to acquire this back issue. Please send 
me information as to how I might ac- 
quire this issue as well as information as 
to whether or not color plates are often 
to be found in your magazine. If so I 
would like to subscribe. 

Glenn M. Smith 
Savannah 

Back issues are available at a cost of 
$.25 each. We plan to include "Wildlife 
Profiles" in each issue, so you may as 
well subscribe. 



Outdoor 
Calepda 




PIEDMONT NATIONAL HUNT 
DATES ANNOUNCED 

The Piedmont archery hunt 
deer will be October 1 through 
1973. Permits are required. An 
limited number of these permits 
be issued. They may be picked 
in person only at refuge headquai 
on the following dates: Septen 
4-30, Monday through Friday f 
8 a.m. to 4:30 p.m. and Octobe 
13 from 4:30 a.m. to 7:30 p.m. 
(Continued on next j. 



Outdoor 
World 



REPORT OIL SPILLS 

Around-the-clock emergency 
phone service for reporting spill 
oil or other hazardous materials 
been established by the Water Qu : 
Control Section of the Environirn 
Protection Division, Departmen . 
Natural Resources. The numbs 
404-656-4300 and is answerec 
hours a day, seven days a week. 

Any company, organization, o 
dividual experiencing a spill of c 1 
hazardous materials such as ta 
gasoline, or anyone learning of j 
a spill, can immediately call this 1 1 
ber and remedial action will be st; i 
by the Water Quality Control Sec i 
If a spill of oil or gasoline in a st e 
or river is reported quickly en< ij 
the Water Quality Section ma 
able to get earth moving equipme i 
the site and prevent further flo v 
spilled oil or gasoline into the st e 
or river. 

Remember, the number to c; II 
report spills of oil or hazardous i a 
rials is 404-656-4300. 

— Dick Da i 



The Piedmont gun hunts for deer 
ill be as follows: 

Trophy buck— October 22 through 
October 27 — 500 Permits 

Either sex — November 3 — 2,000 
Permits 

Either sex— November 10 — 2,000 
Permits 

Either sex — November 17 — 2,000 
Permits 

A permit will be required for all 
' the gun deer hunts. The permits 
ill be handled by computer. Persons 
no wish to apply for these permits 

ould request an application from 
e refuge office. Application forms 

11 be available till August 31, 1973, 

d the deadline for receiving appli- 

tions is September 7. To request 

application send one self-addressed 

mped envelope (9"x4") for every 
i 3 applications desired to Piedmont 

tional Wildlife Refuge, Round 
' k, Georgia 31080. Information on 
I hunts will be returned with the 
f Dlication. 

' todcock: November 20 through 

i uary 23. Daily bag limit 5, pos- 

: ;ion limit 10. Legal shooting hours 

ji be 30 minutes before sunrise 

| il sunset. 

i pe (Wilson's): December 21 

i )ugh February 23. Daily bag limit 

J 'ossession limit 1 6. Legal shooting 

| rs will be 30 minutes before sun- 

|i until sunset. 

1(1 (Marsh Hens): September 10 

I mgh November 18. King and clap- 
m rail daily bag limit 15, possession 
l"i t 30, singly or in aggregate. Vir- 

II i and sora rail daily bag limit 25, 
Session limit 25, singly or in ag- 
tt ate. Legal shooting hours will be 

ninutes before sunrise until sun- 

If' e: Georgia has been divided into 
tp zones for the coming dove season 
1 i line formed by U.S. 80 from 
(I mbus to Macon, Ga. 49 from 
f in to Milledgeville, Ga. 22 from 
M xlgeville to Sparta, Ga. 16 from 
| ta to Warrenton, U.S. 278 from 
v »' - enton to Augusta. 
Virthern Zone: September 8 
Pigh October 27. and December 
1 iirough January 3. 
}' uthern Zone: September 29 
1 > gh October 27, and December 
stl ough January 15. 
ji! p-ily bag limit 12, possession limit 
- I egal shooting hours will be from 
Lifi >on until sunset. 



Management 
Area 


Stream 


August 


September 


BLUE RIDGE 


Jones Creek 


Sat., Sun. 


Sat., Sept. 1 
Sun., Sept. 2 
Mon., Sept. 3 




Montgomery 


Sat., Sun. 
Wed., Thu. 


Sat., Sept. 1 

Sun., Sept. 2 
Mon., Sept. 3 




Nimblewill 


Sat., Sun. 


Sat., Sept. 1 

Sun., Sept. 2 
Mon., Sept. 3 




Noontootley 


Every Day 


Sat., Sept. 1 
Sun., Sept. 2 
Mon., Sept. 3 




Rock Creek 


Sat., Sun. 
Wed., Thu. 


Sat., Sept. 1 
Sun., Sept. 2 
Mon., Sept. 3 


CHATTAHOOCHEE 


Chattahoochee 


Sat., Sun. 


Sat., Sept. 1 
Sun., Sept. 2 
Mon., Sept. 3 




Dukes 


Sat., Sun. 
Wed., Thu. 


Sat., Sept. 1 
Sun., Sept. 2 
Mon., Sept. 3 


CHESTATEE 


Boggs 


Sat., Sun. 
Wed., Thu. 


Sat., Sept. 1 
Sun., Sept. 2 
Mon., Sept. 3 




Dicks 


Sat., Sun. 


Sat., Sept. 1 
Sun., Sept. 2 
Mon., Sept. 3 




Waters 


Sat., Sun. 


Sat., Sept. 1 
Sun., Sept. 2 
Mon., Sept. 3 


LAKE BURTON 


Moccasin 


Sat., Sun. 
Wed., Thu. 


Sat., Sept. 1 
Sun., Sept. 2 
Mon., Sept. 3 




Wildcat 


Sat., Sun. 


Sat., Sept. 1 
Sun., Sept. 2 
Mon., Sept. 3 


LAKE RUSSELL 


Middle Broad 


Sat., Sun. 
Wed. 


Sat., Sept. 1 

Sun., Sept. 2 
Mon., Sept. 3 


WARWOMAN 


Finney 


Sat., Sun. 


Sat., Sept. 1 
Sun., Sept. 2 
Mon., Sept. 3 




Sarahs 


Sat., Sun. 


Sat., Sept. 1 
Sun., Sept. 2 
Mon., Sept. 3 




Walnut Fork 


Wed., Thu. 






Hoods Creek 


Wed., Thu. 





Outdoors 

it? georgia 

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8/73 



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Outdoors 

ii? georgia 



September, 1973 



1973 





o*\ 






BOARD OF 
NATURAL RESOURCES 

James Darby 

Chairman 

Vidaiia-lst District 

William Z. Camp, Sec. 
Newnan— 6th District 

Leo T. Barber, Jr. 
Moultrie— 2nd District 

Dr. Robert A. Collins, Jr. 
Americus— 3rd District 

George P. Dillard 
Decatur— 4th District 

Rankin M. Smith 
Atlanta— 5th District 

Leonard E. Foote 
Marietta-7th District 

Henry S. Bishop 
Alma-8th District 

Clyde Dixon 
Cleveland— 9th District 

Leonard Bassford 
Augusta-lOth District 

Jimmie Williamson 
Darien— Coastal District 

Donald J. Carter 
Gainesville— State at Large 

Wade H. Coleman 
Valdosta— State at Large 

James D. Cone 
Decatur— State at Large 

A. Calhoun Todd, Jr. 
Macon— State at Large 



EARTH AND WATER DIVISION 
Sam M. Pickering, Jr., Director 

ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION DIVISION 
R. S. Howard, Jr., Director 

GAME AND FISH DIVISION 
Jack Crockford, Director 

PARKS AND HISTORIC SITES DIVISION 
Henry D. Struble, Director 

OFFICE OF PLANNING AND RESEARCH 
Chuck Parrish, Director 

OFFICE OF ADMINISTRATIVE SERVICES 
James H. Pittman, Director 

PUBLIC RELATIONS AND 

INFORMATION SECTION 

H. E. (Bud) Van Orden, Chief 



Jimmy Carter 
Governor 



Department of Natural Resources 

Commissioner 



Joe D. Tanner 




George T. Bagby 
Deputy Commissioner 



1776 



FEATURES 

Bow Hunt Safely . . . .Dr. Stephenie Slahor 

White Tail Forecast Aaron Pass 

Warwoman WMA Dick Davis 

Wildlife Profiles: Bass Aaron Pass 

Georgia's Unspoiled Child of Nature .... 

Bud Van Orden and 
Dr. Fred Marland 

Moccasin Creek State Park Dick Davis 

Fishing Early in Fall Aaron Pass 

Wildlife Profiles: Mourning Dove . . Aaron Pass 

Find the Food— Find the Deer 

Winston A. Andrews 



DEPARTMENTS 

Outdoor World 3 

Book Review 3 

Outdoor Calendar 3 

COVER— Marsh at Sunset by Bob Busby and Jim Couch 



Outdoors 

\t) georgia 



September, 1973 Volume II 



Number 



Outdoors in Georgia is the official monthly magazine of the Georgia Departrr I 
of Natural Resources, published at the Department's offices, Trinity-Washing c 
Building, 270 Washington Street, Atlanta, Georgia 30334. No advertising accep' M 
Subscriptions are $3 for one year or $6 for three years. Printed by Willi< "i 
Printing Company, Atlanta, Georgia. Notification of address change must incl c 
old address label from a recent magazine, new address and ZIP code, with 30 d •' 
notice. No subscription requests will be accepted without ZIP code. Articles t 
photographs may be reprinted when proper credit given. Contributions are \ e 
come, but the editors assume no responsibility or liability for loss or damage < 
articles, photographs, or illustrations. Second-class postage paid at Atlanta, Geor i' 



MAGAZINE STAFF 

Phone 656-3530 

H. E. (Bud) Van Orden 

Editor-in-Chief 

Bob Wilson Editor Dick Davis Staff W H 

Liz Carmichael Jones . . . Art Director Aaron Pass Staff " " 

Jim Couch .... Staff Photographer T. Craig Martin Staff Vv il 

Bob Busby .... Staff Photographer Kay Pinckney . . Circulation Man g 



EDITORIAL 



t Belongs To Everyone . . . 



By now most outdoorsmen, and probably 

ost Georgians, have had a pretty full summer 

ljoying just about every type of outdoor ac- 

vity. We take it for granted that the good times 

i ill always be there for us to enjoy when we 

* ant to. 

Hopefully, the good times that we enjoy while 

inting, fishing, boating, camping, hiking or 
natever, will always be around if we realize 
I at the outdoors was created for, and belongs 
U everyone. 

This truism was reverently brought to my at- 
ntion recently by Rev. Gil Watson, Pastor, 
5 ;thel United Methodist Church, Hiram, Geor- 
i i, whom I shall respectfully refer to as "The 
) ltdoor Chaplain." Rev. Watson has been cor- 
;;ponding with me recently and I would like 
p share with you some of the thought, insight 
*i d the Godly reverence he holds for nature. 
i A few weeks ago he wrote, "The outdoors is 
ir common sanctuary and the choir is com- 
fc sed of all the voices of chatter and tune that 
£:ure provides. In Spring, it's the soprano of 
i birds as they whistle, chirp, and sing. In the 
P rimer, they are joined by the rustling waters 

tiny brooks and creeks whose swollen waters 
1 1 harmony to the chorus. In the Fall, they are 
t ented by the 'cawing' sound of crows pro- 

(ing bass in the background. As Winter ap- 
|< aches, the barking of the squirrels supplies 
k music for the season. 

Then too, there is no building anywhere 
'h ch can change its complete decor all during 



the year with such a minimum of expense. In 
Spring, the flowers give an air of resurrection to 
a sleeping earth. In Summer, the warm sunshine 
and quick showers lend a fragrance that sur- 
passes the rarest of bottled jjerfumes. The Fall 
means color in extravagance with orange and 
red and gold, these providing a stained glass 
window more colorful than the most talented 
craftsman is able to produce. In Winter, the 
pines stand alone in the midst of naked hard- 
woods singing and whispering as they lift their 
evergreen spires pointing more symbolically 
upward than any steeple. 

"There is so much of value in our outdoors 
in Georgia. There are so many lessons we can 
learn. . . . The Psalmist wrote, 'Be still and 
know that I am God.' Only when we take time 
to look at the world around us do we see our 
outdoor Sanctuary. It may be our backyard. It 
may be that we can take a few hours to drive to 
the country. It may be as hunters, or hikers. It 
may be as boaters, or as picnickers. But what- 
ever brings us outside, we should use the time 
to its fullest advantage." 

With words like these, it's easy to call Rev. 
Watson, The Outdoor Chaplain. 



&icc/^ ^/£~s (&/m/ 



BOW 
HUNT- 
SAFELY 



By Dr. Stephenie Slahor 



Hunting with bow and arrow is be- 
coming a popular challenge to hunters 
all across America. The thrill of locat- 
ing, stalking, and bagging game by 
bow and arrow presents an entirely 
different aspect from rifle hunting. 
Since earliest times, the bow and ar- 
row have been tools for procuring 
meat, so part of the thrill of bowhunt- 
ing lies with this historical fact alone. 

Bowhunters need to consider bow- 
hunting as a sport which requires 
much the same degree of safety aware- 
ness as rifle hunting. Personal safety, 
the safety of other hunters, the safety 
of other people, and of livestock and 
property are factors which influence 
the bowhunter and rifle hunter alike. 
These factors can become second na- 
ture to you, and when they do you 
will apply them when you are choos- 
ing your equipment or tackle; when 
you are hunting or target practicing; 
or when you are storing your gear. 

Let's examine each of these situa- 
tions as they apply to bowhunting to 
point up the safety principles you 
need to know. 

Tackle: All equipment or tackle 
used in bowhunting needs to be in top 
condition and suited to your personal 
size and purpose. 

Bow weight (the amount of pull 
needed to draw the bowstring back) 
can vary from 40 to 60 pounds, de- 
pending on your own strength and 
comfort. Broadheads with a minimum 
width of 7/8 inches are required for 
hunting deer and turkey in Georgia. 




The bow should be checked thor- 
oughly for nicks, scratches, or fiber- 
glass "bruises" which may render it 
imperfect and weak, and hence dan- 
gerous to you. 

Arrows need to be thoroughly 
checked also for damage. An imper- 
fect arrow may proceed in a direction 
very different from what you intended. 
Any bruised, nicked, or split arrows 
should be broken, then discarded. 

The length of the arrows you hunt 
with is dependent upon your size. A 
rough test of proper length can be 
made by placing the arrow nock 
against your chest, and by holding the 
shaft between your hands extended 
straight together in front of you. The 
top or broadhead should be beyond 
your fingertips. It is better to err on 



Photo by Bob 



the side of an arrow too long tha 
short. 

The arrow's broadhead shou 
kept razor sharp to guarantee d 
humane kills. Use a sharpening i 1 
stone. Respect the broadhead's i 
gerous cutting abilities. 

The bow should be strung w j 
bow stringer, and the bow j J 
checked carefully to make certa: 1 
bow string is properly placed. 

Accessories such as a glove 
armguard should always be i 
while bowhunting to protect the r 
and arm. 

Afield: The average range '1 
arrow is similar to that of a sh( t 
For this reason, never nock an i 
or draw a bow if there is somec n 
front of you. 



When you are within range of your 
ame, double check your target to be 
jre it is legal game and not some- 
ling, or someone, you do not want 
> shoot. Any overhanging obstruc- 
ons such as branches need to be 
)nsidered because a 50-yard shot 
m arc as high as eight feet. When 
)u are sure of your target and have 
nple arc space, check your back- 
op area because you may miss your 
not. The shrubs behind your target 

ay be concealing something you 
ould not want to shoot. 

Do not have your arrow nocked 
1 the bow when walking. If you 
i ;re to stumble on rocks or brush, 
I at razor-sharp broadhead may se- 
busly cut you. 

Store your arrows in a good quality 
I dver which has a reinforced protec- 
i r e covering for the broadheads. 
i jnting broadheads can easily punc- 
i re cheap or flimsy quivers. 

After taking a shot, check the ar- 
c w for possible damage. If the ar- 
t w was damaged, remember to break 
ft arrow before discarding it. 

^Storage: The bow should be un- 
t ung when it is to be stored away. 
^ ix the bowstring occasionally with 
' x specially designed for that pur- 
( se. 

Before you store away your tackle 
t home, check it all for any damage. 
" perfect equipment is one of the 
ji jor causes of bowhunting accidents. 

If possible, store the arrows in 
i ir original containers to minimize 
P nage. Be sure they are stored in 

Ih a way that others incompetent 
handle the arrows will not cut 
v mselves. 
'ractice: The successful bowhunter 
attest to the value of practice. 
£ :h step of the shot should be prac- 
d and analyzed. Practicing with 
i experienced archer, or studying 
'( lery books will give you the basics 
rood techniques. 

ighting can be done by mechani- 
: ill devices or by instinct. Practice 
'! help you be better able to judge 
s ances and shoot accordingly, 
f ;n you are hunting, your range 
' vary from very close shots to 
s ances of 100 to 150 yards. You 
r practice with your target at dif- 
r ' nt distances to learn the tech- 
H es of sighting. 




Razor-sharp broadheads pose the greatest potential for accidental injury to the bowhunter. 
During the regular firearms season in Georgia, even bowhunters will be required to wear 
500 square inches of fluorescent orange material, as specified by new state regulations. 

All hunting equipment and especially archery tackle should be inspected for condition 
before use. On a heavy bow, this fraying string won't last long, and its sudden parting 
under strain could result in the archer being knocked out of his tree stand. 

Photo by Bob Wilson 




When aiming, both eyes should 
be open. Your focus should be on 
the target. This way, you will see the 
arrow's tip with your eyes, but you 
will not be focusing on it. This is 
similar to the effect of using rifle 
sights where the sights are seen, but 
the focus of the eye(s) is on the 
target. 

After sighting and aiming, a pause 
should be made, followed by the ar- 
row release. Again, we can draw a 
similarity between the arrow release 
and trigger squeeze in rifle shooting. 
The movement is smooth, not jerky. 
After the arrow is released, a mo- 
ment of pause should be maintained 
to help guarantee smoothness. 

Safety can make your bowhunting 
expedition one of fun and excitement. 
With preparation, good tackle, and 
common sense tempered with self- 
control, you can attain a high degree 
of safety consciousness which will 
make bowhunting the challenge you 
want it to be. 



Practicing from 
a tree stand and 
climbing on and 
off the stand 
safely is a good 
idea. Never 
climb on or off 
a stand with 
your tackle, use 
a light line to 
raise and lower 
equipment. 




Photo by Bob Wil 





White Tail 

Forecast 

1973 



' Aaron Pass 

t looks like another good year for the Geor- 
p deer hunter, with field reports indicating a 
[ieral increase in the state's deer population. 

1 ile final tabulations are not yet complete, it 
1 stimated that more than 35,000 deer were 
Efelly taken by hunters last season. This year 
iituld be just as good, if not better, judging 
bn information available at this time. 

1 triefly, the central portion of the state will, 
i lsual, be the top deer producing area. The 
|i le habitat and dominant land use practices 

iiis region make it the best deer range in the 
i. The northern mountain and upper Pied- 
t counties, while not as productive as mid- 
Georgia, report an increased deer popula- 
and the prospect of good hunting. South 
-;crgia has shown some increase in deer in 



those areas where suitable habitat conditions 
exist. All in all, an increased deer population 
has been reported statewide. 

All game management regions have reported 
the increase as "gradual" on a region-wide basis, 
with dramatic upswings limited to specific lo- 
calities. This might indicate that, on the whole, 
the state's deer population is starting to level off. 
If this is the case, future progress will be made 
on an area-by-area basis where a change in land 
use, better protection, or some other occurrence 
results in conditions more favorable to deer. 

The white-tailed deer has come back to Geor- 
gia from near oblivion at the turn of the cen- 
tury to a statewide population well in excess of 
200,000 animals. This remarkable restoration 
has been accomplished through the efforts of 



dedicated, professional wildlife experts who un- 
derstood wildlife needs. It was paid for by the 
license buying sportsmen of the state and by 
federal funds accrued by an 1 1 % excise tax on 
sporting arms and ammunition and made avail- 
able by the Pittman-Robertson Act of 1937. Yet 
another factor in this successful program was 
public cooperation. The people of Georgia ap- 
parently wanted white-tailed deer restored, and 
on the whole, cooperated by refraining from il- 
legal hunting and supporting the enforcement 
of wildlife regulations. The speed with which 
deer have become established in each locality is 
a good index of the amount of local cooperation 
that was forthcoming from that area. 

Deer hunting is the number one sport of the 
state's hunters; more hunters spend more time 
and money deer hunting than on any other 
single species. This is a significant economic 
fact in many hunting areas of the state where 
hunters congregate. One community in one of 
the best deer counties of Middle Georgia holds 
an annual festival in honor of the white tail. 

The following reports were made in July and 
reflect the conditions and indications as they 
appeared at that time. It was then too early to 
assess the mast production for this fall among 
other things. It should be noted, therefore, that 
a drastic change in conditions may have wholly 
altered the picture before the hunting season. 

NORTHWEST GEORGIA, Game Zone 1 

This season looks like a good one for deer 
hunters in the northwest corner of the state. 
From last year's kill and observations made this 
summer, the counties of Haralson, Polk, Pauld- 
ing, and Floyd should be the top deer producers 
in the region. Gordon, Bartow, and Cherokee 
should be good alco. Gilmer, Fannin, and north- 
ern Gordon county have shown a very good in- 
crease this year; the herd is still relatively small 
but is growing and healthy. 

Last season's kill was up 8-9% and from all 
indications we have now, we expect a similar 
increase this year. In general, the region's deer 
population is expanding and public cooperation 
is getting better. If these trends continue, there 
a possibility of antlerless hunts being con- 
ducted at some future date. 

atoona should be the region's top Wildlife 
lagement Area, followed closely by Berry. 



The hunt at Berry has been scheduled earli 
this year to avoid inclement weather. Tl 
Cohutta Wildlife Management Area will ha 1 
its first deer hunt in six years this season. Tl 
deer herd on the area is large enough to alio 
a light harvest, which is the reason for tl 
"Three points or better" regulation. Due to tl 
relatively low productivity of the mountain te 
rain, it is doubtful that Cohutta will ever su 
port a heavy deer population. 

All in all, the northwest region should enjc 
a good deer season, weather permitting. 

Bill Collins, Supervisor, Region I 

NORTHEAST REGION, Game Zone la 

The deer hunter's prospects look good in tl 
northeastern part of the state. The deer popul; 
tion seems to be gradually increasing in mo: 
areas where suitable habitat exists. Based o 
last year's kill Lumpkin County will probably t 
best statistically, but practically speaking, hui 
ter success should be about equal in most ( 
the mountain counties. Farther south, Banl 
county has shown good increases over the pa 
few years and should have a good season. 



Photo by Leonard Lee I 







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Photo by Leonard Lee Roe 



:uld be remembered that the mountains are 
tively infertile as a wildlife habitat, and what 

: Dnsidered an excellent deer herd there would 

1 be particularly good in the more productive 

r tral part of the state. 
,ake Russell will be the top Wildlife Manage- 

; it Area in terms of total deer numbers, Ches- 

te and Swallow Creek will probably be the 
mountain areas. Lake Burton Area will 

p the region's only antlerless hunt. 

Jim Scharnagel, Supervisor, Region II 



I ^TRAL REGION, Game Zone II 

p he central portion of the state should have 

excellent deer season this year, judging from 

unt conditions. No really significant change 

be discerned from last year, which was the 

H season ever in this part of the state. As usu- 

II lonroe, Jones, Jasper, Putnam and Greene 
f nties seem to be the best bets and there seems 



to be little real difference between them. The 
deer population seems to be gradually increas- 
ing over the whole region, but a more dramatic 
increase has been noted in Troup, Heard, Pike 
and Upson Counties. 

The best chance for a trophy buck appears to 
be on the Central Georgia Branch Station prop- 
erty (B. F. Grant Area). This area, along with 
Cedar Creek and Ocmulgee WMA's, are prob- 
ably the best bets for the deer hunter this season. 

Dick Whittington, 

Supervisor, Regions III & IV 

SOUTHWEST GEORGIA, Game Zone III 
(and portions of II, IV, V) 

This season should be as good as last year, if 
not better in southwest Georgia. Talbot, Stew- 
art, Harris, Chattahoochee, Webster and Cal- 
houn Counties are probably the best, considering 
last year's kill and current reports. Randolph, 



Worth and Colquitt Counties have recently be- 
come good deer producers and have tremendous 
future potential due to good habitat. 

The whole region generally looks good and 
the population has been increasing overall. 
There will be a one-day either sex hunt in sev- 
eral counties of this area. 

Chickasawhatchee Wildlife Management 
Area looks good this year. Deer sign is plentiful 
and a good hunt is forecast. 

Oscar Dewberry, Supervisor, Region V 

SOUTH CENTRAL GEORGIA, 
Game Zones IV, V, & VI 

Generally speaking, the 73 season looks 
pretty good in this section. The deer population 
has been gradually increasing over this region 
as a whole, and in some specific areas the im- 
provement has been marked. The best gains 
have come in those counties without a dog use 
season or a restricted one. 

Right now, it appears that the best deer hunt- 
ing will be in a block of counties in Game Zones 



IV and V. Wilcox, Ben Hill, Telfair, Jeff Davis 
Coffee, Berrien, Tift, Irwin and portions of At 
kinson Counties look pretty good. These coun 
ties have shown a good deal of improvemen 
lately. This is due to certain trends in land us< 
which result in a greater diversity of plant types 
More hardwoods and browse plants are presen 
and this is better deer habitat than the huge 
unbroken tracts of pine seen in other areas. 

Reports indicate that Waycross and Bullarc 
Creek Wildlife Management Areas should hav( 
good hunting this year. 

Frank Parrish, Supervisor, Region VI 

COASTAL AREA, Game Zone VI 

This region looks good at present, and bar 
ring any unforeseen adversity, deer hunting ir 
the coastal counties should be as good as or bet- 
ter than past years. There appears to have beer 
a general increase in deer over the whole region, 
and Effingham County in particular has showr 
good growth over the past year. 

C. V. Waters, Supervisor, Region VII 



Photo by Leonard Lee Ru 








i 
f 



■ 



1 



Warwoman 

Wildlife Management 




Area 






Towering Rabun Bald, Georgia's second highest peak, is within the 

remote and primitive Warwoman Wildlife Management Area. Black 

bear are present at these higher elevations, but there is no open season. 

In the foreground is one of the permanent food plots on the WMA. 



! Dick Davis 

> )s by the Author 

" or a deer hunting experience akin 
lat of the American pioneer, War- 
Brian Wildlife Management Area is 
: loice locale and the primitive hunt 
! ' ie occasion. Rugged and pictur- 
:\ ie Warwoman WMA also provides 
) sport in managed deer hunts with 
v< ern firearms. And the rainbow, 
I >k and brown trout in War- 
m tan's picture-book streams will 
t the skill of any angler and boun- 
■ y reward the successful ones. 
C n Georgia's rooftop — both geo- 
|B hically and topographically — 
IjfOO-acre Warwoman Wildlife 
m agement Area in Rabun County 
!sp ie of the state's most beautiful, 
3p itive, and challenging hunting 
9 rout fishing grounds. Encompass- 



ing Georgia's second highest peak — 
towering Rabun Bald at 4,696 feet 
elevation — Warwoman is totally 
within the Chattahoochee National 
Forest. 

On remote Warwoman WMA, the 
emphasis is on building and maintain- 
ing game and fish populations that 
will accommodate heavy hunting and 
fishing pressure during open seasons 
and still preserve the refuge's forests 
and streams in a comparatively 
natural and undisturbed condition. 

Warwoman WMA was established 
in 1955 and the first deer hunt was 
held in 1961. Managed primitive 
weapons hunting in Georgia began on 
the Warwoman WMA in 1965. The 
outstanding success of primitive 
weapons and subsequent hunts have 
brought as many as 500 perrons to 



the WMA for this yearly event. The 
lure of the primtive weapons hunts 
have brought participants from many 
states, as far away as the Pacific 
Coast. 

Primtive hunts from 1965 to 1968 
were either sex and from 1969 to 
1971 there were buck hunts only. 
This year's primtive hunt, October 22, 
through October 27, 1973, on War- 
woman will be either sex, as was last 
year's. The firearms managed deer 
hunt for bucks only is November 26 
through December 1, 1973. 

All deer kills on any hunt on the 
WMA must be immediately reported 
at the checking station on Warwoman 
Road near the Finny Creek Bridge. 

On Warmoman's highlands and 
precipitous valleys, the nimrod can 
pursue many varieties of wildlife 




Autumn and Russian Olives have been planted on some permanent 
food plots to provide frnit for turkeys, grouse and other birds. George 
Speed, Refuge Manager of the Warwoman WMA, checks growth of 
the olives. 



from trophy deer to small game. The 
huntable list includes turkey, grouse, 
squirrel, rabbit and coon. 

Wild turkeys were stocked on War- 
woman in 1958-59 and these, in addi- 
tion to the native turkeys already on 
the area, are increasing in numbers. 
Spring gobbler hunts are held on a 
rotated basis with hunts on other 
mountain Wildlife Management Areas. 

Trophy deer are taken each year 
on Warwoman. In the 1972-73 sea- 
son a field dressed buck of 144 
pounds topped the list. A number of 
1 1 pointers were bagged, and one 
outstanding rack was an eight pointer 
with the antlers measuring 21 inches 
in spread. The average weight of deer 
taken on Warwoman generally ex- 
ceeds the weight of deer taken on 
other wildlife management areas in 

: region. The deer population on 

irwoman WMA is lower than on 
the other mountain areas. 



Black bear are present on the 
refuge in substantial numbers and in- 
creased sightings have been reported, 
but at present there is no open season. 
The bear are seen most often at the 
higher, more remote elevations, espe- 
cially in the vicinity of Rabun Bald. 

There are 68 acres of permanent 
food plots on various parts of War- 
woman with well established plant- 
ings of fescue, clover and rye. In some 
of the plots. Autumn and Russian 
olives have been planted, primarily 
as producers of abundant fruit for 
turkeys, grouse and other bird life. 
The growing numbers of wild turkeys 
on the management area feed regular- 
ly in the food plots during the winter 
months and find a good food supply 
of blueberries, blackberries, goose- 
berries, greenery, and ground insects 
during other parts of the year. 

There are three excellent managed 
trout streams and two major native 



trout streams on the WMA, plus : 
merous smaller creeks and waterw 
that tumble from the ridges. Tuc : 
luge Creek was renovated in n : 
1970 and restocked with the nar 
strain of brook trout. This strean 
currently closed to fishing, but 
scheduled to be reopened for J 
1974 season. It will be managed sd 
cifically for wild brook trout and J 
receive no further stockings. Ho ) 
Creek, Walnut Fork Creek i 
Sarah's Creek are all stocked we< k 
during the trout season with rainb ) 
brown and brook trout. Finny Cr< a 
which rises in the Beck Ridge u(l 
Rock Mountain area and flows do v 
hill and southeast to Warworn 
Creek, is a native trout stream w' i) 
has provided many trophy catche.. 
Though Warwoman is mainta if 
in as primitive and undisturbe I ' 
condition as feasible, the WM/ S 
traversed by a good network f 



10 




iMMlL 



Boundary Marker 
Mam highway — 
Secondary Road - 
Streams *" 



Mountains ^j£" 
Campsites 2 
Check Station y^ 



Rabun Baldwin/,, 



e< 



"%Vo''«>r, 



an 



ch 






%'t W>>»^ 



Rattle Snake Knob 
Blacks Creek knob 




Raven Knob 



Rock 



(nob > 



.TO CLAYTON 
2 Mil 



Varwoman Wildlife Management Area 



Spawning boxes have been established in 

so/ne of Warwoman's picturesque and 

productive trout streams to facilitate 

spawning and increase populations of 

stocked rainbow and brown trout. The 

wooden retaining structure is partially filled 

with sand and gravel. 



woods roads; and there is ready ac- 
cess to all parts of the area in a four- 
wheel-drive vehicle. The 32 miles of 
roads on the management area are 
maintained partially by the Game and 
Fish Division of the Department of 
Natural Resources and partially by 
the U.S. Forest Service. 

Primitive camping is emphasized 
on Warwoman. A number of small 
single-tent camping plots have been 
carved into the wooded areas, and 
care is exerted to maintain the wood- 
lands and ground cover in a natural 
state. Special wire-enclosed garbage 
and trash disposal bins are provided 
in close proximity to principal camp- 
ing areas. 

Timber sales and logging opera- 
tions are conducted on Warwoman by 
the U.S. Forst Service. Some of the 
detrimental effect of these operations 
on the area and its wildlife is reduced 
by the prompt planting of former 
sawmill sets, log landings, access 
roads and log skid roads. These areas 
are planted with fescue, clover and 
sericea lespedeza, to reduce erosion 
and provide extra food for wildlife. 
Warwoman WMA's rugged terrain 
contributes more to maintaining a 
primitive quality on the area than do 
the deliberate wildlife and forest 
management practices. This is another 
example of successful multiple-use of 
forest lands, with outdoor recreation, 
timber production and wildlife man- 
agement working in harmony. 

A special recreational feature avail- 
able to visitors to the Warwoman 
Wildlife Management Area is a five- 
mile hiking trail which includes a part 
of the historic Bartram Trail. Orig- 
inally an Indian trail, the path origi- 
nates at the checking station on War- 
""oman Road and carries hikers to 
Courthouse Gap. Here the hiker picks 
up the Three Forks Trail which leads 
to the top of Rabun Bald and then 
to Three Forks. 




George Speed, Refuge Manager of 
the Warwoman WMA, is a veteran of 
more than 17 years service with Game 
and Fish. A native of Rabun County, 
he learned its hills and valleys, 
streams and woodlands as a boy, and 
first became Refuge Manager in 1957. 

Jim Scharnagel, Regional Game 
Supervisor of the Northeast Region 
which includes the Warwoman Wild- 
life Management Area, expresses ap- 
preciation to the persons who live in 
the vicinity of the refuge, and the 
hunters who use the area, for "the 



fine cooperation which enables u 
to operate this excellent hunting, I 
ing and recreational area and m 
tain it in a largely unspoiled co 
tion." 

Warwoman Wildlife Manager 
Area is readily accessible from C 
ton by following Warwoman P 
east from its junction with U.S. 7 
Clayton. The Checking Station 
the WMA is located approxim; 
three miles east of Clayton, w 
Finny Creek intersects Warwo 
Road. 




12 



Wildlife 
Profiles: 

}y Aaron Pass 

Vrt by Liz Carmichael Jones 



There are three species of black 
>ass that often seem to be forgotten, 
ir at least neglected, when speaking 
)f fishing in Georgia. The large- 
nouth (Micropterus salmoides) is so 
videspread and popular (see Out- 
] oors in Georgia June, 1973, vol. II, 
o. 6, p. 15) that these "other" spe- 
ies of bass present in the state seem 
irtually unnoticed by fishermen. 

All three species are smaller than 
i ie largemouth in size and are rather 
! :stricted in range, which accounts 
• :>mewhat for the lack of a large fol- 
|1 wing of anglers. On the other hand, 
j 11 three are highly regarded by an- 
& lers in the localities where they are 
t mnd and often eclipse the large - 
i iouth in popularity in these areas. 
ji lany devotees of one or the other of 
f. lese species will argue long and 
,1 ird as to the superior sporting qual- 
jj es of his favorite versus the ubiqui- 
us largemouth. 



The smallmouth bass (Micropterus 
dolonueui) is often considered a 
northern species due to a habitat 
preference which includes cool water 
and rocky bottoms. The smallmouth 
is, in fact, found over a considerable 
area in Georgia. The Tennessee 
River Watershed north of the Blue 
Ridge Divide is included in the small- 
mouth's natural range. 

Good smallmouth habitat is found 
where the water is too warm for trout 
but too cold for largemouth bass. 
Good smallmouth water should be 
between 60 degrees and 85 degrees, 
unpolluted and unsilted, with a rock 
or gravel bottom. If a stream, there 
should be an adequate pool/riffle 
ratio to provide holding water, aera- 
tion and food production. The small- 
mouth is essentially a predator, feed- 
ing predominantly on insects, min- 
nows and crustaceans. 

This handsome fish is basically 
olive green in color, fading from a 
dark dorsal area to lighter shades be- 
low the lateral line. Often this spe- 



cies displays an overall brassy cast 
which accounts for the nickname 
"bronzeback." Dark, vertical bars 
along the lateral surfaces are the most 
distinctive color pattern. The name 
smallmouth refers to the fact that the 
upper mandible does not extend back 
beyond the eye (in the largemouth it 
does). Another distinguishing trait 
is the visible connection between the 
two dorsal fins; largemouths appear 
to have separated fins. 

Spawning occurs in lakes and 
streams at water temperatures be- 
tween 60-70 degrees. A nest is 
scooped in the gravel by the male, 
who then drives egg-laden females to 
it. Several females may contribute 
eggs which hatch in 2 to 9 days, de- 
pending on water temperature. 

The smallmouth is highly esteemed 
as a sportfishjay anglers. Fly, spin- 
ning and casting tackle are all used 
successfully. Flies, spinners and plugs 
are favored lures with crayfish and 
salamanders preferred as baits. 
(Continued next page) 




S m a lit n out h Mia 



ss 



The Coosa Bass (Micropterus 
coosae) looks much like a miniature 
smallmouth; a reddish tint on the 
margins of the dorsal, caudal and 
anal fins being a good field differenta- 
tion. Range is another, for as the 
smallmouth is limited to the Ten- 
nessee Valley drainage, the Coosa 
bass naturally inhabits the Tennessee, 
Savannah, Chattahochee and Ala- 
bama river systems. He is found 
principally in the small head water 
streams in these drainages. 

This small bass averages only 



about 9-12 inches and is highly 
prized by anglers for its excellent 
sporting qualities. A large subspe- 
cies (Micropterus coosae coosae) is 
restricted to the Flint River and is 
called the "Flint River smallmouth." 
It is known to reach more than six 
pounds, but otherwise the probable 
maximum for Coosa bass is little 
more than two pounds. 

Coosa bass are generally dark 
green above and lighter below, with 
dark vertical bars much like a small- 
mouth. The red tinted fins and a 



brilliant red eye are also pres 
Often called simply "redeye," this 
is also known as the "shoal bass" 
to their preferred habitat. 

A creature of running water, 
Coosa spawns mainly in streams, 
this activity they are much like 
smallmouth. The favored streams 
generally small and fast flowing, 
small Coosa is perfectly suited for 
restricted habitat of these sr 
streams. Forage fish, crustaceans 
insects are the principal food items 
this species. 




, 



\ 









Coosa [Jo 



CISS 



\A 



The Spotted Bass (Micropterus 
punctulatus), also known as the Ken- 
tucky bass, is primarily a lake fish, 
with its habitat corresponding in type 
to that of the smallmouth. It is found 
in the cooler rivers and lakes of North 
Georgia. 

The spotted bass was not taxonom- 
ically considered a separate species 
until 1927. At first glance the fish 
would appear to be a hybrid between 
smallmouth and largemouth bass. 
The upper mandible does not extend 
sack beyond the eye and the dorsal 



fins are joined as in the smallmouth. 
The general color, and markings are 
more suggestive of the largemouth, 
however. 

The dark green of the back fades to 
a whitish belly and there are numer- 
ous dark blotches on the back and 
a row of blotches which approximate 
the lateral band of the largemouth. 
The distinctive feature for field iden- 
tification is the dark bases of the 
scales below the lateral line. These 
appear as lengthwise rows of even 
spots and are responsible for the 



name "spotted bass." A fairly re- 
liable identification factor is the pres- 
ence of a patch of teeth on the 
tongue. Of all the black basses only 
spotted bass have these teeth. 

This species is smaller than either 
the smallmouth or the largemouth, 
with a four or five pound fish being a 
large specimen (a subspecies in 
Alabama is larger). Many anglers 
rate the spotted bass high on their 
list, fishing for it in much the same 
manner as for largemouth bass. 




Spotted Bass 



I s 





orgia's Unsp 










V 











V / 



K 



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V 






&2$ 

wz 




7^" 








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3 









ud) Van Orden / 
"F<ed MarlanO 
Upland Protection 






fa 



's marshlands— a fisherman's para- 

. : L • i _ : • ±h i _ / ' 



lia^s marshlands. 



are a true frfei*itl bf the. outdoorsman, p resul 



of natijte, bif KdWs planned, perhaps not. Ne< 

ertneless, thdy provide ( 

challenge fdrithfe present and Cx hop^ 








16 



> 



\ , ' , 




lack of understanding, and one of Georgia 
most valuable assets will have been wasted. 

Many of today's fishermen, hunters, and ou 
door sportsmen are unaware of the natural an : 
historical processes that have taken place i 
the formation of these salt marshes, nor do the, 
understand the unique role they play in mail 
taining the delicate balance of nature so vitc 
along the coastal estuary. 

Created and formed as a result of meltin 
glaciers during the ice ages, the origin of Geo 
gia's marshlands can be traced back to trj 
Holocene melting of the continental glacier;; 
One prominent theory suggests that sedimerfc 
sand and soil brought down by the river j 
blown by the wind, and washed ashore by th 
waves gradually built up into ridges and dun^ 
on the landward side of the shoreline. Wat; 
from the melting glaciers flooded the coast an 
mainland, and the sediment and sand ridg \ 
were given prominence as islands— barrier 
lands. The ocean waters behind these islan I 
formed lagoons, and later the marshlands. Tr i 
process took place several times; thereby crec 
ing additional marshes between more barri: 
islands, and finally the salt marshes as \ 
know them today. 

But just how well do we understand an 
know about the marshes? They are truly a ph 
nomenon of nature with a meaningful purpc; 
in the ecological system which flourishes i 
them. From the air they are breathtaking. Ti 
green marsh grasses spreading like fields c 
wheat and interwoven with winding cann 
capture the imagination. It is a simple clas; 
beauty, not overpowering or overwhelming, I: 
absorbing and bewildering and yes, brea I 
taking in its yet unspoiled and natural sta 'j 
To the casual visitor it holds this basic, car 1 
voting aura of something beautiful, yet i < 
fully understood. 

But, to the person who enters with a purp< f 
and reason for being there, the marsh unv< i 
itself openly and yields its treasure, its histm 
and its surprises to the person who has B 
knowledge and ingenuity to find and reel 
them. 



Georgia's salt marshes viewed from the air express themselvt > 
as protective buffer islands harboring the mainland. Without I 
salt marshes, Georgia's coast would soon be eroded away an. 
her estuarine life destroyed forever. 







le ebbtide washes the floors of the marsh taking its nutrients out into the 
astal estauary to feed and nourish the microorganisms that begin this important 
ain of life. Exposed and baked by the sun, the marsh bottoms are soon 
juvenated with each incoming tide. 



Photo by Jim Couch 



Developed from the lagoons which slowly 
\ lied with sediments and deposits from Geor- 
< ia rivers and streams flowing to the ocean, 
tie marshlands of Georgia gradually began to 
c ssume their status as a vital part of one of the 
\ orld's greatest estuaries. 

Outdoorsmen, hunters, fishermen, conserva- 

Dnists, scientists and ecologists alike all have 

ie same vested interest in perpetuating the 

eservation of this geological wonderland 

hose by-products result in the continuation of 

Cure's process through the orderly cycle by 

hich plant forms and animal life feed on and 

3 e then fed upon until a complete evolution 

p is taken place and the process begins again. 

Symbolic of the salt marshes is a tall cord-like 

] ass called Spartina alterniflora, which virtual- 

> covers the expansive coastal marsh area. The 

; > vironment in which the spartina grass flour- 

s ies is neither all terrestrial nor all marine, but 



rather a combination of both. The tide is a bene- 
ficial villain in this case leaving the marsh floors 
to be dried and cracked, and then healing these 
wounds with each incoming move. 

Spartina grasses on the creek banks grow 
easily as high as 7 or 8 feet and sometimes 
higher, while in other areas it grows only a foot 
tall. Less than 10 percent of the salt marsh hosts 
other species of plant life. 

Truly the tide is the life blood of the marsh 
bringing its subsidy with each coming and go- 
ing. The incoming tide nourishes and feeds the 
grasses of the marsh and the outgoing tide har- 
vests its products and, through the tidal energy 
breaks down the grasses and feeds the re- 
sources to the sea. Coastal tides average ap- 
proximately 6V2 feet in the marshes but exceed 
10 feet during high spring tides and during hur- 
ricane weather. 

Productive almost beyond comprehension, 




Photo by Bud Van Orden 

Sunning on a stalk of Spartina grass, this snail represents a small 
fragment of the life-sustaining value of the marshes and the 
grasses that serve as the catalyst for the ecosystem found in 
the marsh. 

this salt marsh grass is single-handedly repon- 
ible for the continuation and survival of the 
intricate balance of nature within the estuarine 
ecology. Growing ten tons to the acre and four 
times more productive than the most carefully 
cultivated corn, Georgia's salt marshes produce 
more food energy than any estuarine zone on 
the eastern seaboard. 

The grasses flourish in their habitat fed from 
the onrushing tides. As the grasses die and de- 
compose, nutrient byproducts are produced and, 
taken by the outgoing tides, begin to feed an 
ever-growing number of organisms until all 
forms of marine life in the estuary have bene- 
fited. These minute, decaying particles feed 
small fish, plankton, oysters, shrimp, clams and 
crab. The marsh serves as a nursery ground for 
the growing juveniles of fish and shellfish, and 
fish in turn support larger fish and so the 
cycle goes on and on. 

^pendent upon the life-protective functions 



of the tidal marsh for all or part of their growth 
are species of fish that are favorites on Ameri- 
can tables and include channel bass, flounder, 
sea trout, mullet, bluefish, menhaden, and 
shad. Shrimp, of major economic importance 
to the economy and life quality of the Georgia 
coast, are totally dependent on the estuarine 
environment for their survival. 

So, economy as well as ecology is involved 
as both the sport fisherman and the man whose 
business is fishing receive direct subsistence 
from the marshes. 

Benefit derived from the salt marshes anc 
their interaction and reaction along the coasta 
estuary is limitless. Sediment, mud and rec 
Georgia clay that flow into the estuary frorr 
streams and rivers are filtered and deposited or 
the bottom of the lagoon and never reach th< 
white sand-duned beaches. The force of hur 
ricanes and onrushing tides is buffeted and ab 
sorbed by the marshes, neutralizing the erodinc 
effects of winds and oceans, leaving th* 
beaches for future generations to enjoy. Th' 
marshes literally provide an endless food sup 
ply on which a rich marine life abounds and 
survives. Its winding channels provide a nav 
gation challenge and the environment itself al 
fords an ideal setting for recreation. Outdoor: ■ 
men enjoy sport fishing, hunting the marsh he v 
and trapping for otter and mink. Above al, 
this marshland, covered with shimmering greei 
grass as far as the eye can see, provides a lif<- 
sustaining function for man through its abunc- 
ant oxygen-generating capacity. 

Why then do we persist in efforts to contan • 
inate, pollute and destroy so vital a link in on 
everyday existence? 

Perhaps this can best be answered by lac< 
of concern, just plain ignorance, or the attituc £ 
that seems to prevail, that it's someone else: 
problem and they can take care of it. 

Pollution, contamination and destruction ' 
the coastal estuary is daily becoming more e> i 
dent. Construction, blocking of the estuarir t 
channels, dredging and filling all take th(i 
toll. Developers wanting to'build home sites ' 
plan other commercial uses are a constai 
threat to the marshes. 

Once an estuarine channel is blocked or f I 
ed, all of the marsh area behind this barrier i 
deprived of nourishment from the daily tid< s 




te tide winds its way through the salt marshes harvesting the Spartina grass 
| twice daily flushing its way to and fro. 



Photo by Jim Couch 



' ithout this support, the spartina grass is no 

nger capable of life and dies, and so dies a 

irt of the ecological system of the marshes. 

"Ilution and contamination from industries 

mping their waste products into streams and 

ers that flow into the estuary pose another 
loblem. When pollutants enter the estuary, the 
1 shing rates of the tide may not disperse the 

jss soon enough, and the effluent washing 
c ck and forth with the tides can cause a severe 
i turbance of the ecological balance of the 

uarine system. It has happened in the past 
r d Georgia's oyster beds are just now begin- 
I! g to make a natural reappearance. The 
i imp industry also is recovering from a recent 
J back. 

The truth, however, is beginning to make 
5 If known. Although many people show no 
* >rt concern over ecology, they understand it, 
aware of the consequences if we disrupt it, 



and are willing to support a program to protect 
it if asked to participate. 

Because of the vast potential, yet unknown, 
that the coastal marshlands hold for future gen- 
erations, it is imperative that unnecessary de- 
struction and pollution be avoided. Their per- 
petuation as the dominant life support system 
for the entire coastal estuary is essential and 
should not be taken lightly as it must be under- 
stood that but for the marshlands and the estu- 
arine life they support, much, if not all of the 
east coast marine economy would be directly 
and adversely affected. This fact alone staggers 
the imagination. It was this that predicated the 
establishment of the Georgia Marshland Pro- 
tection Agency. Its primary function and pur- 
pose is to insure against exploitation and un- 
necessary destruction of the marshes whether 
through ignorance, negligence, or actual inten- 
tion. Requests for construction, filling, dredging 



21 




Mr. Fred Marland, Director, Marshland Protection, makes his way through the 
edge of the marsh, constantly surveying the area to insure that its valuable 
estaurine life will not he damaged through thoughtless destruction of the marsh. 



Photo by Bud Von Ordi 1 



I 



or altering of the estuary in any manner must 
have the approval and sanction of the agency. 
To this end, the Marshland Protection Agency is 
providing an invaluable service in the uphill 
battle to maintain the ecological balance with- 
in the estuary. Other protection and necessary 
responsibilities carried out by the agency in- 
clude making analyses of water samples taken 
from rivers and streams that flow into the coast- 
al area to determine if pollution or other con- 
tamination is present that might be detrimental 
to estuarine life. 

Specifically, when acting upon a permit, the 
agency considers whether any obstruction or 
alteration of the natural flow of navigable 
water will result, v/hether increased erosion, 
shoaling of channels or stagnant water will re- 
ilt, and if interference with the conservation 



of marine life, wildlife or other natural re 
sources including water and oxygen supply wi 
be created. 

Protected by the Marshlands Protectio I 
Agency, the coastal estuary will now have i 
greater chance for survival and perhaps, juif 
perhaps, generations for years to come will b* 
able to enjoy and reap the harvests of this some - 
what special environment. The outdoorsma 1 
concerned with perpetuating the natural re- 
sources of our state, whether they be recrec - 
tional or economic in value, now has a betti r 
chance of seeing these dreams come true. 

Truly the marshlands of Georgia present i 
rich and vivid heritage from the past that vs e 
must nurture and build upon as a legacy f '' 
the future if we are to insure the survival H 
Georgia's unspoiled child of nature. 







occasin State Park Creek 



' Dick Davis 

I) is by the Author 



Nestled picturesquely on the shore 
< alluring Lake Burton and along 
h mn County's bold-flowing Mocca- 
| Creek in the heart of Georgia's 

I t country, Moccasin Creek State 

I I c is a recreation garden spot for 
ft thousands who camp on the 
ip inds each year. These thousands 
fi out from this centrally located, 
r|< ily accessible lakeside and stream- 
s re locale to enjoy the wide variety of 
dp oor recreation afforded those who 
W Georgia's relatively remote and 
if] oiled northeastern mountain va- 
qii nland. 



Fishing, boating and water skiing 
are prime recreational activities during 
the spring, summer and fall. Though 
hunting is prohibited on the Park area 
itself, excellent hunting draws many 
to the Park for a campsite during the 
open seasons on a variety of game 
found on the wildlife management 
areas and other mountain lands near- 
by. Lake Burton's 2,775 acres of 
water teem with walleye pike. Geor- 
gia's record walleye pike of 1 1 pounds 
was lifted from Lake Burton, which 
stretches more than 19 miles in length 
and offers 62 miles of shoreline for 



bank fisherman. Moccasin Creek State 
Park provides ready access to the only 
public boat launching ramp on Lake 
Burton that can be used free of 
charge, as Frank Huff, the park's 
superintendent, is quick to emphasize. 
For those who prefer activities 
other than water sports and stalking 
game Moccasin Creek Park is an 
open gateway to fine hiking and sight- 
seeing, afoot or by car, in a land of 
scenic vistas and a wide variety of 
flora and fauna. 

For mineral collectors and rock- 
hounds, the hills and valleys sur- 



23 




Mobile homes, tents and campers fill the 
spaces along Moccasin Creek as it flows- 
past the park and into Lake Burton. This 
section of the creek is stocked, with fishin 
reserved for those with an honorary fishin 
license, women, those under 16 years of 
age, and the physically handicapped. 



rounding Moccasin Creek Park are ; 
treasureland for collecting prize spei i 
mens and even for panning for gol 1 
if the fever strikes. 

Within a short automobile ri 
from Moccasin Creek State Park a i 
two excellent and famed dining lodg: 
that offer gourmet meals. 

In the park itself and in clc > 
proximity to their trailers, mot i 
homes or tents, visitors can enjoy ba 1 
minton, volleyball and horseshoes. 1 1 
outdoor multiple-use pavilion ovt r 
looks Lake Burton from the park ar 
and provides facilities for worsl 
services, devotionals and other gro i 
activities, meetings, picnics and d 
ners. The rustic-type, but mode : 



Panorama of Moccasin Creek Park from 
in a backdrop of mountains. The park ca 
accommodate 75 campers, niotorhoines, 
trailers or tents at designated pads with 
power and water hookups. 



pavilion has an altar, piano and se i 
ing capacity of 175. Regular chu ; 
services are held each Sunday at 9 J 
a.m. from late April through Lai t 
Day. Pastors from churches in I 
area fill the pulpit at the services. 

Moccasin Creek State Park < a 
accommodate 75 campers, trail : 
or motor homes parked at designa e 
pads with power and water hooki i 
There is a dump station for trail* rl 
and there are two modern comt i 
stations with hot showers and laun li 
facilities. Planning is now unden i 
for establishing a pioneer camp ' 
area at the park, and it is hoped t ) 
this will be operative in the summe i 
1974 for organized youth groups 1 



Many organizations and groups utilize t ' 
park's facilities during daytime visits foi 
picnicking and other outdoor activities. I 
Park Superintendent Frank Huff visits l '' 
some happy youngsters. 



" 



-.-_-w-.„ 



1 Camping Area 

2 Superintendent's 

3 Fish Hatchery 

4 Chapel 

5 Boat Dock 
647 Contort Station 
8 Residence 

— — — — — Park Boundary 
tmma^^im Ga. Highway 



££asi n Creek 




Moccasiij Creel* 



fi ig an opportunity to camp under 
](i aitive conditions. 
(Hoccasin Creek State Park was 
|s to 4,000 families last year, and 
l!>t l overnight attendance and day 

i ;e of the park are continually in- 
sing. The average camper stay is 
nights. 

U pproximately 75 percent of the 
^n pers who visit Moccasin Creek are 
f»i i the greater Atlanta metropolitan 
a ": and thus the park is serving im- 
fr intly in providing outdoor cxperi- 
4> s for the state's suburbanites. The 
pfl also draws visitors from many 



states across the nation. A regular 
yearly visitor comes from Alaska for 
a one-week stay. 

Hunters who use Moccasin Creek 
Park as camping headquarters are 
conveniently situated a short distance 
from a number of prime hunting areas 
affording an opportunity to bag a 
trophy deer or turkey, and bring home 
ruffed grouse or squirrels. Wildlife 
Management Areas in the vicinity in- 
clude Warwoman, Chattahoochee, 
Coleman River, Burton and Swallow 
Creek. Hunting on the park area itself 
is prohibited. 



Moccasin Creek State Park is easily 
accessible from the south, east or 
west. From the south, Ga. Highway 
197 north from Clarkesville in Haber- 
sham County leads to the park. From 
the east, U.S. 76 leads west from 
Clayton, the Rabun County seat, to 
intersection with Ga. 197 and the 
motorist follows this south to the park. 
To reach the park from Hiawassce on 
the west, visitors can take U.S. 76 east 
and turn south on Ga. 197 at the in- 
tersection. Either of the approaches 
to the park affords highly scenic 
mountain travel. 




Photo by Bob Wilst 



By Aaron Pass 



Summer is rapidly drawing to a 
close, and the period of peak fishing 
activity and interest is fading. Vaca- 
tions are pretty well over, weekend 
outings with the family are less fre- 
quent, school is starting for the kids 
and a million and one other things 
are popping up. " Well, fishing had 
gotten pretty lousy anyway; it's no 
great loss," you think as you toss 
your tackle into storage. There it 
will probably remain until late next 
winter when it will be resurrected in 
anticipation of early spring fishing. 
AfLr all, the early bird gets the worm 
and the early fisherman gets the fish. 

Perhaps the earliest fisherman of 

all is the guy who hits the water 

the wake of the last ski-boat 



has scarcely smoothed and before 
the ants have finished off the crumbs 
under the picnic tables. More and 
more fishermen are now discovering 
that they can prolong their season 
by taking advantage of an upswing 
of fish activity that occurs each fall. 
While fall fishing is not noted for 
the heavy stringers nor the rampaging 
action of early spring, it can be quite 
productive as compared to the lean 
months of midsummer. 

Most fishermen know that fishing 
goes into a slump during the hot 
weather months, with good catches 
being the exception rather than the 
rule. Fish, it seems, tend to feed and 
move less during the hot weather 
months and retire to the cooler depths 
to wait the summer out. The cooler 
weather and water of fall causes a 
revival of fish activity, and the per- 
sistent fisherman can do pretty well. 



The fish remain active during the fai 
and return to deep water during th 
winter. 

The top species for fall fishin 
would be trout, the black basse: 
white bass and crappie. Each specie. 
has its own peculiarities and prefei 
ences of course, but generally speal- 
ing fishing picks up in the fall. 

Even the cold, spring-fed troi :, 
streams of the North Georgia mour ■ 
tains may get uncomfortably wan i 
in the summer for the trout's frigi 1 
tastes. Since all three species, broo 1 J 
brown and rainbow, feed most a< -, 
tively at water temperatures in tl a 
low 60's, summer heat can curU 1 
fishing success. This is particular v' 
noticeable on those streams whe e 
stream-side trees and brush have be< l 
removed by logging or recreation J 
development. The loss of shade cfl 
these streams may cause quite a 1 it 



b ' warming during hot weather. For 
3;st results in early fall, fish the 
Leper or well shaded portions of 
I e st.eam. 

Brook and brown trout spawn in 
1 e fall and rainbows become more 
Ktive after the water cools off. Many 
the streams on Wildlife Manage- 
nt Areas close as early as Labor 
fciy weekend, but the regular state 
»ut season runs through October 6 
designated trout streams. Even 
i er than this, good trout fishing may 
had on the "year round" streams 
: leek trout regulations) right on 
ough the winter. 

There are four species of black bass 
Georgia: the largemouth, small- 
i uth, spotted and Coosa. The Coosa 
i stream fish, the largemouth and 
>■ >tted basses tend to be lake dwell- 
, and the smallmouth is equally 
lome in either habitat. All respond 
: 1 to the fall weather, and fishing 
i cess can be good. The Coosa is a 
izen of the small stream, and is 
i ch like the trout in regard to shade 
temperature preferences, as is the 
) illmouth in a stream habitat. Al- 
1 : Jgh these two basses favor warmer 
] er than trout, they do utilize the 
i de and deep water in hot weather, 
n large lakes shade is not so im- 
i :ant a factor, and the fish rely on 
4\ it depth to find a comfortable 
ti perature. Largemouth bass in par- 
ti lar seem to have a pattern which 
ft fisherman can use to good ad- 
m age. As the weather cools, the 
bs will begin to come into the shal- 
ty ■ to feed in early morning and 
afternoon. In the early part of 
fall, fish near rocky or brushy 
i ts, or over submerged bars and 
f . early and late in the day. These 
a c 5 seem to offer good cover, good 
ft!a ;e, and easy access back to deep 
W* r. Later on the bass may even 
it\ : back into the shallow coves at 
Np ng periods. Start off working 
sll dw running lures in feeding areas 
e;l; in the morning and gradually 
W"l deeper as the day warms up. 
R'/< rse this procedure in the late 
"n ng hours. If casting fails, try 
tr<lng from shallow to deep water 
inr; morning and work from deep 
torillow in the afternoon. 

"1 2 other black basses found in 
*a|s are smallmouth and spotted 



tl 

' P 
sj r< 



bass. They respond to fall much like 
the largemouth, with spotted bass 
often being caught in the same places. 
Smallmouth often seek out a sub- 
merged rocky bank or bluff, and 
merely rise or drop in depth as strikes 
their fancy. The fisherman aftersmall- 
mouth should keep an eye out for 
rocky hillsides that seem to plunge 
steeply into the lake. 

Almost every Georgia fisherman is 
familiar with the tremendous fishing 
provided by the spring spawning runs 
of crappie and white bass. These are 
both schooling species which can be 
caught through the summer and into 
the fall if the fisherman is able to 
locate the schools. The most likely 
spots to look in are those areas which 
furnish food and protection for the 
fish. 

Crappie are particularly fond of 
submerged brushpiles and sunken 
treetops. Such sites naturally hold 
many small forage fish on which the 
crappie feed. Anglers usually favor 
small minnows or doll flies fished 
fairly deep near, or even in the brush. 
Night fishing is usually productive 
in the fall. 

White bass tend to be less bound 
to cover areas than crappie. The 
white bass school follows its food sup- 
ply, which in the fall is predominantly 
gizzard shad. Many anglers simply 



cruise and look for schools of shad. 
If the shad are moving rapidly and 
breaking the surface, it is likely white 
bass or some other predator is in pur- 
suit. Bridge abutments and other ob- 
structions in fairly deep water also 
bear some serious prospecting late 
in the evening. 

Speaking of prospecting, one meth- 
od of locating fish in the fall is by 
trolling or drifting. The angler covers 
a good deal of water this way and 
increases his odds of getting a strike. 
When a fish is hooked, the fisherman 
should drop anchor and fish the spot 
thoroughly. Crappie and white bass 
are normally found in schools and 
a number of fish can usually be taken 
in one spot. Largemouths are not 
generally considered a schooling fish, 
but several will-often concentrate in 
a place where conditions are favor- 
able. 

Autumn offers many rewards to 
the outdoorsman; the changing leaves, 
cool, clean air and a wealth of hunt- 
ing and fishing opportunities. The 
fall fisherman will find good sport 
in relating surroundings, and a good- 
ly return for his efforts — both in 
terms of fish and enjoyment. Fall 
fishing is a refreshing change from 
the doldrums of mid-summer. The 
fish are more cooperative, the crowds 
are gone, and the weather is pleasant. 




Wildlife 
Profiles: 

By Aaron Pass 

Art by Liz Carmichael Jones 



The speedy mourning dove (Zen- 
aidura macroura) is one of the favor- 
ite winged targets of Georgia hunters, 
ranking right alongside quail in pop- 
ularity. The dove is the most widely 
distributed gamebird in America and 
is classed as migratory, although 
many of the birds harvested each 
season are produced locally. 

A pair of doves will begin courting 
and nesting as early as January in 
some areas of Georgia. This period 
is characterized by the "cooing" calls 
of male doves seeking to attract mates. 
The cooing is usually heard in the 
quiet of early morning and late even- 
ing. The call has a sad plaintive qual- 
ity and results in the appellation of 
the name "mourning" dove. 

Since the cooing represents one 
male seeking a mate, wildlife biolo- 
gists use the calls to conduct a census 
of the dove population. Assuming 
that the call will eventually result in 
one breeding pair, census takers fol- 
low prescribed routes during the early 
morning hours taking a call-count. 
This gives an indication of the dove 
breeding population. 

Most dove nests are little more 
than a crude jumble of collected twigs, 
but they serve the doves' purpose. 
Two eggs (and rarely, three) are laid 
in the nest where they are incubated 
by both parents for 14 days. The 



young doves remain in the nest for 
10 to 12 days and are fed "pigeon 
milk" (regurgitated food) by both 
parents. The young birds reach adult 
size in 15-16 weeks. 

Dove nesting occurs from April to 
September, with peak activity in 
May and June. Doves are prolific 
and under favorable conditions may 
bring off two or three broods per 
season. 

It is good that doves are capable 
of high reproduction potential since 
they suffer one of the highest mor- 
tality rates of any wildlife species. 
As much as 85% of the total dove 
population may be lost from one 
breeding season to the next. Juvenile 
mortality is very high due to the 
flimsy nest doves normally construct. 
Adults are lost by predation and nu- 
merous parasites and diseases which 
afflict doves. The hunter's take also 
comes out of this normal mortality 
factor. 

Doves are associated with farm- 
lands with waste grain from agricul- 
tural operations being the most sig- 
nificant food source. Doves normally 
go to food and water in the morning 
and loaf in a grove of trees at mid- 
day, flying in to feed again in the 
afternoon. Since doves come so 
readily to food, stringent regulations 
regarding unlawful baiting have been 
established by the Bureau of Sport 
Fisheries and Wildlife. 

This plentiful, tasty gamebird can 
be hunted with less strenuous effort 
than most other species, and the sea- 
son usually opens in early September 



when other small game hunting is stil 
a long way off. These attributes onl\ 
partially explain the dove's place o 
prominence in the Georgia huntim 
picture, however. The mourninj 
dove's speed and renowned dodginj 
ability when under fire make dovi 
shooting a real test of wingshootin; 
ability. 

Drifting in against an open sk> 
the birds appear to be flying slowe 
than their actual cruising speed c 
30 to 40 mph. At the first shot, th 
dove can turn on a burst of re< 
speed and execute a series of evasiv 
maneuvers which leaves all but th | 
best shooters with an empty gun an I 
an equally empty game bag. 

Dove shoots are usually locate I 
around a harvested grain field whei. 1 
the birds congregate to feed. A larg . 
number of hunters are needed 1 X 
keep the birds flying, and a dove shoe $ 
often is something of a social even . 
The solitary hunter can find god 
shooting by locating a waterho t 
which the doves visit every afternoc l 
to drink, or by sitting along an e - 
tablished flight line. 

Camouflage or dull colored clot ■ 
ing are best bets for the hunter, at : 
there is no need to construct an ela • 
orate blind if there is some grour i 
cover and he can sit still. As for arr • 
anient, any good shotgun from 20 c 
12 gauge with #7'/2 or #8 shot ! 
sufficient. Many hunters use ovei j 
tight chokes for doves; an improve 
cylinder or modified used at reaso i 
able range is the best bet for t if 
average shot. 




1 1 to iitning CD 



o ve 






Find the 
Find the 



Food- 
Deer 



By Winston A. Andrews 



JAPANESE HONEYSUCKLE 



Photos by Sam Smith 




"I just don't know what's the ma -. 
ter. I go out and hunt all day Ion? 
and never see anything. The deer ai : 
really spooked." 

How many times have you hear 3 
that comment in conversation wild] 
other hunters? I really don't kno v. 
how many times I have heard that sa i 
story but it is often, and I've beta 
guilty of it myself. However, I' 1 1 
learned the hard way that there are i 
multitude of things you can do th 
will minimize the chances of gettir; 
zilched. 

There is no one answer for succes ;, 
ful deer hunting, but I've develop* c 
a method that has worked for me. It ll 
particularly useful for bow hunters i 
the early fall but is easily extend' < 
throughout the firearms season. 

Hunting success begins at home. { 
thorough knowledge of deer habt 
and environment has been the ga 3 
way to many a venison steak. Th< 1 
are many books and magazines on 1 1 
market today and all are good in gt [ 
eral knowledge, but there is little u t 
ful information on "piney wooes 
Georgia hunting. Another, and pos 
bly better source of informal 1 
would be acquaintances who seem f 
have little trouble in collecting th: 
venison. This information, added 1 
your own experiences, can prov c 
you with many days to remember. 

It often seems that the hardest p 1 
of deer hunting is locating the du 
The actual shooting is something 1 1 
any average shot can do. (Howe^ a 
"buck fever" can alter the ability 
shoot accurately. Just ask me!) 1 1 
has been proven many times whe 1 
complete novice, taken hunting 1 
the first time by his woodsman < 
downed the first buck he ever sav 
the field. 

In order to locate the deer. I usu J 
start checking in August for the i- 
eral areas in which I plan to hur 
enjoy taking along my bow and pn J 
tor call and hunting bobcat or c 
This actually achieves two purpe >| 
First, it gives me practice under ac u 
hunting conditions; and second, it i • 
proves my accuracy. I feel that if I -"' 
hit a bobcat, chances are that I car ( 
a deer at similar distances. I usi a* 
hunt for predators in the early m >r 
ing and in late morning check for *< r 



4c 



igns. In the afternoon I reverse the 
>rder. 

In checking for deer signs, I look 

3r .'racks, fresh piles of dung, and 

■ egetation thai has been nibbled. The 

1 rst two being more familiar, I will 

S .we them for last and mention the 

'i lants first. This is where I always 

ji ?eded help but was unable to get it. 

;/ 11 I could find was either some com- 

r lent about how deer liked wild 

'Michigan rice or some other comment 

i ich as "check the browse." Accom- 

t mying this article is a listing of 

p owse found in Georgia that is a sure 

1 dicator of suitable deer habitat. 

Deer, like humans, do not always 

t what is best for them. They eat 

lat they like best and it changes sea- 

mally. In the fall deer seem to like 

' gwood browse, sassafras, acorns, 

ick locust, grape, and honeysuckle. 

locating these plants and giving 

;m a good once-over, I can quickly 

1 if there are any deer around by 

( w much and what part of the plants 

ve been eaten. 

In addition to the study of the 

ints, checking the area for piles of 

:r dung can give an excellent indi- 

ion of the presence of deer. I try 

:heck a rectangular area about one 

ldred yards long and three yards 

i le, counting only the fresh piles of 

lg. They vary, of course, but by 

nparing what is found in each area 

in determine roughly which fifty to 

hundred acres I intend to hunt 

ing the fall. 

>Jext, the deer tracks come in. I try 

ind dense areas of tracks (trails) 

i choose several that look best to 

<i;k out. 

■y this time it is usually September 

'* i( bow season is just around the 

,!ls iff ler ' During September I spend my 

tin : selecting a tree for a stand. It 

t$e ;n't have to be high — just above 

t- deer's line of sight which is ap- 

P imately three feet. I don't like to 

ft up a permanent stand because it 

n; damage the tree. However, if you 

Y put up a permanent stand, be 

s|« that it is in the spot you really 

v n to hunt. 

i dually on Saturday mornings in 

ltiail ; Sbi ;mber and October I sit on a bare 

es.l lilt of a tree next to the previously 

:tf stated trails and watch for deer. If 

* >r more deer show up along one 



[W 




DOGWOOD 

of your trails on consecutive Satur- 
days, you are in business. If a deer 
shows up close to your selected tree at 
all, it is encouraging enough to build 
your stand and bet your luck on that 
spot. 

Well, this briefly outlines the prep- 
aration for a hunt. Next comes the 
actual experience of the hunt and 
some painful lessons learned. Some 
things, like never smoking, are obvi- 
ous. Others, like never putting two 
cartridges in the same pocket because 
they "klink" together, are common 
sense but not so obvious. These les- 
sons are better on the blood pressure 
if learned at home with a good book 
or in conversation with a buddy. 

It is also nice to have some various 
"necessities" along. Therefore, I have 
put together a kit that I always carry 
with me. It has come to my aid several 

GREENBRIER 



times and has made my hunts enjoy- 
able outings. TiTe kit includes an extra 
sharp skinning knife, pocket sharpen- 
ing stone, a length or rope for drag- 
ging the deer and hauling it up on a 
limb, a large cheesecloth bag to keep 
insects and debris off the deer, a small 
plastic garbage bag to hold the heart 
and liver of the deer, a length of string 
to tie on the tag, a thermos of coffee 
and any food you may want, a first aid 
kit, a snake bit kit, and a shovel to 
bury the entrails and/or to help dig 
out your transportation. 

With this kit I am ready for just 
about any emergency and can provide 
myself with some of the comforts that 
make a trip. Thanks to locating some 
of the favorite foods of the deer and 
scouting for other signs, I have in- 
creased my chances for a successful 
trip and venison on the table. 




Outdoor 
World 



Governor Jimmy Carter proclaims September 
22, 1973 as Georgia Hunting and Fishing Day in 
recognition of the many contributions made by 
hunters and fishermen toward the conservation 
of our natural resources. Pictured from left: 
Bob Sinclair and Bill Spell, co-chairmen of 
National Hunting and Fishing Day activities, 
Gov. Carter, Jack Crockford, Director of the 
Game and Fish Division, George T. Bagby, 
Deputy Commissioner of the Department of 
Natural Resources, and Earl Martin, Chairman 
of National Hunting and Fishing Day Activities 
in Georgia. 




pS8 




BooH 
Review 



HOW TO STAY ALIVE IN THE 
WOODS, Bradford Angier, Collier 
Books, 285 pages, $.95. 

This is a book for the incurable 
romantic, but enough of the critter 
survives in most of us to make the 
volume an interesting addition to any 
outdoors library. Angier is a relic 
from an earlier age, from a time when 
"few acts (were) so immediately in- 
dicative of an individual's woodsman- 
ship as the way he goes about light- 
ing a fire, especially without the help 
of matches. " Or a time when it was 
reasonable to start the directions on 
making a soup hole with "you've just 
killed a moose . . ." 

Jut those halcyon days have passed 

■ most of us, or at least are beyond 

our means. The desire to enjoy them 

not left us of course, and it's 

dip into Angier's rather 



old-fashioned prose as we try to learn 
about the outdoors. He provides 
pretty good information, even if it 
does have a slightly archaic tinge, 
and the flavor makes the effort slight- 
ly more pleasant than poring through 
the cold, matter-of-fact prose of many 
"survival" texts. 

It is, in fact, a book to read for 
pleasure. That we can learn from it 
only adds to the attraction. 

TCM 

Outdoor 
Calendar 




HUNTING SEASONS 

DEER Archery — The open season 
for hunting deer with bow and arrow 
in Game Zones I, la, II. Ill, IV and 
V, shall be from September 29 through 



October 27, 1973, in any county, o«t 
part thereof, having a legal firearm 
deer season. Bag limit is two (2) buck 
or one (1) buck and one (1) doe-. 
Hunting with dogs prohibited excep 
in such areas and during such time 
as it may be legal under firearms hunt 
ing regulations. 

The open season for hunting dee 
with bow and arrow in Game Zon 
VI shall be from September 2' 
through October 19, 1973, in an 
county, or part thereof having a lege 
firearms deer season. Bag limit is tw*>; 
(2) bucks or one (1) buck and one (1 ! 
doe. Hunting with dogs prohibited. 

Notice: Archery equipment may b ' 
used during firearms hunts, howevei,' 
all hunters must abide by firearrr, 1 
regulations as to bag limits. 

DEER Firearms Seasons 

GAME ZONE V: October 2(. 
1973 through January 1, 1974 in tr 
following counties: Clinch Count j 
except that portion lying in the south 
west corner of the County, borders J 
on the north by the Seaboard Coas - 
line Railroad and on the east by Si - 
wannoochee Creek, and except th l 
portion lying north of Arabia B; ) 
Wildlife Area and between U.S. Hig • 
way 221 and U.S. Highway 44 
which exceptions are closed: Echc 
County east of U.S. Highway 1 29 ai : 
south of Georgia Highway 187; an 
Lanier County north of the Seaboa c 
Coastline Railroad and east of t! ( 
Alapaha River and southeast of U i 
Highway 221. Bag limit two (' 
bucks. Hunting with dogs allowed. 

October 20 through November 1 1 
1973 in Ware County, except tH 
portion lying north of U.S. 82 a < 
those portions lying within the out<r 
most boundaries of Waycross St; :< 
Forest WMA, which are closed tj 
deer hunting. Bag limit two (2) buc s 
Hunting with dogs allowed. 

GAME ZONE VI: October 7.C 
1973 through January 1, 1974. .. 
counties in Game Zone VI will )' 
open with the following exceptio is 
that portion of Charlton Countv ly i 
northwest of the Okefenokee Swar fj 
which is closed; that portion of Pie c 
County lying west of U.S. #82 1 1 
Pleasant Hill Church Road: that p >! 



k 



i )n of Pierce County lying in the 

i irtheast corner bounded on the west 

) U.S. #cS2 and on the south by 

1 3. #32, and that portion of Pierce 

>ufuy lying in the southeast corner 

nunded on the east by Ga. #15 and 

the west by U.S. #82, which are 

1 >sed; that portion of Wayne County 

v ng west of Jesup which is bounded 

l the north by Ga. #169 and on the 

:ath by U.S. #82, which is closed. 

; g limit two (2) bucks. Hunting with 

c gs allowed. 

The marshes and islands lying east 

f the Intercoastal Waterway in Bryan, 

!; mden, Chatham, Liberty and Mc- 

rosh Counties will be open for the 

ing of deer of either sex on October 

I through January 1, 1974. Bag limit 

\i 5 (2) bucks or one ( 1 ) buck and one 

doe. Hunting with dogs allowed; 

.vever, Sapelo and Blackbeard Is- 

i ds are closed to all hunting except 

otherwise specifically provided. 

X — There shall be no closed sea- 

on the taking of fox. 

t shall be unlawful for any person 

take or attempt to take any fox, 

hin the State, by use or aid of re- 

'> ded calls or sounds or recorded or 

ife ironically amplified imitations of 

s or sounds. 

HOUSE — October 13, 1973 
i nigh February 28, 1974. Bag limit 
| ;e (3) daily; possession limit six 



1 1 LD HOGS — Hogs are considered 
ill -game animals in Georgia. They 
it legally the property of the land- 
er er, and cannot be hunted without 
1; permission, except on public lands. 
lr arms are limited to shotguns with 
h nber 4 shot or smaller, .22 rimfire 
dis, centerfire rifles with bore diam- 
eli .257 or smaller, the .30 cal. Army 
(nine, the .32/20, all caliber pis- 
t's muzzle loading firearms and bows 
aid arrows. 

03SSUM — October 13, 1973 
[ < Jgh February 28, 1974 in Carroll, 
Fl )n, DeKalb, Gwinnett. Barrow, 
Jpson, Madison, Elbert and all 
cji ties north of those listed. No bag 
lijfi . Night hunting allowed. All 
c ii ties south of the above named 



counties are open year round for the 
taking of opossum. No bag limit. 
Night hunting allowed. 

RACCOON — October 13, 1973 
through February 28, 1974 in Carroll. 
Fulton, DeKalb, Gwinnett, Barrow, 
Jackson, Madison, Elbert and all 
counties north of those listed. Bag 
limit one (1) per night per person. 
Night hunting allowed. All counties 
south of the above named counties are 
open year round for the taking of rac- 
coon. No bag limit. Night hunting al- 
lowed. 

SQUIRREL (1) August 18 through 
September 8, and October 13, 1973 
through February 28, 1974 in Harris, 
Talbot, Upson, Monroe, Jones, Bald- 
win, Hancock, Warren, McDuffie and 
Columbia Counties and all counties 
lying north of these counties. Bag 
limit ten (10) daily. 

(2) October 20, 1973 through Feb- 
ruary 28, 1974 statewide. Bag limit 
ten (10) daily. 



RAIL (Marsh Hens): September 10 
through November 18. King and clap- 
per rail daily bag limit 15, possession 
limit 30, singly or in aggregate. Vir- 
ginia and sora rail daily bag limit 25, 
possession limit 25, singly or in ag- 
gregate. Legal shooting hours will be 
30 minutes before sunrise until sun- 
set. 

DOVE: Georgia has been divided into 
two zones for the coming dove season 
by a line formed by U.S. 80 from 
Columbus to Macon, Ga. 49 from 
Macon to Milledgeville, Ga. 22 from 
Milledgeville to Sparta, Ga. 16 from 
Sparta to Warrenton, U.S. 278 from 
Warrenton to Augusta. 

Northern Zone: September 8 
through October 27, and December 
15 through January 3. 

Southern Z-one: September 29 
through October 27, and December 
6 through January 15. 

Daily bag limit 12, possession limit 
24. Legal shooting hours will be from 
12 noon. until sunset. 



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Outdoors 

it? georgia 



October, 1973 




I 




Jimmy Carter 
Governor 






BOARD OF 
NATURAL RESOURCES 

James Darby 

Chairman 

Vidalia-lst District 

William Z. Camp, Sec. 
Newnan— 6th District 

Leo T. Barber, Jr. 
Moultrie— 2nd District 

Dr. Robert A. Collins, Jr. 
Americus— 3rd District 

George P. Dillard 
Decatur— 4th District 

Rankin M. Smith 
Atlanta— 5th District 

Leonard E. Foote 
Marietta-7th District 

Henry S. Bishop 
Alma-8th District 

Clyde Dixon 
Cleveland-9th District 

Leonard Bassford 
Augusta— 10th District 

Jimmie Williamson 
Darien— Coastal District 

Donald J. Carter 
Gainesville— State at Large 

Wade H. Coleman 
Valdosta— State at Large 

James D. Cone 
Decatur— State at Large 

A. Calhoun Todd, Jr. 
Macon— State at Large 



EARTH AND WATER DIVISION 
Sam M. Pickering, Jr., Director 

ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION DIVISION 
R. S. Howard, Jr., Director 

GAME AND FISH DIVISION 
Jack Crockford, Director 

PARKS AND HISTORIC SITES DIVISION 
Henry D. Struble, Director 

F PLANNING AND RESEARCH 
-luck Parrish, Director 

DMINISTRATIVE SERVICES 
l, Director 

a 7 IONS AND 
INFORMATION SECTION 
H. E. (Bod) Van Orden Chief 



Department of Natural Resources 

Joe D. Tanner George T. Bagby 

Commissioner Deputy Commissioner 

FEATURES 

Wildlife Profiles: Squirrels Aaron Pass 

Pre-Season Game for Deer Hunters . Aaron Pass 

Game Bird of the Future Ron Odom 

Educated Deer at Berry College . . . Aaron Pass 

Sinking of the Tampa Tina Carlson 

A Quality of Water T. Craig Martin 

Scouting For Deer Bob Wilson 

DEPARTMENTS 



Book Reviews 2 

Outdoor World 3! 

Outdoor Calendar 3! 

FRONT COVER: Gray Squirrel. Pen and ink sketch by Liz Carmichael Jones. 
BACK COVER: Fall colors at Anna Ruby Falls. Photo by H. E. (Bud) Van Orden. 



1: 
1! 



■>. 



Mi 



Outdoors 

it? georgia 

October, 1973 Volume II Number '( 

Outdoors in Georgia is the official monthly magazine of the Georgia Departmi "i 
of Natural Resources, published at the Department's offices, Trinity-Washingl ll 
Building, 270 Washington Street, Atlanta, Georgia 30334. No advertising accept d 
Subscriptions are $3 for one year or $6 for three years. Printed by Willio N 
Printing Company, Atlanta, Georgia. Notification of address change must inck I 
old address label from a recent magazine, new address and ZIP code, with 30 di i 
notice. No subscription requests will be accepted without ZIP code. Articles c li 
photographs may be reprinted when proper credit given. Contributions are v> ' 
come, but the editors assume no responsibility or liability for loss or damage 3 
articles, photographs, or illustrations. Second-class postage paid at Atlanta, Georc c 

MAGAZINE STAFF 

Phone 6563530 

H. E. (Bud) Van Orden 
Editor-in-Chief 

Bob Wilson Editor Dick Davis Staff W I 

Liz Carmichael Jones . . . Art Director Aaron Pass Staff" 

Jim Couch . Staff Photographer T. Craig Martin Staff W I 

Bob Busby ... Staff Photographer Karen H. Stroud Staff W ' 

Linda Leggett . . Circulation Manager Joe Cullens Staff" 




EDITORIAL 



i \.n Outdoorsman for All Seasons.... 



Seasons come and seasons go but there is no 
tor cut definitive time when the sportsman 
!i"uld stop fishing and start hunting, or stop 
1 1 iting and start fishing. Oh, there are set dates 
i he regulations that tell us when we can and 

ten we can't all right, but the real outdoors- 
nn is the one who enjoys a little of both, as 
h g as both are in season. 

Deer hunting season for firearms hunters of- 
I ally opens October 20th in Game Zone VI 
a I on November 3rd in Zones I-V and by then 
I'Ctically all sportsmen will be gripped by 
h iting fever, that is, all except the real sports- 

(on see, through most of October and into 



November comes one of the best periods of 
fishing for largemouth bass, crappie and bream 
in middle and southern Georgia, not to men- 
tion the peak of the salt water fishing season. So, 
why not do a little fishing during hunting sea- 
son? 

Sure, the summer months are over, but have 
you ever camped out in the North Georgia 
mountains in the fall when the leaves are burst- 
ing into brilliant rainbow colored patches 
spreading across the mountains in unending 
beauty? 

What's best in one season might even be bet- 
ter during another, and you can find out if you're 
really an "outdoorsman for all seasons." 



&Lc/^ ~U^S &A*iS 



Wildlife 
rofiles: 



s, 



qutrre 



L 



Aaron Pass 
t by Liz Carmichael Jones 



Probably no form of wildlife is 
-, ter known to more people than the 
niliar gray squirrel of city parks 
1 1 suburban backyards. While it 
; y seem to stretch the point to class- 
this bandit of townhouse bird 
t ders as wildlife, it is genetically 
( same animal as any squirrel from 
i deepest river swamp or most re- 
de mountain wilderness, 
rhe gray squirrel (Sciurus caroli- 
Hsis) has a statewide distribution, 
1 there is virtually no area of suit- 
habitat that does not harbor 
i le resident grays. The fox squirrel 
( iurus niger) occupies a more re- 
nted range in the piney woods of 
i th central Georgia. These two 
't :ies are the largest and best known 
he tree squirrels in the state. The 
r inutive red squirrel or chickaree 

< urns hudsonicus) occurs on a very 
:i ricted area in extreme northeast 

i irgia, and the flying squirrel (Glau- 
i lyns volans), while both numerous 

< widespread, is nocturnal and is 
I' om seen. Thus the word "squir- 

1 normally conjures up the image 
1 he ubiquitous gray or colorful fox 
!u rrel. 

Squirrel populations seem to be in- 
'•' sing in direct proportion to the 

- easing areas of suitable habitat. 



The rural-to-urban population shift 
and the decline of farming have re- 
sulted in an increase in total forest 
acres in the state. The adaptable 
squirrel has lost no time in capitaliz- 
ing on this expansion of habitat. 

Living quarters for the squirrel 
tribe consist of two main types. Hol- 
low den trees furnish the necessary 
protection during the winter months 
and often the first litters of the sea- 
son are born there in early spring. In 
the summer, squirrels construct cool 
leaf nests which are often little more 
than wads of leaves stuffed into the 
fork of a branch. Some leaf nests are 
more elaborate, with an opening lead- 
ing to an interior compartment. This 
type of nest is often used during mild 
winter weather in the south. 

As are all wild animals, squirrels 
are afflicted by parasites, but do not 
seem to suffer greatly from them. It 
is very common for a squirrel to host 
fleas and/or ticks and be in perfect 
health otherwise. Mange, or scabies, 
is caused by a skin mite and seems to 
become more prevalent during periods 
of stress, such as late winter, when 
the squirrel is in a weakened condi- 
tion. The most controversial squirrel 
parasite is the larvae of the botfly, 
commonly called warbles or "wolves". 
The larva burrows under the ani- 
mal's skin and there develops a large 
grub. These parasites are unsightly, 
but in no way affect the squirrel's 
edibility. 



In the way of predators, there is 
no single species which seems to spe- 
cialize in predation on squirrels, al- 
though most will take a squirrel when 
opportunity presents. That doesn't 
happen too often since the squirrel is 
a skilled acrobat- in the treetops and 
an accomplished runner on the 
ground. When -eornered, the squirrel 
is no pushover and will bite viciously. 
Foxes, owls, bobcats and racoons may 
all take the occasional squirrel, but 
none of these is considered a signifi- 
cant predator. 

The large broadwinged hawks, such 
as the redtail and red-shouldered, are 
perhaps the top squirrel predators. 
They will wait patiently for an unwary 
squirrel to appear and pick him off 
when he ventures along an open 
branch. The weasel is an effective 
climber and since he is small enough 
to enter the den holes and tough 
enough to cope with whatever he finds 
there, the weasel may be a significant 
nest predator. 

The squirrel diet is composed 
principally of the products of hard- 
wood trees. Fruit, or "soft mast" is 
the mainstay of summer, being re- 
placed by nuts in the fall. The sur- 
plus nuts are buried by the squirrels 
to serve as food caches during the 
lean months of winter. In the early 
spring, with stored nuts running low, 
the squirrels turn again to the hard- 
woods and feed heavily on the swell- 
ing buds. The foregoing diet of the 




! 1 



forest squirrel is by no means exclu- 
sive of the farmer's produce when a 
cornfield is conveniently located near 
the squirrel woods. Squirrels are not 
averse to a bit of protein when the 
opportunity presents itself in the form 
of grubs, insects or a bird's nest con- 
taining eggs or baby birds. 

Mating is normally accomplished 
in late December and early January. 
Gray squirrels mate indiscriminately, 
but fox squirrels show a tendency to 
pair off during the breeding season. 
The young are usually born in early 
May, naked and blind. The average 
litter contains two to four young. The 
young squirrels usually make their 
first excursions from the den when 
they are about six weeks old, and are 
able to make their own way in the 
world at about three months. 

There are many similarities be- 
tween gray and fox squirrels in terms 
of food habits and general appear- 
ance. Both species are members of 
the huge mammalian order, Rodentia, 
the gnawing animals. Squirrels, like 
all other members of this order, have 
the characteristic large incisor teeth 
which are specialized for gnawing. 
These teeth continue to grow through- 
out the animal's life and are kept at 
a manageable length and sharpened 
by constant wear against the oppos- 
ing set of teeth. Both species are tree 
dwellers and exhibit the typical rodent 
body shape, but with a bushy tail. It 
is in the specifics of appearance that 
the two species differ. 



The gray squirrel is aptly named 
for his most dominant color, a silvery 
gray due to white tips on the hairs. 
The body and tail of this species are 
banded in colors of black, gray, 
brown, and white. The long tail hairs 
have six distinct color bands ending 
in white tips. The chest, throat and 
belly fur is white. Gray squirrels 
average about 20 inches in overall 
length with the long flowing tail mak- 
ing up about half. 

In habitat the gray is a squirrel of 
the "big" woods, preferring large 
stands of mature timber. They seem 
to have a particular affinity for creeks 
and branches and concentrate near 
these areas. 

The fox squirrel is larger than the 
gray, averaging around 25 inches in 
total length. The coloration of the 
fox squirrel is extremely variable and 
may be black, gray or "red". The 
red refers to a rusty yellow-orange 
color phase that is normal to fox 
squirrels. The underparts may be buff 
or the brighter orange-yellow with 
the back grizzled with the same rusty 
cast. A grizzled "salt-and-pepper" 
phase is also common, as is a solid 
black phase of the fox squirrel. The 
best field expedient to differentiate 
between fox and gray squirrels is the 
tips of the tail hair. The presence of 
white tips indicates a gray. When 
cooked, the bones of gray squirrels 
are white; fox squirrel bones are pink. 

The fox squirrel prefers a more 
open habitat than the gray. He is most 



at home in small wood lots l r- 
spersed with open country, or z lg 
tree lines which may border a ( in 
or creek between two fields. Bee se 
of this the fox squirrel has grfer 
opportunity to sample the fan 
crops which it does with great j 
larity. 

In some respects the squirrel si as 
a lowly fellow, a vulgar common in 
comparison to the more exotic sp es 
of wildlife. Although he is denie( lie 
prestige of rarity or the glamour 
remote and restricted habitat, be i 
squirrel has had considerable i u- 
ence in the heritage and traditio; of I 
our nation. For the earliest set 's. i 
squirrels were an abundant soun of 
food. Mountain tradition holds at I 
squirrel broth will break a fever, id. I 
of course, the "mighty oaks mi 
(which) little acorns grow" often ve | 
their existence to the squirrel 'io 
buried the acorns. The hillbilly <th 
his squirrel rifle is an enduring il- 
tural heritage from Davy Crocks 1 to 
Sgt. York. 

Even today squirrels are a po < ar 
and important game species. Tli- 
tionally they are the favorite qnry 
of small boys with .22's, but it i ot 
unknown for an older hunter to He 
to the squirrel woods seeking H e- 1 
capture happy memories of youer 
days. There are many reasons fo • ie I 
popularity of squirrels as a fa 
species, but perhaps the most in U 



tant are the abundance 
ability of the species. 



and 



;ii 



Pre-Season Game... 

For Deer Hunters 



By Aaron Pass 



ft i to by Aaron Pass 



./ ' m r- nv. . ■■■*•? 






K,'" 



i 

HI 






. . 8 





There was scarcely a sound in the 
autumn woods, aside from the slight 
rustlings that marked my passage 
down the narrow game trail. Pushing 
aside branches which could not be 
stepped around, I tried to move as 
quietly as pos'sible. Wool pants and 
jacket would have been ideal for quiet 
movement, but this early in the season 
such trappings would also have been 
unbearably hot. 

Careful walking was the order of 
the day, even through the pines where 
a thick carpet of needles deadened 



much sound. Just at the edge of e 
pines was my goal, a small hardu ij 
draw with a tiny creek, now dowiio 
the barest trickle in the early "f 
Stopping just inside the conce; I g 
pines, I dared not venture further i fcj 
the dry, fallen oak leaves which w< iJ 
make stealth impossible. My s .ii 
overlooked the draw, and I knew It 
those oak leaves would make ay 
movement there audible. 

After but a few minutes wait t fle 
was a rustling in the leaves from 1: 
left, about fifty yards up the da. 



t-K 



r 



The source of the noise was out of 

ight, and from all indications, what- 

ver it was had no desire to move my 

vay. The notion of attempting a stalk 

v-as appealing but while still wrestling 

/ith the temptation, there was another 

i isturbance from the right and much 

i loser. Having turned to face the origi- 

i al noises, 1 slowly twisted around 

; nd glimpsed a quick movement in the 

1 rush. Still unaware of my presence, 

ny quarry moved into the open. The 

11 fie came up, the crosshairs steadied, 
;nd with the crack of the shot, the 
j ray squirrel pitched forward into the 
Saves. 
Moving quickly so as to give the 
_animal no chance to escape if only 
ounded, I retrieved a plump gray 
juirrel taken cleanly by a head shot, 
•ropping back into the pines, I moved 
uietly, and as quickly as possible, up 
e hollow toward the original noise, 
electing another likely looking stand, 
soon added another squirrel to the 
ig, almost undoubtedly the first 
r Msemaker. 

Both squirrels were in prime condi- 

ton and were quite fat from the abun- 

:ant acorns in the little draw. I field 

messed them immediately for flavor's 

i ke and turned homeward. The two 

i juirrels had been the substance of a 

: ie afternoon in the autumn woods, 

) id were soon to be the main ingredi- 

i 'its in a squirrel stew (with dump- 

iigs), and would eventually lead to 

i me excellent venison. 

Yes, V-E-N-I-S-O-N; deer meat— 

» 1 e stuff you get when you butcher a 

J er. How do two squirrels add up to 

i 'unison? Well really it's quite simple 

I Men you think about the many simi- 

I i 'ities between deer and squirrel 

"i inting. In fact, the two pursuits are 

'tually identical aside from the dif- 

i "ential in size of the animals, the 

liber of weapons used to hunt them, 

jot- ii d that squirrels never grow antlers 

' d deer seldom climb trees. 

Both deer and squirrel are animals 
>l the forest rather than the open field. 

* ith are often found around oaks, for 
)i th species dearly love acorns and 

• ite oak acorns in particular. Both 
1 - most active early and late in the 
1* y. Both can be hunted with either a 
1 e or a shotgun, and by either stalk- 
" or sitting. And finally, both species 

i ^ i be as easy or as difficult to bag as 




the hunter cares to make it. 

Of course, no analogy is perfect and 
this one is less so than most. As in the 
antlerless squirrels and non-climbing 
deer, there are many habits and traits 
unique to the individual species. The 
deer relies mainly on its ears and nose 
as a defense, having mediocre eye- 
sight. Squirrels, on the other hand, 
use mainly their ears and eyes for 
warning of impending danger. There 
are many other differences of course, 
but it is the many basic similarities 
which are important to this article. 

If the three opening paragraphs 
sound much like the beginning of a 
story about a deer hunt, fine, you've 
got the point. It is in the areas of basic 
woodscraft and hunting marksman- 
ship that deer and squirrel hunting are 
so similar. Unfortunately, it is short- 
comings in both of these areas that 
cost untold numbers of hunters an un- 
believable number of missed oppor- 
tunities at deer each fall. Think for a 
moment about the deer you saw last 



Photo by Aaron Pass 



season, and then contemplate the 
number that you might have seen if 
you had just been ... a bit more alert, 
able to move more quietly, more adept 
at interpreting what you did see and 
hear. In the same vein, did you miss 
your shot last year? If the answer is 
yes, that pretty well speaks for itself. 
Just as it takes a sailor some time 
out of port to get his sea-legs, the av- 
erage hunter needs some practice to 
be able to see. hear, and move quietly 
in the woods — to get his "woods-legs." 
The average hunter is like most every- 
body else, tied down to a job, family 
and civic responsibilities with precious 
little time to do his thing. Senses 
clogged and deadened b\ the accumu- 
lation of workaday detail, about the 
only time our average hunter really 
has to walk quictl) is when he comes 
home particular!} late from bowling 
or playing cauls. To think that one 
can suddenly transform himself into a 
silent wraith in the woods on opening 
day is just as naive as thinking of one- 




self as an immediate replacement for 
Tommy Nobis, the next time that star 
linebacker throws a kneecap. 

Don't kid yourself that you can 
sharpen up your woods and hunting 
skills by taking hikes and going to the 
range. These are good beginnings but 
they are a far cry from the real thing. 
To put on that final edge you must 
make some real contact with a real 
opponent, preferably in a situation 
that resembles a deer hunt as much as 
possible. For this purpose squirref 
hunting can't be beat. If you can pick 
up and identify the movements of a 
squirrel in the dense foliage of early 
autumn, you should have no trouble 
seeing a deer in November. Anyone 
who can make a high percentage of 
shot on a squirrel's head should surely 
be able to hit a deer adequately. This, 
plus the fact that decent squirrel hunt- 
ing is relatively available and that the 
season opens earlier than does the 
deer season, makes squirrel hunting 
an ideal primer for the deer hunter. 

It is important that your squirrel 
hunt duplicate your deer hunt as 
closely as possible. Statistically more 
game (both deer and squirrel) falls to 
those who have the patience to " . . . 
also stand and wait." If you are a 
fiddle-footed type who can't sit still, 
then by all means stalk your squirrels. 
There's no better way to learn the 
rudiments (and the pitfalls) of quiet 
movement than trying to sneak up on 
an alert squirrel. If you do this enough 
you will bag some squirrels and won't 
sound like a re-enactment of the 
charge of the Light Brigade in the 
deer woods. 

It is highly advisable to use the 
same type firearm and sighting appa- 
ratus that you use for deer hunting. If 
your favorite venison-getter is a lever- 
action carbine with a peep sight, so 
should be your squirrel gun. The du- 
plication doesn't have to be perfect in 
terms of weight, length, etc., but the 
basic action should correspond. It can 
be quite nerve-wracking to attempt 
pumping another round into a bolt 
action while watching a big buck 
bound away. 

Other than the rifle, ye compleat 
squirrel hunter needs relatively little 
specialized equipment. A good, sharp 
pocket knife will handle the field 
dressing (which should be done im- 



mediately in warm weather), an> 
sturdy pair of boots or work shoe 
required. Insect repellent will m 
any hunt more pleasurable, parti 
larly for the sitting hunter. It is 
tremely difficult to concentrate 
hunting under a cloud of mosquiu 
A good dose of sulphur will keep b 
away, but will also alienate frie 
and family. If you use enough of 
stuff, your hunting buddies will pr 
ably buy you some commercial 
dope. 

As for clothing, any dark colors 
get you by; a serviceable camoufl 
suit costs little and makes a notice; 
difference. Real squirrel fanatics so 
times even go to face masks 
camouflage gloves. This may seei 
bit extreme, but it's hard to argue \ n 
success. 

Generally speaking, finding a sq 
rel hunting spot is as simple as fincfc! 
a stand of oak and hickory trees al 
a creek or branch. Recent squirrel 
tivity in an area can be determinec 
reading signs. The presence of a 1< ]e| 
number of "beds" is an indicatioi 
squirrel activity, but does not con 
sively prove that squirrels are curr 
ly in the area. Many of these leaf n 
are constructed as temporary day 1 1 
during the summer and are abandc 1 
before hunting season. Incident- 
shooting into these beds is illegal, 
less the aspiring deer hunter <s 
many deer in these squirrel nests t m 
season, this method of "hunting s 
not very useful to him. 

The best indication of current sq J- 
rel usage is the presence of nut ill 
cuttings scattered on the ground. S rfe 
squirrels prefer a bit of altitude w in 
they eat, look for accumulation f 
these cut hulls on stumps, rocks, d 
fallen logs. The more freshly cut, 1e 
more recent the activity. 

Alertness, knowledge, and sten 
are the basic ingredients of the i- 
cessful hunter. The alertness to nt be 
a movement or sound that is slig iy 
out of phase with the surroundi 1 . 
the knowledge to interpret whet 
means, and the stealth to do sci- 
thing about it, are the prime skill s f 
woodscraft. Hunting the gray squ rl 
will not teach you all about the wl i- 
tailed deer, but it will provide a tt i- 
ing or refresher course in the fui c- 
mentals of hunting. 



I 




3to by Jim Couch 



Georgia's 350,000 acres of saltmarsh 
provide extensive favorable habitat for 
the rail with a lot of hunting room. 



Same Bird Of The Future 



' Ron Odom 

The clapper rail, sometimes known locally as marsh 
< i or mud hen, should be considered by Georgia's 
1 F)rtsmen as a bright spot in the future of Georgia's 
'•'' dlife resources. At a time when urbanization, tech- 
c ogy and modern forest management practices — 
ong other things — tend to reduce or eliminate much 
3ur small and big game habitat, the saltmarsh habitat 
the marsh hen remains relatively stable. Georgia is 
ssed with approximately 350,000 acres of salt or 
ckish marshland, most of which is literally teeming 
h marsh hens. It cannot be denied that many threats 



to the saltmarsh environment do exist, but as yet this 
resource has not been exposed to the misuse or misman- 
agement that has characterized much of our mainland 
habitats. 

During the 1800's, accounts given by naturalists, such 
as Audubon, reflected the amazing abundance of marsh 
hens. Audubon stated that "it was not unusual for an 
'eggcr' to gather a hundred dozen eggs in one day" ami 
that "as many as 60 birds could be killed in four hours." 
Though most of these accounts probably referred to the 
northern clapper rail (Rallus longirostrus crepitans), it 






is probable that our resident clapper rail (Rallits longi- 
rostrus waynei) was at least as abundant. It is highly 
probable that many areas still retain populations com- 
parable to those in the 1880's. Wildlife biologists have 
captured as many as 80 clappers in two hours on the 
marsh with the aid of an airboat. 

Our Georgia clapper rail is actually a subspecies of 
the northern clapper rail — though differentiation be- 
tween the two is very difficult if not impossible in the 
field. The northern species is known to be migratory, 
arriving in our marshes usually in September and re- 
turning to their northern breeding grounds in late March 
These movements are verified each fall by Georgia hunt- 
ers that shoot birds that have been banded in North 
Atlantic coastal marshes. Just how many of these north- 
ern birds use our marshes as wintering grounds is un- 
known at this time. Research, part of which includes a 
stepped-up banding program, is underway seeking an 
answer to this question. Our local populations are gen- 
erally thought to be non-migratory — though little data 
exists to verify this assumption. 

Food habit studies indicate that the bulk of the clap- 
per's food consists of fiddler crabs, square-back crabs, 
and periwinkle snails, all of which are very common in 
the saltmarsh. These primary food items all have a very 
hard exoskeleton that is not digestible. These unwanted 
particles must be regurgitated in the form of a pellet. 
Most feeding occurs at low tide, particularly along the 
mud flats of tidal creeks and rivers. 

Nests, constructed of dead vegetation pushed down 
into the surrounding grass forming an inverted cone, 
begin receiving eggs in late April. A canopy is usually 
constructed over the nest by pulling several blades of 
grass together to arch over the top of the nest and there 
usually will be a short runway constructed of matted 
grass, leading from the edge of the nest to the ground. 

Photo by Ron Odom 







The medium height cordgrass is preferred for nesting £ 
is the zone lying within 30-40 feet of small drainag 
creeks. 

The average clapper nest will contain eight egg:, 
though actual numbers range from five to fourteen egg! I 
It appears that clappers are monogomous with the male a 
assisting the females with both incubation and rearin 
of the young. Both adults are commonly seen at the nes 
during incubation and also during brooding of the youn ; 
downy chicks. 

The eggs, about the size of a golf ball, are grey-whit | 
in color with rust or brown colored speckling. Incube 
tion lasts from 20 to 24 days with all eggs normall 
hatching within 24 to 48 hours. Hatching success varie; 
from area to area along the coast. Nest losses are usuall 
due to predation or severe weather. 

In South Carolina, studies have shown the raccoo i 
to be responsible for nearly 74% of all mammalian pre 
dation. Other predators include minks, crows, human: 
hawks and owls. An occasional bird has even shown u 
in the stomachs of sharks taken offshore. Raccoon 
probably do the most damage in Georgia since they ar 
so abundant in Coastal marshes. Predation by mar, 
though very widespread in the past, is uncommon c 
non-existent today. 

High tides, accompanied by high northeast wind: 
destroy many nests along with, on many occasions, larg 
numbers of adult clappers. High water alone does nc 
destroy the eggs since they are able to withstand corr-i 
plete submersion. Wave motions caused by high wine; 
often cause nests to break up. Significant losses of adu : 
birds have been known to occur in many areas afte "■ 
hurricane force storms. Another mortality factor of ir | § 
terest is loss due to accidents during migration. Coll 
sions during bad weather with television towers, buile 
ings, lighthouses, and automobiles all take their tol 
Dead chicks are commonly seen by Coastal residents o 
many of the causeways leading to our Coastal islands. 

Even more frightening and threatening, however, ar 
the potential effects of the many forms of pollution flow \ 
ing into our Coastal marshes. The clapper rail is entirel 
dependent on the salt marsh for survival and any whole 
sale destruction of these marshes or of the rails' foo 
supplies will spell out the end of the marsh hen. 

Identifying the sexes in the field is a very difficult tasl , 
since both male and female look alike. In the norther 
subspecies, there is a significant difference in size be 
tween males and females. Biologists in New Jersey me£ 
sure length of bill, length of middle toe. and width of bi 
to determine sex. Generally, males tend to be signif 
cantly larger than females — a relationship still to b 
verified for Georgia rails. 

The most popular method of hunting clappers is t 1 
pole a small boat, during extremely high tides, across th 
marsh grass. During these high tides an approachin : 



»:l!i 



M'.\ 






Rails build nests of dead vegetation pushed together to 
form an inverted cone. The nests contain from five to 
fourteen eggs, which are incubated by both adults for 
20-24 days. 




The baby rails are especially vulnerable 
to severe storms and prcdation by 
racoons, minks, crows, hawks, and owls. 



Photo by Ron Odom 



bp. will cause the hens to flush in front of the "gunner 
vh is positioned in front of the boat. It is only during 
tl}: ; very high tides that hunting is feasible, since rails 
Sip igly prefer to run, if possible, rather than fly and 
in lly fly only as a last resort. Many times they will 
e : revert to swimming rather than flying and surpris- 
ii-1 / enough, they swim very well. 

I ther people prefer to do their hunting on a dead low 
tip On the low tides marsh hens often come to the 
wt r's edge to feed on the exposed mud flats. Drifting 
q ( tly along tidal creeks during low water can be very 
p»( uctive at times and is certainly less exhausting. 

!' method that is increasing in popularity is that of 
i ; a dog to flush birds. Some marshes along the coast 
i a firm enough bottom and short enough grass to 
mk : this method both enjoyable and productive. The 
u' )f dogs has become quite popular in some of the 
sa meadows of the North Atlantic states; however, 
ms of our state's salt marsh is extremely difficult, if 
n< npossible, to walk on. 

i past years hunters hired a local "poler" to do most 
ot 1 s work as well as to guide. "Polers" today are be- 
en ng scarce in Georgia and many of our modern-day 
spr smen frown at the task of poling a boat through the 
rrm. Other states to the north have an adequate sup- 
pi ( f guides and as a result feel their clapper harvest 
is t he maximum allowable level. Considerable contro- 
ve>] has developed about the enactment of a law, prior 
top opening of the 1948 season, prohibiting the shoot- 
in ( f clapper rail from a power driven boat. Without 
th a ided luxury of an outboard, most hunters feel that 
cl|>l er hunting is not worth the effort. It is probable. 



however, that we'll see a change in this attitude in future 
years. 

Currently there is an effort underway to step up re- 
search on all species of rails. Georgia has initiated a 
banding program on the coast that will continue for 
another three years. Hopefully, through this program 
we can gather additional information on movements, 
mortality, brood survival, and banding techniques, in 
order to insure intelligent management of this resource 
in the future. 

New Jersey has led the way in clapper banding and 
has also made great strides in census techniques. Other 
states have completed life history studies. What is 
needed now is a co-operative regional effort, including 
all of the "clapper" states, to focus more attention on 
this species. Of primary importance is the need for 
additional banding data. Other basic needs are: 

1) Preservation of habitat — -marsh hens are -re- 
stricted to the coastal salt marshes. Any unneces- 
sary filling or draining of our marshes will elimi- 
nate a certain portion of our clapper resource. 

2) Pollution abatement — pollution running into our 
marshes, if not directly affecting the birds them- 
selves, could contaminate their principal food 
sources, the fiddler crabs, squareback crabs and 
periwinkle snail. When these food sources go, so 
do our rails. (See Outdoor World, page 30, for 
latest information on current pollution problems.) 

3) Research — if we are to use this resource wisely, 
we must increase our knowledge about the birds. 
This would include additional banding data, sexing 



I I 







The rail held here by Ron Odom may he suffering 
from mercury poisoning found to be affecting 
some rails in the Brunswick area north of the 
Sidney Lanier Bridge. Rails from this area are not 
fit for human consumption. 



1 



c 

■rg 



r 



and aging techniques, census procedures, and hat 
tat inventories. 

If you've never tried hunting clappers, don't sell the 
short. You'll sweat a little and probably get your gun i 
little rusty, maybe the birds won't be as sporting as yc i 
are used to; but if you'll make an effort to enjoy the tot .; 
hunting effort and not just bagging the birds, you'll ha' ( 
another excuse to head for the field next fall. The rai 
birds are numerous, the weather usually is balmy, see 
ery fantastic, and you have about 300,000 unspoik; 
acres on which to hunt at your leisure. 

For equipment, all that is needed is a light two-m;:, 
duck boat or aluminum pram, and any gauge shotgi i 
that is suitable for dove or quail will do, using lig 
loads of number 8 shot. It is unlike any other kind j 
hunting you've ever tried! 

This year's season began on September 10 and wl 
end November 18. Best rail hunting tides are shown 
the table opposite. The Game and Fish Division can pr i 
vide information on best areas to hunt. 

If you've never hunted the clapper — why not pi< I 
a high tide and give them a try. You may be pleasant ; 
surprised. 



53 [ 










." v - 



\ 



K* ' 









^ r v 



Times given are Eastern Standard— adjust for Daylight Saving by adding one hour. 

Calculations are for Savannah River Entrance. Corrections for other locations can be made by 
jjinc, the accompanying tidal difference data. Merely add or subtract the correction as indicated 
r the specific location. 



;19 
177 
}31 



17 
49 
57 
1)1 



DIFFERENCES 
Time 



GEORGIA 
Savannah River 



High 
Water 



'.07 Tybee Light -0 08 

;15 Port Wentworth +0 33 



Tybee Creek and 
Wassaw Sound 

Tybee Creek entrance . . . —0 07 

Thunderbolt +0 34 

Isle of Hope, Skidaway River +0 52 

Ossabaw Sound 

Egg Islands +0 06 

Fort McAllister, Ogeechee R. +0 50 

Cane Patch Creek entrance . +0 57 



Low 
Water 



-0 15 
41 



+ 02 


+ 09 


+ 25 


+ 07 


+ 1 13 


+ 40 



St. Catherines and 
Sapelo Sounds 

Kilkenny Club, Kilkenny Cr. 
Sunbury, Medway River . 
Blackbeard Island . . . 
Mud R., at Old Teakettle Cr. 

OCTOBER, 1973 



+ 031 


+ 13 


+ 56 


+ 42 


+ 20 


+ 19 


+ 47 


+ 43 







High Water 




Low 


vVater 


Day 


A.M. 


Ht. 


P.M. 


Ht. 


A.M. 


P.M. 


1 Mon. 


11:00 


7.4 


11:04 


6.5 


4:44 


5:23 


2Tue. 


11:45 


7.0 


11:53 


62 


5:27 


6:11 


3 Wed. 


— 


— 


12:35 


6.8 


6:14 


7:04 


4Thu. 


12:44 


6.0 


1:28 


6.6 


7:09 


8:05 


5 Fri. 


.1:41 


6.0 


2:24 


6.6 


8:12 


9:05 


'6 Sat. 


2:39 


6.1 


3:26 


67 


9:14 


9:56 


7 Sun. 


3:42 


6.3 


4:21 


6.9 


10:07 


10:43 


8 Mon. 


4:38 


6.8 


5:12 


7 2 


10:58 


11:28 


9Tue. 


5:27 


7.3 


5:55 


7.4 


11:48 


— 


10 Wed. 


6:13 


7.8 


6:36 


7.6 


12:10 


12:32 


11 Thu. 


6:55 


8.3 


7:16 


7 7 


12:52 


1:17 


12 Fri. 


7:34 


8.6 


7:53 


77 


1:34 


2:02 


13 Sat. 


8:17 


8.8 


8:34 


76 


2:17 


2:48 


14 Sun. 


9:02 


8.8 


9:20 


7.4 


3:01 


3:34 


15 Mon. 


9:51 


8.6 


10:11 


7.1 


3:46 


4:22 


16Tue. 


10:44 


8.3 


11:08 


68 


4:36 


5:17 


17 Wed. 


11:45 


8.0 


— 


— 


5:33 


6:17 


18 Thu. 


12:15 


6.6 


12:51 


7.7 


6:36 


7:25 


19 Fri. 


1:25 


6.6 


2:01 


7.5 


7:47 


8:35 


20 Sat. 


2:39 


6.7 


3:07 


7.5 


9:00 


9:38 


21 Sun. 


3:52 


7.1 


4:16 


7.5 


10:03 


10:33 


22 Mon. 


4:56 


7.6 


5:15 


7 6 


10:58 


11:22 


23 Tue. 


5:51 


8.0 


6:04 


7.7 


11:52 


— 


24 Wed. 


6:36 


8.3 


6:48 


7.7 


12:10 


12:41 


25 Thu. 


7:17 


8.5 


7:29 


7.6 


12:54 


1:27 


26 Fri. 


7:56 


8.4 


8:03 


7 4 


1:37 


2:12 


27 Sat. 


8:32 


8.3 


8:39 


7 2 


2:18 


2:53 


28 Sun. 


9:10 


8.0 


9:15 


69 


2:56 


3:33 


29 Mon. 


9:43 


7.7 


9:52 


66 


3:34 


4:12 


30 Tue. 


10:22 


7.3 


10:31 


6 4 


4:13 


4:54 


31 Wed. 


11:05 


7.0 


11:16 


6 2 


4:54 


5:36 


Moon Phases 















DIFFERENCES 

Time 
High Low 

Doboy and Altamaha Water Water 

Sounds 

2762 Blackbeard Cr., Blackbeard I. +0 21 +0 44 

2763 Sapelo Island 00 +0 02 

2769 Darien, Darien River. ... +1 10 +1 12 

2771 Wolf Island +0 06 +0 35 

2773 Champney I., S. Altamaha R. +112 +2 30 

St. Simons Sound 

2779 St. Simons Sound bar . . . +0 01 -0 05 

2781 St. Simons Light +0 24 +0 28 

2785 Troup Cr. entr., Mackay R. . +0 54 +0 49 

2787 Brunswick, East River . _ . +0 55 +0 40 
St. Andrew Sound 

2797 Jekyll Point +0 28 +0 28 

2799 Jointer Island, Jointer Creek +102 +0 49 

2807 Dover Bluff, Dover Creek . . +0 57 +0 49 

2817 Cumberland Wh., Cumb. R. . +0 40 +0 42 

Cumberland Sound 

2821 St. Marys Entr., north jetty . +0 15 +0 15 

2823 Crooked River entrance . . +1 23 +1 12 

2825 Harrietts Bluff, Crooked River +2 09 +2 12 

2827 St. Marys, St. Marys River. . +121 +113 

NOVEMBER, 1973 



1st Qtr. 4th, Full Moon 12th, Last Qtr. 18th, New Moon 26th 







High Water 




Low 


Water 


Day 


A.M. 


Ht. 


P.M. 


Ht 


A.M. 


P.M. 


1 Thu. 


11:52 


6 8 


— 


— 


5:37 


6:27 


2 Fri. 


12:05 


6 1 


12:43 


6 6 


6:30 


7:20 


3 Sat. 


12:59 


6 1 


1:34 


6 5 


7:28 


8:16 


4 Sun. 


2:00 


6 2 


2:30 


6 5 


8:29 


9:10 


5 Mon. 


2:55 


6 5 


3:27 


6 6 


9:28 


10:01 


6 Tue. 


3:52 


69 


4:20 


6 8 


10:21 


10:46 


7 Wed. 


4:48 


7.4 


5:13 


7.0 


11:12 


11:30 


8 Thu. 


5:37 


8.0 


6:02 


7 2 


— 


12:03 


9 Fri. 


6:25 


8 4 


6:46 


7.4 


12:16 


12:51 


10 Sat. 


7:11 


8.S 


7:33 


7 4 


1:04 


1:40 


11 Sun. 


8:00 


8 9 


8:20 


7 4 


1:52 


2:29 


12 Mon. 


8:48 


3 9 


9:09 


7 3 


2:41 


3:21 


13 Tue. 


9:39 


8 6 


10:04 


7 1 


3:32 


4:12 


14 Wed. 


10:36 


8 3 


11:04 


6 8 


4:25 


5:07 


15 Thu. 


11:33 


7 9 


— 


— 


5:23 


6:05 


16 Fri. 


12:11 


67 


12:37 


7 6 


6:24 


7:06 


17 Sat. 


1:19 


67 


1:41 


7 3 


7:34 


8:10 


18 Sun. 


2:27 


6 9 


2:46 


7 


8:41 


9:13 


19 Mon. 


3:36 


7 1 


3:49 


6 9 


9:45 


10:04 


20 Tue. 


4:33 


7 4 


4:45 


6 9 


10:40 


10:55 


21 Wed. 


5:28 


7 7 


5:38 


6 9 


11:31 


11:41 


22 Thu. 


6:14 


7 9 


623 


6 9 


— 


12:20 


23 Fri. 


657 


8 


7:02 


6 8 


12:26 


1:05 


24 Sat. 


7:34 


7 9 


7:40 


6 8 


1:09 


1:47 


25 Sun. 


8:10 


7 8 


8:14 


6 6 


1:50 


2:29 


26 Mon. 


8:44 


7 6 


8:50 


6 5 


2:30 


3:11 


27 Tue. 


9:18 


7 4 


9.25 


6 3 


3:09 


3:50 


28 Wed. 


9:53 


7 1 


10:03 


6 ? 


3:46 


4:28 


29 Thu. 


10:32 


6 9 


10:48 


6.1 


4:25 


5:07 


30 Fri. 


11:13 


6 7 


11:33 


6.1 


5:07 


5:55 


Moon Phases: 












1st Ot 


. 3rd, Full Moo 


n 10th, 


Last Qtr 


17th, Ne\ 


v Moon 


Ml! 



13 




A Camping Area 
^Check Station 



Berry Wildlife Management Area 






EDUCATED DEER 
AT BERRY COLLEGE 



lly Aaron Pass 

I lotos by the Author 



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Among the ridges and valleys just 
northwest of Berry College at Rome, 
Georgia, lies one of the most unique 
wildlife areas managed by the Game 
and Fish Division, a eombination 
Management Area and Wildlife Ref- 
uge. The Berry College Area com- 
bines the concept of a wildlife sane- 



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Area Manager Frank Early of the Game 
md Fish Division surveys Berry College 
Wildlife Management Area and Refuge 
rotn the cliff like precipice which 
urrottnds the crest of Rocky Mountain. 

nuary with the opportunity for regu- 

ated hunting on 25,000 acres of 

ollege-owned land in Floyd County. 

idle outer periphery of the tract is 

nanaged in the same manner as any 

: tate wildlife management area — 

or increased wildlife values with a 

i arefully planned, regulated harvest 

i f game by public hunting. The core 

f the area adjacent to the campus is 

losed to hunting and serves as a 

i'ildlife refuge. 

1 Berry College has acquired this 

tact of property through a long term 

1 ind acquisition program going back 

Many years. The property has always 

I een used for timber production with 

e money from timber sales going to 

5 lpport this independent college. 

erry's forest management program 

scientifically designed to provide 

r a long term harvest with con- 

lual increase in quality and quan- 

y of forest resources. According to 

: MTy officials, "We are concerned 

* th the ecology, and all timber har- 

' sts are planned and regulated for 

vironmental value preservation." 

A natural progression of awareness 

d concern has also led to a studied 

< nsideration of the wildlife re- 

( urces in Berry's forest. Following 

thought that ". . . the environ- 

i :nt is a real factor in the education 

i xess," Berry officials contacted the 

t ite Game and Fish Department 

n 'w a Division of the Department 

f Natural Resources) for advice and 

istance in effective wildlife man- 

g :ment. According to Berry officials, 

ewere initially interested in a wild- 

f refuge to benefit wildlife and pre- 

ve tranquility." 

K thorough field investigation by 



Game and Fish biologists found that 
the Berry forest had abundant wild- 
life populations, possibly an over- 
abundance of some species: "We 
found a particularly plentiful deer 
population on the area, with a high 
potential for a dangerous over-popu- 
lation waiting for the opportunity to 
happen. The consequences of this 
would, of course, be habitat damage 
by the too-numerous animals and ul- 
timately starvation for a large per- 
centage of the population. On this 
basis we recommended a controlled 
harvest of the deer population for the 
benefit of the total ecosystem in the 
Berry forest," said Bill Collins, a 
biologist with the Game and Fish 
Division who was the regional super- 
visor at that time. 

The advice consisted of the appli- 
cation of scientific wildlife manage- 
ment techniques to enhance wildlife 
values on the area and would include 
the annual harvest of surplus animals 
in a legal and controlled public hunt 
each year. It was also suggested that 
the Berry forest be managed by the 
Game and Fish Division in the same 
manner as other Wildlife Manage- 
ment Areas over the state. Such an 
arrangement, it was felt, would pro- 
vide better control and protection for 
the wildlife in the Berry forest. 

The Berry administration, feeling 
that a controlled legal hunt and full- 
time patrol by a Game and Fish 
Refuge Manager would help solve the 
increasing problems of poaching and 
better protect the wildlife populations, 
agreed to the arrangement. For the 
safety of the students and to minimize 
conflicts during the hunts, a "No 
Hunting" safety zone and wildlife ref- 
uge was established adjacent to the 
campus. Managed hunting is allowed 
only on the outer portions of the tract. 

The entire area is approximately 



25,000 acres in size. The refuge area 
consists of 12,000 acres and the wild- 
life management area where the hunts 
are held covers about 13,000 acres. 
The area is mostly forest land con- 
sisting of an oak, hickory and pine 
mixture, with pine being dominant in 
the timber management areas. The 
terrain is the typical ridge and valley 
land form of northwest Georgia and 
there are two~mountains on the area. 
Rock Mountain (in the hunting area) 
is unusual in that it has steep sides 
and a flat plateau on top. Lavender 
Mountain is a long ridge and its crest 
forms one of the boundaries between 
the hunting area and the refuge. 

As mentioned earlier, the area has 
an excellent deer population although 
the harvests have been low for the 
past two seasons due to inclement 
weather during the hunts. The area 
also has a fair small game popula- 
tion, with squirrel being the most nu- 
merous species in a forest habitat such 
as Berry provides. Frank Early of Mt. 
Berry, Georgia, is the area manager 
and he feels that the area is a big 
success. "Most of the people who 
come to hunt here are local residents. 
They are good, honest sportsmen for 
the most part, and they seem really 
appreciative of this hunting area lo- 
cated close by their homes," says 
Early. 

Berry College officials are also 
pleased with the area, feeling that 
they are filling three important needs 
by adopting this course of action: 
"We are enhancing the environment 
by specifically managing and protect- 
ing the wildlife on the area, and we 
have better protection and control of 
our forest. We also feel that we are 
meeting our community obligations 
by providing an opportunity for pub- 
lic hunting and are sharing our re- 
sources with the people of the area." 



r 



Sinking of the Tampa 



By Tina Carlson 

Photos by Bob Busby 



She went down with all the grace and integri 
that was — and still is — rightfully hers. T 
Tampa, a ghost-like tugboat from the long-go 
days of 1890's, serenely retired to the undi 
water world on Saturday, July 14, 1973. The 
she will become an artificial reef, after havi 
seen the best of this life. 







We set out on the "Wahoo" at 7:30 Friday 
morning to pay the Tampa our last respects, but 
it being Friday the 13th, naturally everything 
fell through. The 14-hour towing job from 
Savannah to Brunswick was delayed by rough 
>eas, so we tried again 4:30 Saturday morning. 
We rode out to the site 23 miles offshore from 
Brunswick with Larry Smith, supervisor of the 
irtificial reef project, and Jack Evans, one of his 
tssistants. The rest of his crew, Mike Younce 
ind Tom Burchman, spent a restless night with 
he tug anchored in the Savannah River. 

The sunrise was incredibly beautiful as we 

vatched Larry's crew and men from the Atlantic 

"owing Company (who donated and towed the 

"ampa from Savannah to Brunswick) position 

nd anchor the tug. As the men opened the 

alves in the bottom of the ship and blew holes 

h its sides, the ocean rushed into the vacant en- 

jine room. And so began the sinking of the 

ampa. 

Three years ago, the Game and Fish Division 
( f the Georgia Department of Natural Re- 
sources began building artificial reefs in the off- 
iaore waters of the state. These reefs provide 
' abitat for fish where once there was only a bare 
>ind bottom. By sinking scrap materials such as 
a Jtomobile tires and surplus naval vessels from 
* to 25 miles offshore, the Division hopes to 
table small boat fishermen to harvest reef and 
)ttom type fish without having to go 40 to 80 
iles out to sea. Tired of catching trout and 
: lannel bass? Here's your chance to try your 
i ck at red snapper, black sea bass, trigger fish, 
ouper and sheephead. 

The project first started by sinking units of 

tomobile tires. These units are composed of 

column of eight tires connected by steel rods in 

2 middle and concrete in the bottom. There 

esently are three tire reefs consisting of 25,000 

es each off Georgia's coast: 9 miles off Was- 

5»v Sound in Savannah, 8 miles off St. Simons 

>and, and 13'/2 miles off Cumberland. Not 

i ly has the sport fishing been great at these 

lis, but the scuba diving is fantastic. 

Contracts have recently been signed to add 

1 ,000 more tires to the Wassaw reef and to put 

000 tires down at the site 23 miles offshore of 

i inswick where the tugboat was sunk. While 

omobile tires have been found to be func- 

lal as reef material, they are expensive. The 





L. 




i <i 



Division is now testing a new idea of using truck 
tires bound together by nylon bands. With this 
type of material, there wouid be nothing in the 
system that could degrade in the marine environ- 
ment. Surplus railroad cars and concrete rubble 
ire also being considered as reef material. A fed- 
eral bill recently passed makes surplus liberty 
ihips available to individual states for marine 
ife conservation. Georgia has asked for two of 
hese ships, which will be obtained from the 
fames River Reserve fleet in Norfolk, Virginia. 
\11 superstructure and petroleum deposits will 
>e removed, then one ship will be sunk off 
Javannah and one off Brunswick. 

Sound like an awful lot of clutter on the ocean 
loor? It's not. All this scrap material will, in 
act, provide habitat for fish much like that 
ound at the outer edges of the continental shelf. 
Vith time, as the reef materials settle, they will 
iecome encrusted with invertebrate life and 
I ventually build a shelf in which the fishes can 
1 ve. 

The Brunswick structure, which will be about 
ne-half mile long and 300 yards wide, will form 

composite reef; that is, the reef will be com- 
posed of different elements which will merge to- 
ether to form a whole. The tugboat and liberty 
nip will provide the mass which will actually 
[ hange current patterns and provide eddies and 
[ipwellings which will attract the fish. The rail- 
ff )ad boxcars will provide protective habitat for 
fsh, and the tires will furnish niches for indi- 
vidual fish and their food organisms. This com- 
[ Dsite structure may ultimately form a biologi- 
t illy sound and long-lasting estuarine com- 
r unity. 

The Division hopes these artificial reefs will 
t imulate the establishment of charter and head 
t )at fishery, besides providing excellent sport 
|i;hing and scuba diving. The charter boats 
V ould specialize in trolling for Spanish and king 
i ackerel, sailfish, and marlin in the Savannah 
i id Brunswick areas. Head boats, with a capac- 
t/ of twenty to forty people a day at a rate of 
i 'proximately $10.00 to $15.00 per person, 
*:>uld specialize in bottom fishing. 

The Division hopes to build at least five or 
iv artificial reefs off the Georgia coast, but 
> ans thorough research on the reefs currently 
p isting or under construction before building 
fl )re. Such research will determine the best lo- 



cations, sizes, types of materials, construction 
techniques, and depth for a given species of 
fish. "The main question to be answered," said 
project supervisor Smith, "is whether we are 
concentrating fish for harvest and depleting off- 
shore areas, or whether we are creating habitat 
to increase the carrying capacity of the oceans." 
Data for research will be obtained by divers 
going down to the reefs about once a month to 
observe crustacean material and inventory the 
fish population on the reef. Divers also will 
trap and tag fish to determine residence or mi- 
gratory habits. 

These reefs are being built with a combina- 
tion of general state funds and support from 
federal agencies, or matching money. Most of 
the matching money has come from the Coastal 
Plains Regional Commisiom In the three years 
that the project has been in existence, the Game 
and Fish Division has spent approximately 
$155,000 in state funds on artificial reefs. 

It didn't take long for the Tampa to actually 
sink. The stern went down first, slowly and with 
resolve. She rocked to the left, but then straight- 
ened herself as if she realized that this was to 
be her last performance above the sea. We were 
silent, almost sad to see such a powerful ship so 
peacefully die. But when all that was left was 
the tip of the bow, we became excited at the 
thought of the new life that the Tampa would 
bring to the world below us. Now she is resting 
75 feet below the surface of the ocean with steel 
buoys marking her location, and already she 
has become a new home for an amazing variety 
of underwater creatures. 







t 


i3f£L 






*- - 


• 




7*$ 




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_ 




-* 



21 






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SOU**' f » •w.' 


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8*«wa« 


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i|QH 



A lovely pastoral scene, right? Wrong. This is Coahulla Creek, a terribly pollute 
tributary of the Conasauga. Pollution Control Specialist Dave Knight checks th 
stream's flow, while Ken Martin measures its dissolved oxygen. 



A Quality of Water? 



Of more than 1,800 Department of Natural 
Resources employees, perhaps only 300 or so 

ever itgnie to the public's attention. The Conser- 
vation Rangers are highly visible, as are depart- 
ment officials and information officers who do 
i lot of public speaking, and occasionally a 
)io!cgist or engineer will become known for his 
vork on a particular project. But there remain 
Ired's upon hundreds of DNR workers whose 



By T. Craig Mar 

Photos by the Aotho. 

tasks are little known and less understood; iiii 
series of articles over the next several month. 
OUTDOORS IN GEORGIA will present a scr- 
pling of these important, if little known, Dt! 
employees. 

A field day in the life of a Pollution Confri 
Specialist from the Environmental Protecl 
Division begins early and ends late. Take, 
example, the day a three-man team from |h 



Knight examines the flow meter 

that enables him to check the 

water speed. By measuring this 

speed at several points across 

the stream, the monitors can 

compute the volume of water 

that flows past this point. 




)ivision's Water Quality Surveys Service recent- 
y spent examining the highly polluted Cona- 
(.auga River in northwest Georgia. They left 
»heir Atlanta offices before daylight, worked 
rhrough the day collecting and testing water 
namples from the Conasauga and its tributaries, 
<ond finally returned in the late dusk. 
I About three days a week are consumed this 
vay, for the Service's monitoring unit must 
••heck some 50 stations scattered throughout the 
state each month. Nearly 170 stations exist on 
nome 52 streams, but most are monitored by 
members of other state or federal agencies. 
I The work is physically demanding, techni- 



cally rigorous and, to an outsider at least, rela- 
tively tedious. At each check point, samples are 
collected (some to be tested on the spot, others 
to be returned for laboratory analysis) and the 
stream's flow is checked. The routine is precise 
and efficient, for any variation in procedure 
could invalidate the results. 

Field tests determine, among other things, the 
amount of dissolved oxygen in the stream and 
the level of demand placed on that oxygen. 
Simply put, the stream obtains oxygen from the 
air as it flows along, and from microscopic 
plants that grow suspended in the water. The 
stream remains in good shape as long as the 



4P 



Careful records must be kept if 

the data is to be accurate and 

useful for prediction. 









The dissolved oxygen test takes 

a good deal of pouring and 

mixing and shaking, as well as 

a keen eye to judge when the 

liquid in the bottle (below) 

becomes perfectly clear. Here 

Bob Arnsdorf runs through 

the procedure. 




:Mlk-Cl 



4* 



>./» 




1 



demand placed upon that supply by organii 
materials (which must be purified by oxygen 
does not exceed the stream's capacity to poo 
duce and replace the vital oxygen. 

The variables involved here are more thoi 
a little complex, but two important factdr 
checked by the monitoring team are the volunn 
and flow rate of the stream. More water meaci 
that pollutants become diluted more quickly 
and any given amount of pollution makes leis 
inroads on a large stream than on a small one 
Fast streams generally replace oxygen mac 
quickly than sluggish ones, since they splaol 
and tumble in the air more. Temperature als 1 
is important, for cold water can hold more 0x7 
gen than warm water. 

These variables, of course, suggest why moo r 
toring must be done throughout the ye<«i 
Stream levels rise and fall, flow rates chancie 
and temperature varies with the season. So ti 
monitoring crew takes to the field in ever 
month. 

Field testing is only part of the job however 




• #*c 



> «3 



~**ii 



Knight examines the outflow 
from Dalton's waste treatment 
plant. The treated water 
splashes against a barrier to 
add needed oxygen before it 
enters this stream, which flows 
into the Conasauga. 



jCiter samples are brought back for extensive 

Jbioratory analysis in Atlanta. There, much 
r,:re complicated procedures are used to check 
tel'type and amount of suspended solids, and 

I t,8i nature and volume of bacteria in the water. 

All the data collected in field and laboratory 

r J;t be organized in some meaningful way, 

Cji| the monitoring team takes care of that. 

jl|6y analyze and interpret the material, then 

[ pis it on to others in the Division to serve as the 

,1 t:iis for decision making. 

.tone use of this information is in compiling 

icrpputer models of the streams. This will allow 

tpJSurveys Service's field engineering unit to 

^i^ict the effect of pollution that enters a 

^jqam. This information will help municipal 

|c industrial planners in developing waste 




One of the reasons the 

Conasauga is in trouble: dyes 

from Dalton's carpet mills flow 

untreated into this stream, and 

from here into the Conasauga. 



♦'' 



mm 



^^E* 



'',''' ' • ;-" '*■ 



Dt work in summer, cold work in winter; but 
c that must go on if Georgia's streams are 
irvive man's onslaught. One of many rela- 
y invisible chores carried out by Depart- 
t of Natural Resources employees. 



SCOUTING FOR DEEF 




By Bob Wilson 

So you're determined to bag a deer 
this year, perhaps even two? A few 
half-hearted hunts in seasons past, to- 
gether with today's meat prices, have 
finally made you get serious about 
hunting deer. By now you have your 
hunting license, your big game license, 
and your 500 square inches of fluo- 
rescent orange material in the form 
of an outer garment. You should have 
checked your weapon on the range to 
make sure of sight zero, waxed or 
oiled your boots, honed your knife to 
a keen edge, and checked the condi- 
tion oi all your other equipment — 
especially your tree stand if you use 
one. You should even have your hunt- 



ing areas picked out — one of the Wild- 
life Management Areas, a general 
portion of national forest land, some 
timber company land, or a farm whose 
owner has given permission. 

But how will you know exactly 
where to hunt? On which side of what 
ridge is there likely to be a trophy 
buck or nice fat doe? Where will you 
have a good field of view and be able 
to see the deer before they sense you? 
The only way to tell is by scouting. 
Oh, a friend can put you on a stand 
that proves to be a good one, or you 
may blunder upon a good spot by 
chance, but successful deer hunters, 
those who regularly put venison in the 



Photo by Leonard Lee Ru 



freezer, often spend as much ti 
scouting as actually hunting. 

Learning to read signs and spe 
ing a few hours in the woods bef 
the day of the hunt will increase y> 
chance of success dramatically. E 
if you should still spend a day on y 
stand without a glimpse of a deer, ) 
will know that deer have been in 
area in the past day or two and t 
your spot was as good as any in 
area. You may also have the pleas 
of putting a friend on a stand t 
helps him bag his deer. 

Good deer habitat, providing \ 
ested and open areas with suite 
foods, can be found in every pari 



he state. But, just how do you know 
hat a particular stand should be a 
iroductive one, or stalking through a 
pecific area could be worthwhile? 
iimple. You look for sign. If you 
now how to read the various signs 
ou can get a pretty good idea of the 
mmber of deer using an area, size and 
ex of the deer, and how recently they 
/ere in the area. 

Tracks 
Tracks are the most obvious sign, 
I; nd can be very useful. Tracks quickly 
M\ weal the general size, rate of travel, 

| to ' 

|( irection of travel, and often the time 
)an between the time they were made 
id the time they were discovered, 
racks may be scattered in an appar- 
: ltly random wandering fashion or 
umped together on a trail or around 
"salt lick." 

Obviously, the size of a track is re- 
ted to the size of the deer that made 
but there is more to it than that. Big 
) icks often drag their feet, leaving 
int lines for an inch or two in front 
the track. Marks of dewclaws. hoof- 
:e appendages above the rear of the 
litof, are usually more prominent in 
iicks made by bucks than in those 
| iade by does. 

Aging tracks with any degree of ac- 

racy calls for vast experience, but a 

; reful examination of the track should 

: even a novice put it in a "fresh," 

alf-day-old," "yesterday," or "old" 

c :egory. A fresh track in soft earth 

' II be crisp, with sharp edges; the 

i ttom will be firm and clear of loose 

jt 3ris. Depending on its location and 

n ■ weather conditions a track will dry 

i an hour or two. Within six hours 

i crisp and sharp edges will have 

fc :ome rounded, and individual grains 

dirt will have fallen into the de- 

ssed areas of the track. More time, 

light's dew and perhaps a gentle 

( rning breeze, will give the track a 

nded, soft appearance, almost as if 

i deer's hoof had been made of pot- 

i s clay. A good hunting area should 

tain old tracks as well as new ones; 

a variety of track sizes, with a few 

e ones, should indicate a good 

i ed herd with some bucks. 

v'here tracks are concerned, the 

t common mistake made by hunt- 

s s attempting to hunt a deer by fol- 

w ng apparently fresh tracks. I'll 

p : to admit this method might be 



£■■ 






Fresh tracks arc proof 

positive that deer have 

been in the area 

recently. A mixture of 

recent and old track 

indicate regular use by 

deer. A collection of 

tracks such as this 

around a natural salt 

lick is seldom 

encountered 



Where deer trails cross 

fallen timber the deer's 

hooves cause damage 

such as this. Such sign 

may be difficult to age 

but it should be fairly 

easy to tell whether 

the sign was made this 

year or last 



The condition of browse 

is a good indication of 

the density of the deer 

population. I his 

honeysuckle shows 

intensive browsing in 

August of this year. 




27 



possible, but more than nine times out 
of ten, you'll never see the deer. And 
the time you do, you'll catch a quick 
glimpse of that famous white tail just 
before it's gone: deer are simply too 
aware of their back trail to be crept up 
on this way. 

Trails 

Assuming you have found tracks of 
varying degrees of freshness where 
you want to hunt, the next step is to 
look for trails and patterns of move- 
ment. Trails vary according to type of 
use, and the number of deer using 
them. Trails can be so old and heavily 
used that they actually are worn into 
the ground like a rut, or they can be so 
new and lightly used that they are very 
hard to discern. 

Don't assume that an old, heavily 
used trail is the only place to hunt. 
Wise old bucks may use a trail of their 
own some 20 to 60 feet to one side of 
the main trail. You may have heard of 
bucks "slipping up on" hunters from 
behind; and in many of these cases, 
the hunter was simply watching the 
main trail and was between it and the 
buck's trail, or worse yet, on the buck's 
trail. 

In some areas, Clark Hill WMA is 
a good example, you'll find trails wan- 
dering literally everywhere, and no 
apparent main trail. This is a feeding 
or browse area through which the deer 
wander, nibbling on whatever happens 
to appeal to them. Such trails may 
lead from thickets at higher elevations 
to a watering area, but in a very er- 
ratic, leisurely fashion. 

Make certain a trail has fresh tracks 
on it before picking a stand. If there is 
a lot of forest debris on the trail, which 
makes locating a track difficult, look 
at logs lying across the trail — they 
should show fresh evidence of being 
clipped by deers' hooves. 
Browse 

Browse, or food that deer should be 
eating, will also help you pick a spot 
to hunt. Deer have definite favorites, 
and when such yummies as honey- 
suckle >nd sumac or white oak acorns 
are plentiful, they will eat the item of 
choice and ignore the rest of the menu. 
If you are not familiar with the types 
ol food deer like, take a look at the 
"Find the Food — Find the 
by Winston A. Andrews in last 
le of Outdoors in Georgia. 



In areas with a lot of deer, a browse 
line may be visible on favored species, 
with the choice morsels ripped off 
from ground level to as high as the 
deer can reach. Check the branch tips 
of dogwood, honeysuckle, plum, black 
locust, and other favored deer foods 
closely to see if the very ends have 
been clipped off. After the acorns fall, 
look under oaks for large patches of 
disturbed leaves. 

Droppings 

Deer droppings or scat is another 
good indicator of the number of deer 
in a given area and confirms recent, as 
well as old, use by deer. Common 
sense should enable anyone to roughly 
age droppings, but a close look is nec- 



essary if there is moisture on tl 
ground. 

Rubs and Scratches 

Rubs and scratches are signs 
bucks. Rubs are bare spots on sm; 
trees and bushes where the bucks ha 
rubbed the velvet off their antle 
Scratches or scrapes are areas whe 
bucks have scraped off the forest litl 
and raked and trampled the soft ean 
The exact significance of scratch are | 
is unknown, but a cleared area on t 
forest floor that has been trampled 
a sure sign of a buck. 

Trees and bushes selected by buc 
for rubs usually are quite small J 
three to four inches in diameter — a I 
springy. A rub might appear on 01 1 



Photo by Leonard Lee Rue I 







:r k 



el' 



ne side of a single tree, or four or five 
ushes or trees may have their bark 
jmpletely shredded. The extent of a 
ib dies not seem to be related to the 
ze ot a buck's rack. 

You might indeed be able to bag a 
eer this season without the benefit of 
re-hunt scouting, but you can easily 
p the odds in your favor by spending 

few hours in the woods looking 
•ound. Knowing what to look for is 
ilf the struggle; thinking about what 
>u see and knowing what it means is 

e other half. Learning to look and 

, )preciating the meaning of small 

gns in the woods is at least half of 

i inting; success is perhaps the smaller 

nlf. 



;. 



BooH 
Review 



UN DIGEST TREASURY, 4th 
Edition, John T. Amber, Ed., Di- 
gest Books, Inc., 352 pages, $5.95. 

This particular Digest tome is billed 
a cover blurb as "the best from 25 
i ars of GUN DIGEST," and in this 
ise, you can judge a book by its 
ever. While 25 years worth of mate- 
from GUN DIGEST certainly 
£ ve Amber a vast amount of material 
i select from, the selections, as best 
) s reader can judge, are excellent. 
i latever you find of interest in the 

Eiual edition, with the exception of 
product listings, you will find in 
< :ellence in GUN DIGEST TREA- 
IRY. 

3ne of the most valuable items 
) itained in this volume is a 27-year 
(ex (1944-1973), listing by author 
1 1 subject all articles in the first 27 
Lions of GUN DIGEST and the 
'! : six issues of HANDLOADER'S 
I jEST. Just where you are going 
' >e able to locate that 1952 edition 
h ch contains the article on the 
a lck falling-block action. Amber 
»n't say. 

' )f particular excellence among the 
:les is "Reloading Sans Cartridge 
2s," by Robert E. Corby. This es- 



say on black powder shooting is far 
more helpful than anything in the 
BLACK POWDER GUN DIGEST. 
Whatever you find to interest you 
in this GUN DIGEST TREASURY, 
you may rest assured that the article 
will be a good one. If you usually find 
a couple of articles of interest in the 
annual GUN DIGEST, the GUN 
DIGEST TREASURY well deserves 
your reading. 

— BW 

DEER HUNTING by Norman 

Strung, Lippincott, 239 pages, 

$7.95. 

It seems that every season brings 
another book on deer hunting. Some 
stress certain aspects of the subject 
while others attempt to cover the 
whole topic. Some attempt to study 
the hunting of only one type of deer, 
or concern themselves with only one 
region. Norman Strung has chosen 
to cover "the whole thing" in one 
gulp, which, in this reader's opinion, 
is unfortunate. 

A rather lengthy chapter (the long- 
est in the book) on deer manage- 
ment begins the book. The layman 
and beginning deer hunter will learn 
enough from this chapter alone to 
warrant reading the book. However, 
anyone looking for detailed specifics 
on the management of deer herds in 
the southeast will have to go else- 
where. 

Subsequent chapters deal respec- 
tively with the Whitetail and Mule 
Deer. These sections contain good, if 
somewhat general discussions of the 
habitat requirements, habits, activities 
and hunting tactics for these animals. 
The use of tree stands is described as 
as a tactic for hunting whitetail, and 
not even considered in the chapter on 
mule deer. Yet on a hunt in Colorado 
last month, Garth Fuller, a Georgia 
whitetail hunter, got a nice muley 
from a tree stand in what western 
hunters call thick timber. While the 
tactics Strung suggests for hunting 
either type of deer are good solid ap- 
proaches, we found Georgia piney- 
woods whitetail tactics to be very 
effective on mule deer (60',' hunter 
success, bowhunting). 

It may be this reader's personal 
point of philosophy that brings dis- 



agreement with Strung's statements in 
a chapter on "Skills, Savvy and 
Equipment." Strung would have the 
hunter begin trailing a shot deer at 
once, and, "If after an hour or so of 
searching, you find neither sign nor 
animal, you are safe to assume that 
the deer wasn't wounded that badly 
and has given you the slip." This 
might be construed by the novice to 
mean that one should give up after 
following a faint blood trail for an 
hour, or spending an hour looking for 
sign leading from the site of a hit. 
Frequently, no blood trail will be 
found within 25 yards of a hit, and 
in an area cluttered with tracks, a 
beginner could spend his whole al- 
loted hour cutting circles within a 20- 
yard radius of his last sighting of the 
animal. It may^also take the alloted 
hour to follow a faint trail a quarter 
of a mile. It is probable that Strung 
meant sign when he said sign, as an 
hour's search around the spot of the 
last sign or sighting is certainly none 
too much. 

In the same chapter. Strung has 
sound advice on shot placement, the 
reading of tracks, and equipment. De- 
tails on measuring racks under the 
Boone and Crockett Club system are 
a handy addition in the view of those 
Outdoors in Georgia staffers who get 
involved in the annual Georgia Big 
Deer Contest sponsored by Outdoors 
in Georgia and the Georgia Wildlife 
Federation. This reviewer happens to 
agree with Strung in his choice of 
both rifles and hunting knives (.270 
for open 'areas, and .30-06 for all 
around effectiveness; and a short widc- 
bladed knife with a drop point), which 
may be neither here nor there, but 
Strung gives specific reasons for the 
preferences. The author also has some 
sound advice on sharpening knives 
and axes. 

In regard to bowhunting. the re- 
viewer again disagrees with some of 
the author's statements, but the dif- 
ferences are those of personal feeling 
and preference rather than points of 
substance. And here again, the author 
has made many other statements with 
which the reviewer is in complete 
accord. For example: "The popular 
consensus is heavy on accuracy at 
long ranges — 40 yards and beyond. 
But speaking from personal cxperi- 



29 



ence, I have gotten most of my shots 
well under that range: 20 to 25 yards 
is about average, so I feel being able 
to place arrows in an 8-inch circle at 
that distance is an able beginning." 
En accord! Provided, of course, that 
practice is carried out at various 
ranges out to 25 accurate, measured 
yards. 

The final chapter, on "Carcass 
Care,' 1 is simply excellent. Strung 
tells, and shows by clear illustrations, 
how you can easily butcher your deer. 
The author also includes several 
recipes, which are just about worth 
the price of the book alone. Conclud- 
ing with a number of uses for what 
are all too often considered by-prod- 
ucts of a successful hunt, "Horns, 
Hooves, and Hides," Strung wraps up 
his book covering the hunting of deer 
in North America in admirable fash- 
ion. 

Out of the yearly crop, probably 
only one or two books out of five on 
the subject are worth reading (assum- 
ing that you have already read one 
and been deer hunting twice). DEER 
HUNTING by Norman Strung is 
worth reading — just don't expect 
much specific advice on Georgia 
piney-woods hunting. If your are well 
read on the subject of deer manage- 
ment, and are a fairly experienced 
deer hunter, you will not find much 
new, but the few tid-bits that you do 
come across are well worth the effort, 
and we all can periodically stand a 
bit of review. 

—BW 



DICTIONARY OF SHARKS, by 
Patricia Pope, Great Outdoors Pub- 
lishing Co., 88 pages, $1.95 (paper- 
bound ). 

Whoever said "you can't tell a 
book by its cover" knew what he 
was talking about. While the cover 
of DICTIONARY OF SHARKS de- 
cidedly resembles a coloring book, 
the inside reveals a surprising amount 
of information. A guide to the identi- 
fying characteristics, size, color, and 
range of over 125 species of sharks. 
Hi text is well illustrated and re- 
searched. 

Shark fishing, while a rather un- 
proclaimcd sport, is explored in de- 
t; 1 1 in the book. Aspects such as cost 



and equipment, techniques and meth- 
ods of shark fishing are covered. Fillet 
of shark? It may not be as strange as 
it sounds. The next time you think 
you are eating swordfish or cod from 
your local grocery store, you may ac- 
tually be eating shark. Many countries 
consider shark a delicacy, and Patricia 
Pope provides some quite interesting 
recipes in her book. 

DICTIONARY OF SHARKS ex- 
plains how sharks find food without 
the help of sight, sound, or scent. It 
outlines various experiments which 
show what types of stimulus provoke 
the shark's hunting activity and at 
what range. An excellent section en- 
titled "The Shark As An Aggressor" 
examines some of the species of 
sharks which are considered danger- 
ous and exposes different theories on 
what prompts a shark to attack. Also 
in this section are methods of dis- 
couraging the aggressive shark. 

This book certainly will not alien- 
ate the reader by being too tech- 
nical or scientific; it is written on an 
almost elementary level. Nonetheless, 
DICTIONARY OF SHARKS claims 
to be a book for the layman, and it is. 
— Tina Carlson 



Outdoor 
World 



DANGEROUS LEVELS OF 
MERCURY FOUND IN RAILS 

High mercury residues may be 
found in some rails (marsh hens) shot 
in the Brunswick area of the Turtle 
River-Brunswick River reach north 
of the Sidney Lanier Bridge making 
the birds unsafe for human consump- 
tion. Several years ago high levels of 
mercury were found in crabs and fish 
in the same area. 

"About a year ago we became 
aware of the high mercury residues 
found in rails (marsh hens) taken by 
hunters in the Brunswick area," .lack 
Crock ford. Director of the Game and 



Fish Division of the Department 
Natural Resources said. "In coope 
tion with the Environmental Prot< 
tion Division we did sampling stud 
on rails (marsh hens) and found tl 
high mercury residues apparently ; 
limited to birds taken in the Tur , 
River-Brunswick area, north of i 
Sidney Lanier Bridge." 

R. S. "Rock" Howard, Director 
the Environmental Protection Divisi 
of the Department, said "the h 
mercury residues found in the sa 
plings of some rails shot in the Bru 
wick area last year were definit 
above what is considered safe for 1 
man consumption. The U.S. Food e 
Drug Administration has specif 
that foods containing in excess of i ' 
mg/1 (or parts per million) are i 
safe for human consumption. So 
rails (marsh hens) tested in the re< 
north of the Sidney Lanier Brii j 
contained mercury levels as high 
1 1 mg/1 (or parts per million)." 

Crockford suggested that hunt 
of the rails (marsh hens) do their hu 1 
ing in other coastal areas. 

—Karen H. Strt I 

STORING AND PROCESSING 
YOUR DEER 

It is an unfortunate circumsta 
of nature that most lucky dr 
hunters bag their quarry at unusii 
hours and often many miles fr> 
home. The successful hunter is 1 
mediately faced with the chores j 
field dressing the carcass; lugging 
back to his car and getting the skin c 
the deer. Now he must set out to 1 r 
a facility to further render his a^ ' 
ward burden into edible portions i 
steaks, chops, roasts, etc. 

The next recommended step 
aging the carcass in a meat coolei j 
32-35 degrees for around a wc 
and then having it butchered 
specifications. Unless our hunter i 
butcher himself and/or has acces: 
a meat cooler, he must find as i 
tance to complete the process. 1 
this time the hunter is working aga rj 
the time limit imposed by meat spip 
age which can cheat him out of ft 
hard-won venison. 

In most cases, the hunter must : 
on a commercial meat processing f 
cility for the equipment and ad" i< 



tecessary to best prepare his meat. 

Tiere he can find out how long his 

nin.il should be aged and secure 

he services of professional meat cut- 

;rs who will butcher the carcass 

ith minimum waste. Since these fa- 

ilities process commercial meat, they 

i lust stay within the standards im- 

I osed by governmental inspection 

agencies regarding the storage and 

qrocessing of wild meat. 

Federal regulations apply in those 
:^ants inspected by USD A: 
Storage — carcass should be cov- 
ered with plastic or some other 
protective material but the hide 
need not be removed. The car- 
cass should be reasonably clean 
and free of dried blood, parasites, 
and trash. 

Processing — the carcass cannot 
be processed at the same time as 
commercial (inspected) meat, 
ite regulations are in effect at those 
ants inspected by the State Depart- 
;nt of Agriculture Meat Inspection 
vision: 

Storage — the carcass should be 
reasonably clean and hung out of 
contact with other carcasses and 
identified. 

Processing — the carcass can not 
be processed at the same time as 
:ommercial (inspected) meat or 
with the same equipment unless the 
equipment is cleaned after process- 
ng wild meat. Meat should be 
packaged and labeled "For Home 
Jse." This is done on a custom 
)asis under the same requirements 
is those for farm slaughtered 

!lomestic animals, 
i at markets and butchers are regu- 
d by the Consumer Protection 
ision. State Department of Agri- 
.1 ure: 

■ "he carcass must be fully dressed 
hen brought in and equipment 

| I lust be cleaned after processing 

■ his is done on a custom basis and 
neat is stamped "For Home Use." 

11 wild meat is processed at any 
-' ity at the operator's discretion. 
; <- does cause considerable trouble. 
Ijw 't be surprised if the cost is 
' I n high and some operators re- 
< to handle wild meat at all. The 
ls bet is to locate one processor 
*< has several other deer on hand 



and can economically run the whole 
lot at once. Always remember the 
processor is doing you a favor when 
he handles your venison. 

— Aaron Pass 

GEORGIA CHAPTER OF 
WILDLIFE SOCIETY FORMED 

Amid the current proliferation of 
conservation/environmental groups, 
the formation of yet another one 
might not seem especially newsworthy 
except in a case of special interest or 
merit. Such is exactly the case of the 
recently formed Georgia Chapter of 
The Wildlife Society which was or- 
ganized at Brunswick in late August. 
The field of interest, the type of mem- 
bership, and the national affiliation of 
this. group makes it unique among the 
currently active conservation groups 
and clubs in the state. 

The main interest area of the Wild- 
life Society Chapter is naturally 
enough, wildlife, an interest which is 
fed and fostered by a membership 
consisting of professional wildlife 
managers. Members of the Chapter in- 
clude representatives of such agencies 
as: The Department of Natural Re- 
sources, Game and Fish Division, 
U.S. Forest Service, U.S. Fish and 
Wildlife Service, U.S. Army, Univer- 
sity of Georgia, and the University of 
Georgia Extension Service. The Geor- 
gia Chapter will be chartered by The 
Wildlife Society, an international pro- 
fessional association specializing in 
wildlife conservation, management. 
and enhancement. 

The fledgling Georgia Chapter met 
at Brunswick Junior College to elect 
officers, establish standing committees 
and to discuss Chapter goals. The offi- 
cers are: Bob Ernst (Game & Fish), 
President; Duff Holbrook (U.S. Forest 
Service). President-elect; John Obcr- 
heu (Fish & Wildlife Service), Secre- 
tary; Joe Kurz (Game & Fish), Trea- 
surer; and Board members. Ron 
Simpson (Game & Fish) and Dr. 
Larry Marchington (U.Ga.). Commit- 
tees include: Program. Public Rela- 
tions, Non-game. Game, and Environ- 
mental issues. 

Besides the standing objectives of 
The Wildlife Societ) to promote sound 
stewardship of, prevent man-induced 
damage to, and to increase awareness 



and appreciation of our wildlife re- 
sources, the Georgia Chapter has 
adopted several goals of its own. Ac- 
cording to President Ernst, "We feel 
the most important roles of this Chap- 
ter to be providing a base o\' inter- 
agency support on environmental mat- 
ters and to promote knowledgeable 
professional management of the wild- 
life resource. We also plan to identify, 
professionally examine and officially 
comment on current environmental 
issues and provide a fund of knowl- 
edge available to other conservation 
groups on wildlife matters."' 

The meeting at Brunswick included 
a one day field trip to Sapelo Island to 
observe activities on the R. J. Rey- 
nolds Wildlife Refuge. 

— Aaron Pass 



FOREST FIRMS LIST CONTACTS 
FOR HUNTING PERMISSION 

Finding land on which he can ob- 
tain permission to hunt is perhaps the 
major problem facing today's sports- 
man. Permission to hunt on private 
lands is difficult to obtain, but perhaps 
even more difficult is finding the ow ner 
of the land to ask permission. 

Many of The forest industries in 
Georgia have vast acreages of land 
which they allow hunters to use if per- 
mission is requested. In fact, more 
than three million acres of industry- 
owned land are open in Georgia each 
year, by permission. 

The Georgia Department of Na- 
tural Resources, as a public service, 
has provided a list oi forest industries 
to aid sportsmen in obtaining permis- 
sion to hunt. The list was compiled 
in cooperation with the Southern For- 
est Institute, an association of wood- 
using industries in the Southeast. 
Hunters are urged to respect the own- 
ers' property and to abide by any 
company rules. 

I he Department, in publishing this 
list, does not guarantee that hunting 
privileges will be granted by any com- 
panies or on any lands. The list is pro- 
vided to inform hunters who they 
should contact to request permission 
to hunt on the lands owned by the 
various companies. The Department 
also reminds hunters that they must 
have the permission of any landowner. 



31 



including forest industries, before 
hunting. 

No information is available from 
the Department as to the location of 
any lands of any of the companies. 
Maps of these lands are available from 
some of the companies. 

Contacts of the various companies 
to request information and hunting 
privileges are: 

Georgia Kraft Co., Wood and 
Woodlands Division, P.O. 1551, 
Rome, Ga. 30161; also district man- 
agers, W. J. Rowston, P.O. Box 103, 
Coosa, Ga. 30129; T. A. Gresham, 
P.O. Box 272, Gainesville, Ga. 30501 ; 
Paul L. Lawrence, Rt. 6, Box 287. 
Macon, Ga. 31201; J. H. Colson, 625 
West Taylor St., Griffin, Ga. 30223; 
and W. G. Carson, Oconee Develop- 
ment Forest, Greensboro, Ga. 30642. 

Container Corporation of America, 
Paper Mill Division, North Eight St., 
Fernandina Beach, Fla. 32034; also 
Ed Mathews, Area Forester, Con- 
tainer Corp. of America, Waycross 
Area Headquarters, Box 887, Way- 
cross, Ga. 31501; Walt Branyan, Area 
Forester, Container Corp. of America, 
McRae Area Headquarters, P.O. Box 
237, McRae, Ga. 31055; Ed Pope, 
Area Forester, Container Corp. of 
America, Cusseta Area Headquarters, 
P.O. Box 58, Richland, Ga. 31825. 

Gilman Paper Co., St. Mary's Kraft 
Division, St. Marys, Ga. 31558; also, 
J. G. Fendig, Manager, Timber Divi- 
sion, Gilman Paper Co., St. Mary's 
Kraft Division, St. Marys, Ga. 31558. 

International Paper Co., George- 
town, S.C. 29440; also Harold M. 
Phillips, Area Superintendent, P.O. 
Box A, Richmond Hill, Ga. 31324; 
David Warren, Forest Wildlife Spe- 
cialist for the Panama City Region, 
P.O. Box 2487, Panama City, Fla. 
32401. 

ITT Rayonier Inc., P.O. Box 528, 
Jesup, Ga. 31545; also, Thomas E. 
Evans, Area Supervisor, ITT Ray- 
onier, Inc., Eastman, Ga. 31023; 
Luke H. Morgan, Area Supervisor, 
Supervisor, ITT Rayonier, Inc., 
Swainsboro, Ga.; Marvin F. Williams, 
Area Supervisor, ITT Rayonier, Inc., 
Waycross, Ga. 31501; W. J. Menear, 
Jr., Area Supervisor, ITT Rayonier, 
Inc., Swainsboro, Ga.; Slen C. Camp- 
bell, Area Supervisor, ITT Rayonier, 
'up, Ga. 31545. 



Union Camp Corp., George Gehr- 
ken, Woodlands Division, P.O. Box 
570, Savannah, Ga. 31402. 

Brunswick Pulp and Paper Co., H. 
Glenroy Dowdy, Land Manager, 
Brunswick, Ga. 31521. 

Great Northern Paper Co., Mr. An- 
derson, Timberlands Manager, P.O. 
Box 44, Cedar Springs, Ga. 31732. 

Outdoor 
Calendar 




HUNTING SEASONS 

Deer Archery — The open season for 
hunting deer with bow and arrow 
in Game Zones I, la, II, III, IV and 
V, shall be from September 29 through 
October 27, 1973, in any county, or 
part thereof, having a legal firearms 
deer season. Bag limit is two (2) bucks 
or one (1) buck and one (1) doe. 
Hunting with dogs prohibited except 
in such areas and during such times 
as it may be legal under firearms hunt- 
ing regulations. 

The open season for hunting deer 
with bow and arrow in Game Zone 
VI shall be from September 29 
through October 19, 1973, in any 
county, or part thereof having a legal 
firearms deer season. Bag limit is two 
(2) bucks or one (1) buck and one (1) 
doe. Hunting with dogs prohibited. 

Notice: Archery equipment may be 
used during firearms hunts, however, 
all hunters must abide by firearms 
regulations as to bag limits. 

Deer Firearms Seasons 

GAME ZONE V: October 20, 
1973 through January 1, 1974 in the 
following counties: Clinch County, 
except that portion lying in the south- 
west corner of the County, bordered 
on the north by the Seaboard Coast- 
line Railroad and on the east by Su- 
wannoochee Creek, and except that 
portion lying north of Arabia Bay 



Wildlife Area and between U.S. H 
way 221 and U.S. Highway A 
which exceptions are closed: Eel 
County east of U.S. Highway 129 
south of Georgia Highway 187; 
Lanier County north of the Seabc 
Coastline Railroad and east of 
Alapaha River and southeast of 1 
Highway 221. Bag limit two 
bucks. Hunting with dogs allowec 
October 20 through November 
1973 in Ware County, except 
portion lying north of U.S. 82 
those portions lying within the ou 
most boundaries of Waycross S 
Forest WMA, which are closed 
deer hunting. Bag limit two (2) bu 
Hunting with dogs allowed. 

GAME ZONE VI: October 
1973 through January 1, 1974. 
counties in Game Zone VI will 
open with the following excepti' 
that portion of Charlton County 1; 
northwest of the Okefenokee Swa 
which is closed; that portion of PI 
County lying west of U.S. #82 
Pleasant Hill Church Road; that 
tion of Pierce County lying in 
northeast corner bounded on the i 
by U.S. #82 and on the south 
Ga. #32, and that portion of Pi 
County lying in the southeast co 
bounded on the east by Ga. #15 
on the west by U.S. #82, which 
closed; that portion of Wayne Coi 




lying west of Jesup which is bour jl 
on the north by Ga. #169 and or k 
south by U.S. #82. which is clcfcj. 
Bag limit two (2) bucks. Hunting k 
dogs allowed. 

The marshes and islands lying : t 
of the Intercoastal Waterway in Br ; . 
Camden. Chatham, Liberty and 4- 
Intosh Counties will be open for V. 
taking of deer of either sex on Oct' b 
20 through January 1 , 1 974. Bag 1 rt- 
two (2) bucks or one ( 1 ) buck and ofe 
(1) doe. Hunting with dogs alio' c 
however, Sapelo and Blackbearc - 






lands are closed to all hunting except 
as otherwise specifically provided. 

Fox — There shall be no closed sea- 
son on the taking of fox. 
It shall be unlawful for any person 

take or attempt to take any fox, 
vithin the State, by use or aid of re- 
corded calls or sounds or recorded or 
lectronically amplified imitations of 
alls or sounds. 

irouse — October 13, 1973 through 
-ebruary 28, 1974. Bag limit three 
3) daily; possession limit six (6). 

Vild hogs — Hogs are considered non- 
; ame animals in Georgia. They are 
i :gally the property of the land owner, 
;nd cannot be hunted without his 
1 ermission, except on public lands. 
1 irearms are limited to shotguns with 
1 fumber 4 shot or smaller, .22 rimfire 
li fles, centerfire rifles with bore diam- 
jk :er .257 or smaller, the .30 cal. Army 
arbine, the .32/20, all caliber pis- 
Is, muzzle loading firearms and bows 
id arrows. 

( possum — October 13, 1973 through 
ebruary 28, 1974 in Carroll, Ful- 
n, DeKalb, Gwinnett, Barrow, Jack- 
in, Madison, Elbert and all counties 

f )rth of those listed. No bag limit. 

' ight hunting allowed. All counties 

i uth of the above named counties 
e open year round for the taking 
possum. No bag limit. Night hunt- 
l allowed. 

^ccoon — October 13, 1973 through 
: bruary 28, 1974 in Carroll, Fulton, 
> :Kalb, Gwinnett, Barrow, Jackson, 
4 idison, Elbert and all counties north 

1 those listed. Bag limit one (1) per 
i;ht per person. Night hunting al- 

ved. All counties south of the above 
• med counties are open year round 
the taking of raccoon. No bag 
nit. Night hunting allowed. 



I H (Marsh Hens): September 10 
t ough November 18. King and clap- 
e rail daily bag limit 15, possession 
W it 30, singly or in aggregate. Vir- 
' ia and sora rail daily bag limit 25, 
c session limit 25, singly or in ag- 



. 



gregate. Legal shooting hours will be 
30 minutes before sunrise until sun- 
set. 

Dove: Georgia has been divided into 
two zones for the coming dove season 
by a line formed by U.S. 80 from 
Columbus to Macon, Ga. 49 from 
Macon to Milledgeville, Ga. 22 from 
Milledgeville to Sparta, Ga. 16 from 
Sparta to Warrenton, U.S. 278 from 
Warrenton to Augusta. 

Northern Zone: September 8 
through October 27, and December 
15 through January 3. 

Southern Zone: September 29 
through October 27, and December 
6 through January 15. 

Daily bag limit 12, possession limit 
24. Legal shooting hours will be from 
12 noon until sunset. 

Ducks: December 6 through January 
19. Daily bag limit 5, possession limit 
10. Daily bag may not include more 
than 1 black duck with 2 in possession 
and 2 wood ducks with 4 in posses- 
sion. Season is closed on canvasback 
and redhead ducks, brant and geese. 
Legal shooting hours will be 30 min- 
utes before sunrise until sunset. 



Kxtra Scaup Limit: In addition to the 
scaup which may be taken in the 
regular duck season daily bag, an 
extra 2 scaup daily with 4 in posses- 
sion will be allowed on the east (sea- 
ward) side of the Intracoastal Water- 
way in Chatham, Bryan, Liberty, Mc- 
intosh, Glynn and Camden counties. 

Coots: December 6 through January 
19. Daily bag limit 15, possession 
limit 30. Legal shooting hours will be 
30 minutes before sunrise until sunset. 

Gallinules: November 1 2 through 
January 19. Daily bag limit 15, pos- 
session limit 30. Legal shooting hours 
will be 30 minutes before sunrise until 

sunset. 

Mergansers: December 6 through Jan- 
uary 19. Daily"bag limit 5, possession 
limit 10. Not more than 1 daily and 2 
in possession may be hooded mergan- 
sers. Legal shooting hours will be 30 
minutes before sunrise until sunset. 
In addition to the required State 
licenses, each person, 16 years of age 
or older, who hunts waterfowl must 
possess a valid Federal Migratory 
Bird Hunting Stamp, available from 
most U.S. Post Offices. 



Outdoors 

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10 73 



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- 





Jimmy Carter 
Governor 



BOARD OF 
NATURAL RESOURCES 

James Darby 

Chairman 

Vidalia— 1st District 

William Z. Camp, Sec. 
Newnan— 6th District 

Leo T. Barber, Jr. 
Moultrie— 2nd District 

Dr. Robert A. Collins, Jr. 
Americus— 3rd District 

George P. Dillard 
Decatur— 4th District 

Rankin M. Smith 
Atlanta-5th District 

Leonard E. Foote 
Marietta— 7th District 

Henry S. Bishop 
Alma— 8th District 

Clyde Dixon 
Cleveland-9th District 

Leonard Bassford 
Augusta— 10th District 

Jimmie Williamson 
Darien— Coastal District 

Donald J. Carter 
Gainesville— State at Large 

Wade H. Coleman 
Valdosta— State at Large 

James D. Cone 
Decatur— State at Large 

A. Calhoun Todd, Jr. 
Macon— State at Large 



EARTH AND WATER DIVISION 
Sam M. Pickering, Jr., Director 

ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION DIVISION 
R. S. Howard, Jr., Director 

GAME AND FISH DIVISION 
Jack Crockford, Director 

PARKS AND HISTORIC SITES DIVISION 
Henry D. Struble, Director 

E OF PLANNING AND RESEARCH 
h Director 

;STRATIVE SERVICES 

• - i C'lrector 

AND 
SECTION 

"hief 






Department of Natural Resources 



Joe D. Tanner 



George T. Bagby 



Commissioner Deputy Commissioner 

FEATURES 

Mackerel! T. Craig Martin 2 

The Trouble With Turkeys Aaron Pass 6 

Wildlife Profiles: Whitetailed Deer . . Aaron Pass 1 1 

Georgia's Portrait from Space . . Sam Pickering 

and 
Bill Morehead 15 

Conservation Ranger Districts 26 

Big Deer Contest-1 972-73 Aaron Pass 28 

DEPARTMENTS 

Outdoor World 30 

Book Reviews 30 

Outdoor Calendar 31 



ON THE COVER: Robert Christie, whose painting "My Two Favorites" appeared 
on the cover of the October, 1972, issue of Outdoors in Georgia, produced this 
portrait showing Augustus of Rivers, National Champion Brittany owned by Jim 
White of Atlanta. Christie will have large prints of this month's cover "Gus and 
Blue Down Home," available from Backtrail Gallery, 3133 Maple Drive, Atlanta, 
Georgia 30305. Prints of the October, 1972, cover are also available. 



Outdoors 



ii> georgia 



November, 1973 Volume II Number 1 1 

Outdoors in Georgia is the official monthly magazine of the Georgia Department 
of Natural Resources, published at the Department's offices, Trinity-Washington 
Building, 270 Washington Street, Atlanta, Georgia 30334. No advertising accepted. 
Subscriptions are $3 for one year or $6 for three years. Printed by Williams 
Printing Company, Atlanta, Georgia. Notification of address change must include 
old address label from a recent magazine, new address and ZIP code, with 60 days 
notice. No subscription requests will be accepted without ZIP code. Articles and 
photographs may be reprinted when proper credit given. Contributions are wel- 
come, but the editors assume no responsibility or liability for loss or damage of 
articles, photographs, or illustrations. Second-class postage paid at Atlanta, Georgia. 

MAGAZINE STAFF 

Phone 656-3530 

H. E. (Bud) Van Orden 
Editor-in-Chief 

Bob Wilson Editor Dick Davis Staff Writer 

Liz Carmichael Jones . . . Art Director Aaron Pass Staff Writer 

Jim Couch . . . . Staff Photographer T. Craig Martin Staff Writer 

Bob Busby .... Staff Photographer Karen H. Stroud Staff Writer 

Linda Leggett . . Circulation Manager Joe Cullens Staff Writer 




EDITORIAL 



Life Worth Saving . . . 



YOURS! Roll that thought over in your mind 

( r a minute and then let's talk about it. Last fall 

thought a few words of caution to some out- 

i>orsmen were in order, so I asked hunters to be 
urteous of others while in the woods and to 
How common sense hunting rules. I was hop- 
g to encourage all hunters to develop and prac- 
e a code of ethics. Some hunters paid no heed 
these remarks — they shot at noises, moving 

ishes and what they thought was a deer. They 
ot without verifying their target — because of 
s reckless action, 13 hunters were killed, yet, 
1 their lives were worth saving. 
We talked about fishing, boating and swim- 
i ng accidents, and in June of this year, I made 
r 3ther plea for the practice of common sense 
i es of water safety. In July, I shared a scene of 
; ragic accident but all to no avail; for by the 
h I of the Labor Day weekend, 1 34 persons had 



become victims of careless, needless water- 
related accidents. Their lives too, were worth 
saving. 

The cycle has started again. Hunting season is 
now open and water enthusiasts can hardly wait 
till spring. But must the same accident-filled 
cycle repeat itself again? I think not. Lest you 
become one of this year's statistics, it would be- 
hoove us all to concern ourselves with safety in 
the outdoor world. 

I like to think that my life is worth saving so 
that I can enjoy whatever the future holds; but 
my life in the out-of-doors depends on you and 
how you practice safety and obey common sense 
rules when enjoying your favorite outdoor sport. 
Likewise, your safety might very well depend on 
me. So I ask you quite candidly, is your life 
worth saving? Mine is, so be careful, and I'll 
extend the same courtesy to you. 




-&Zu/ dZL/t*S 



Mackerel! 



By T. Craig Martin 

Photos by the Author 




^ 



V 



/** 



ITThe late Ray Bergman once did a piece on 
Ualanced tackle," and in it he offered a wise 
i d reasonable guideline : "Your personal tem- 
j'Mrament and requirements should guide you." 
•tehing for Spanish mackerel off Georgia's coast 
uautifully illustrates the good sense in Berg- 
en's suggestion. 
^ j TTraditional sportfishing for mackerel requires 
trustworthy, if undistinguished, outboard boat 
I r, d general-purpose saltwater tackle. Finding 
£»P- fish involves little sophistication — indeed* 
U technique differs not at all from our ancts 
> s': cruise out beyond the sea buoy, then watch 



for diving gulls. Once the gulls are spotted,«l 
boat rushes over, perhaps to find a school of 
mackerel thrashing the surface as it preys on 
baitfish. Small spoons are trolled through th( 
school, often hooking a fish on every lure. 

The tradition also emphasizes quantity: the 
more fish brought to the dock, the "better" the 
day, as if somehow the quality of the sport can 
be measured by the quantity of the catch. 

In effect, then, this is a balanced combination 
of perspective, tackle, and technique, for the 
fairly heavy gear and trolling style combine to 
maximize the catch. And this is a very practical 







approach to fishing, since it allows the saltwater 
man to use essentially the same gear for speckled 
trout and sheepshead one day and for channel 
bass or mackerel the next. 

The rather stiff rod and 30 or 40-pound line 
make quick work of the one to seven pound 
mackerel; but that's just as well, for the mack- 
erel are fickle, and the school may sound at any 
time, to disappear then inexplicably reappear 
anywhere from a quarter of a mile to three or 
four miles from the boat. If a full ice chest is the 
standard for a good day's fishing, then the fish 
must be snatched in as quickly as possible. 

This can be hectic and exciting sport. The 

gulls circling and diving all around the trolling 

boat shriek in delight and anger and frustration; 

waves seem alive with the hiss and splash of 

im predators and hysterical prey. In every 



direction the smooth tumble of the wave 
slashed by the leaping, gleaming, mack< 
Again and again the cry goes up: "fish < 
"fish on," "fish on." Often those rods carrie 
fight cobia or drum or channel bass hardly ar 
a grunting angler cranks his fish over the to 
the water and flips him into the boat. But th< 
action enough for everyone, and the cooler 
quickly. 

Another view of "balance," however, 
gests that the tackle should be matched with 
fish; that is, heavy gear for large fish or re 
conditions, light gear for smaller quarry. In 
view, the small mackerel should be pursued ' 
light tackle. 

To fish with light tackle, however, reqi 
prior understandings with the guide and ' 
the other members of the party. Trolling ca 
accomplished with "lighter" lines — 10-pc 
test probably is the minimum — but will inv 
some frustration and tangled lines. And the 
will have to be stopped for the light tackl 
haul in hooked fish. Thus the guide will ha\ 



is 

> 
to 

as 

31 

"s 

Is 

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ie 
ih 
is 

th 

s 

th 
)e 
,id 
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at 
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to 




gree to special conditions. The other fishermen 
will have to agree as well, for two lines are 
;boLt all that can be handled without recurring 
I ingles, and that means there'll have to be some 
nrt of shift set up for the party. But a friendly 
;nd companionable guide such as you would 
t xpect to find on the Georgia coast usually will 
tgree to help, and a little care in the selection of 
shing partners will smooth that problem. 
The bold step is to move down to ultra-light 
= >ar, say 4-pound line on a buggy-whip rod. 
1 his is, perhaps, the perfect rig for sporty mack- 
el fishing: light enough to offer a challenge to 
e fisherman, strong enough to minimize the 
< ss of fish. Using this light gear, however, re- 
hires further adjustments: trolling just won't 
\ >rk, for the initial strike usually will snap the 
1 i ;ht line, and the rod isn't built to take con- 
i mous strain. So the guide must spot the fish, 
t en race over into position just ahead of the 
ihool and stop dead in the water. If he's pre- 
l cted accurately, short casts with silver spoons 
> yellow or white jigs will bring fast action from 
Ire hungry mackerel. A landing net is a great 
lp with light tackle, for the line can easily 
rap as the struggling fish is brought over the 
nwale. A wire leader is mandatory, for mack- 
i ;1 sport mouths full of very sharp teeth. 



Anglers using this light tackle approach 
aren't as likely to fill an ice chest, for the overall 
balance probably tilts in favor of the fish. It is 
hard to pinpoint the school's movement to get 
the boat in position, and it is difficult to manipu- 
late the lure realistically. And, finally, it requires 
pretty fair skill to boat one of these sleek, power- 
ful fish on light line; the battle takes time and 
patience. The emphasis here is not so much on 
quantity as on the quality of the battle, on the 
challenge involved in meeting the foe on equal 
terms, sometimes to win, sometimes to lose. 
Some would argue that the fillets taste better 
after a long battle, but there's not likely to be 
objective evidence either way. 

"Balanced tackle," then, means something 
more than the right line matched with appro- 
priate rod, reel, and terminal gear. It means 
gear matched to the quarry, and more impor- 
tant, to the angler. Each of these approaches to 
Georgia's Spanish mackerel offers its own re- 
wards; trolling with heavier gear leads to fast 
action and many fillets, casting with light gear 
offers maximum involvement and a challenge to 
the fisherman. And that is why Bergman's ad- 
vice makes sense: since the mackerel seem to 
show little preference, the angler can choose 
tackle and style of pursuit to suit himself. 




The Trouble 



By Aaron Pass 



The regal wild turkey has made 
quite an impression on America. The 
traditional turkey on the Thanksgiving 
table is undiluted testimony of the 
importance of this grand bird to the 
early white settlers. Earlier than that, 
archaeological evidence indicates that 
the wild turkey was extremely im- 
portant to prehistoric North American 
Indians, both as a food source and as 
a cultural influence on the Indian way 
of life, which included the turkey and 
other creatures of the forest in a na- 
tural brotherhood. 

Turkeys were, in those days, quite 
plentiful in our eastern forests. Old 
diaries and journals of the time fre- 
quently refer to the large flocks of tur- 
key and note their importance as a 
source of food. It was unthinkable 
that this great natural bounty could 
ever be destroyed, but within a very 
short time it almost was. 

The unfortunate human character- 
istic of extreme wastefulness in the 
presence of extreme abundance was 
the death knell for the eastern wild 
turkey. The forest which harbored the 
turkeys and other wildlife was cleared 
for farms. Lumbering became a great 
industry and more forests fell before 
the axe to fuel the fire of progress. 
Large cities sprang up and with them 
a demand for tasty wild meat, which 
was no longer available close to town. 
Uncontrolled market hunting sent 
v-agonloads of game to the cities dur- 
this period, and further decimated 
ild turkey flocks, 
laps there were some conscien- 



with Turkey, 



tious individuals, probably the market 
hunters themselves, who noted the 
growing scarcity of wild turkeys. May- 
be they even gave some warning. If 
so, it was ignored. 

The American population, no 
longer starving settlers, had a great 
mission — the development of a new 
land. "The wild turkey? We now have 
flocks and fields to feed us, why bother 
with this anachronism of our frontier 
past? Let us get about the business of 
taming this land." And they did, and 
the turkey almost perished; almost 
perished, but not quite. A few scat- 
tered remnants of the formerly vast 
eastern wild turkey population hung 
on. These little flocks were located 
in the most remote river swamps or 
most rugged mountain terrain that 
was just too inaccessible to log, farm 
or do anything else with. It is from 
these few survivors that today's wild 
turkey population has been rebuilt. 

It is another human characteristic 
that a thing's true value is seldom 
realized until it is lost. So it was with 
turkeys. The wild turkey had hardly 
disappeared from its depleted range 
when the first attempts were made to 
restore this great resource that had so 
recently been wasted. The first at- 
tempts were largely unsuccessful due 
to a lack of basic knowledge about the 
turkey and his needs. Great emphasis 
was placed on the propagation and re- 
lease of pen-reared turkeys but little 
attention was given to the cut-over, 
burncd-up, farmed-out habitat that 
had lost its capacity to support tur- 



keys. The reliance on game farr 
produce turkeys was also a mis 
since this process destroyed the e 
tial elements of wildness in 
bird's character. These semi 
game farm birds seldom sur 
even in good habitat and where 
unfortunately did survive, they 
luted the existing wild stock wit! 
mestice traits. This infusion of 
stock led to the loss of many o 
remaining wild flocks. 

Eventually, the evolving scien< 
wildlife management was applie 
the turkey problem. This, col 
with the natural regeneration ol 
forest, finally led to some success 
turkey management. The program 
financed by the Pittman-Robei 
Act of 1937 which taxed spo 
arms and ammunition and appliec 
money directly to wildlife restora 
It was generally agreed to cease 
use of semi-domestic game farm b 
to stock only suitable habitat, an 
furnish a high degree of protectic 
new turkey populations. The app 
tion of this program by knowledge 
wildlife managers is the primary 
son for the recent comeback of 
eastern wild turkey in several so 
eastern states. 

The wild turkey will never a 
reach, or even rival, its former al 
dance. The great flocks of turkey 
often reported in old diaries are 
and gone forever, blown away b> 
winds of change. The face of the 
and the population of the country 1 
so irrevocably changed that moi 



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onditions preclude a comeback of 
uch magnitude. On the other hand, 
here are many remaining areas of 
uita'ile habitat where turkeys could 
€ brought back in some abundance, 
: other modern challenges can be 
vercome. 

Wild turkeys are difficult birds to 

lanage, even for professional wildlife 

iologists. We know a great deal about 

\ l lis large bird, but not enough to have 

; 11 the answers. Turkeys seem to be 

t mperamental and may not even re- 

s )ond to apparently ideal conditions. 

( >n the other hand, they occasionally 

c d well in areas quite unlike the text- 

t iok ideal. It is this inconsistency that 



discourages many wildlife managers 
who are used to quick and predictable 
results from some other wildlife spe- 
cies, such as the whitetailed deer. 
Some failures are to be expected 
when dealing with a very sensitive 
species, which is another discouraging 
feature of turkey management pro- 
grams. 

In the matter of habitat, turkeys 
usually have predictable and fairly 
exacting requirements. They usually 
require large tracts of mature forest, 
made up primarily of hardwood spe- 
cies, where human intrusion is infre- 
quent and temporary. Adequate water 
is necessary, and scattered small open- 



ings for insect hunting are needed for 
good poult production. 

■Another habitat type favorable to 
turkeys is mature forest interspersed 
with pasture land. Tims, under some 
circumstances, cattle ranching can be 
compatible with turkey management. 
Today's world is obviously not brim- 
ming over with large hardwood wilder- 
ness areas, but it is felt that existing 
habitat could support more turkeys if 
other limiting factors could be con- 
trolled. 

The southern forest industry has 
thus far been quite beneficial to the 
turkey comeback. As the human popu- 
lation shifted to urban centers, much 



Photo by Aaron Pass 




former cropland was left idle. This 
land was acquired for timber produc- 
tion and allowed to become a mature 
forest, which is ideal turkey habitat. 
So far so good; but the present de- 
mand is for paper products rather 
than saw timber and many forests are 
cut on a short term pulpwood rotation 
that never allows the forest to com- 
pletely mature. This, coupled with the 
increasing planting of the efficient pine 
tree has led to a woodland policy 
which encourages timber stand con- 
version to solid tracts of pines. A 
pure pine stand on short rotation is 
poor habit for any wildlife and dis- 
astrous for turkeys. 

Dams and channels, although they 
perform exactly opposite functions, 
are equally destructive to the very pro- 
ductive river-bottom swamps, which 
are often ideal turkey habitat. Nor- 
mally forested in mature hardwood 
timber, these areas are vast and un- 
disturbed enough to suit the turkey's 
solitary needs. These river-bottom 
hardwood swamps have historically 
served as sanctuaries for wildlife and 
the best turkey populations in the 
state are found in these areas. When 
such an area is inundated by a reser- 
voir behind a dam, or channeled and 
drained for new cropland, the turkeys 
lose suitable habitat. 

Habitat loss to urban expansion is 
another of the turkey's acute modern 
problems. Good turkey areas often are 
destroyed for no real reason beyond 
the ignorance of the fact that they 
are good areas. Equally often such 
areas are lost due to bureaucratic 
blindness that refuses to admit that 
there might be a better way or a better 
place to develop. To offset such mal- 
adies the implementation of a state- 
wide land use planning system is 
needed. By the integration of profes- 
sional expertise from wildlife man- 
agers with an inventory of existing 
wildlife hab'itats into the initial plan- 
ning processes of roads and urban 
expansion we could avoid much need- 
less waste. 

Aside from these habitat problems, 
the wild turkey's basic problem is 
people. The turkey is an intelligent, 
rugged wildlife species that can ade- 
quately cope with the natural forces 
:se and predation. It is un- 
il problems imposed by the hu- 



sm 




Photos by Aaron Pass 



As more and more people turn to our wild areas for recrea ! | 
there are inevitable conflicts. These trail hiker/hunters, by i 1 
very presence, cause a disturbance that is intolerable 

wild turkey popula 



This pure pine stand is 
very poor turkey habitat 
due to the exclusion 
of food-producing 
hardwood species. 




.'■ I 



man population to which the turkey 
seems unable to adjust, 

Noted turkey expert Wayne Bailey 
observes that the wild turkey is ex- 
tremely intolerant of human presence, 
'Turkey abundance is inversely pro- 
portional to human abundance." Most 
if the problem stems from man's role 
is a competitor rather than a preda- 
or. Man, the logger, the farmer, the 
ecreationist, and man the consumer, 
ill chip away at the wild turkey and 
is habitat. 

We have seen that the demand for 
aper promotes unfavorable forestry 
radices and the demand for electric 
ower produces reservoirs. The de- 
li land for recreational opportunity is 
; new and subtle threat to the wild 
t irkey. Suddenly, we are a nation 
seeking a way "back to nature," as 
t ail bikes, camping equipment and 
r lOtor homes flood the market. How 
: in there be any harm in this rekin- 
: ing of the old pioneer spirit? It is 
: ily that people are taking an interest 

and enjoying the outdoors. 

This trend, in all its innocence, 
.reatens great harm to the wild tur- 

■y. In fact, a rekindling of the pi- 



oneer spirit could easily have much 
the same effect on the turkey that the 
original pioneer spirit had. This fad 
feeds itself on the same heartland 
of wilderness that the wild turkey calls 
home; the more wild the area, the 
greater its appeal. Modifications in 
the wild area are necessary for human 
use; access and development, pit 
toilets and picnic tables, all must be 
constructed to service the recreation- 
ist. Above and beyond actual site 
modification, it is people that the wild 
turkey cannot tolerate since mere hu- 
man contact causes tremendous ner- 
vous stress to this species. A high rate 
of human use and turkey use are not 
compatible. When a wild area is 
opened to easy access by recreational 
vehicles and facilities are built to ac- 
commodate the nature seekers, the 
wild turkey reacts just as he would 
to the rising waters of a reservoir. He 
leaves and tries to find solitude else- 
where. 

The true turkey hunter offers little 
significant threat to the turkey. Legal, 
controlled hunting can be so managed 
as to cause no harm to the turkey 
population. Spring gobbler hunting 



after the peak of the breeding season 
is considered the best hunting man- 
agement system. This results in the 
harvest of mature males at a period 
when they are superfluous to the flock. 
Since turkeys are polygamous and 
dominant gobblers do most of the 
breeding, surplus gobblers may be 
taken at this time with no detriment 
to the year's production of poults. 
Furthermore, a strong tradition of 
legal and ethical turkey hunting in an 
area promotes respect and public co- 
operation for turkey management. 
Eithcr-sex hunting in the fall often is 
not such a sound management practice 
and can be responsible for a declining 
or stagnant turkey population. The 
fall season is, in many areas, sacred 
tradition and to even suggest that it be 
abandoned is bordering on heresy. In 
most areas, however, it should be 
abandoned for optimum turkey abun- 
dance. 

Poaching and illegal hunting are 
perhaps two of the greatest threats 
and limiting factors to the increasing 
turkey population in Georgia. A sur- 
vey conducted recently by the Game 
and Fish Division indicated that more 



pit | 



|i he building of major reservoirs is very destructive to prime 
i rkey habitat. The bottom-land, hardwood swamps which are 

I ioded by the lake are, at present, the best turkey range 

II the state. 



Photo by Jim Couch 




turkeys are killed illegally each year 
than are harvested legally. A panel of 
turkey experts from all over the south- 
east reviewing the status of the wild 
turkey in Georgia last year concluded 
that poaching and illegal hunting were 
primarily responsible for the slow 
growth of the state's turkey popula- 
tion and the exclusion of turkeys from 
many areas of suitable habitat. The 
panel also felt that if these problems 
can be brought under control, the 
Georgia flock would increase at an 
"astounding rate." 

Poaching and illegal hunting are not 
quite the same thing. The true turkey 
poacher is usually a skilled hunter 
with a profound distaste for authority 
and a good knowledge of turkey 
habits. He isn't too particular about 
methodology and will use bait, roost 
shoot and anything else necessary to 
get that bird. His own woods skills 
make him hard to apprehend. This 
type of hunter can, by himself, wipe 
out a flock in short order. Fortunately, 
there are not too many individuals 
around with the requisite skills to 
do this successfully. 

Another type of illegal hunter is the 
"accidental poacher," who happens to 
see a turkey and just can't resist the 



temptation. This occurs often during 
legal open seasons for other game spe- 
cies when large numbers of hunters 
are in the woods. Several popular deer 
hunting counties in the state also have 
excellent turkey habitat, but few tur- 
keys despite repeated attempts to 
stock them. The turkey is a highly 
valued and much esteemed game bird, 
and it is difficult to forsake an oppor- 
tunity to bag one under any circum- 
stances. The loss from illegal shooting 
plus the increased human disturbance 
during open season for another spe- 
cies is a negative influence on the 
turkey population in the area. 

Public opinion and attitudes have 
a very direct bearing on a turkey man- 
agement program. In a local situation, 
the public attitude toward turkey 
poaching and wildlife regulations in 
general is often reflected in the county 
courts. Lenient courts may only give 
a minimum fine and often suspend 
even that. In such a situation it is 
virtually impossible to have a success- 
ful turkey program or any respect for 
the regulations designed to produce a 
healthy turkey population. This prob- 
lem is much less severe in areas with 
a strong tradition of legal and ethical 
turkey hunting. 



It is a reasonably well establish* 
fact that Georgia could soon ha' 
a healthy turkey population ov 
much of its forest land. Whether v 
will or not remains in the court 
public opinion. There the question 
"Do we want turkeys badly enough i 
make the sacrifice?" 

In terms of long range effects, tl ( 
habitat lost to high-yield forestry arc 
agriculture will have to be replace I 
with areas better managed for turkt 
habitat. The flooding by dams aK 
drainage by channels of our print 
turkey habitat in river-bottom swam] I 
must be stopped. Recreational d 
velopment on both public and priva I 
land must be better planned or 
will destroy the very values it pr< 
fesses to provide and along with ther 
the wild turkey. These changes wou : 
protect the habitat, but people mu 1 
also change to protect the turkey. 

People are the basic problem. The i 
attitudes, activities, and mere present;, 
are negative impacts on the turke '\ 
Particularly, the pioneer attitude < I 
"Shoot any turkey you see, any tin; 
you see one," must change. Unless ^ 
does, all our fine habitat and best e J 
forts at management will not make tl 1 
turkey abundant again. 






';;. 



The turkey is a wilderness bird, which has low tolerance 

for human activity in its range. Building scenic roads through 

wild areas destroys the remote nature of the area, 

essential to wild turkey management. 




k 



Wildlife 
Profiles: 



(y Aaron Pass 
i krt by Mel Wolfe 

Slim and graceful, the whitetailed 

i .or (Odocoileus virginianus) is the 

: assic symbol of eastern hunting and 

tie most popular big game animal 

ji Georgia. The fact that more than 

1 50,000 Georgia hunters seek this 

: usive game animal each year is one 

p ' the brightest success stories in 

wildlife conservation. It also points 

) it the effectiveness of modern game 

anagement techniques supported by 

i nds paid by the sportsman through 

i :ense fees and taxes on sporting 

uipment. 

The whitetailed deer derives its 

me from one of its most conspicu- 

is features: a large, white tail, which 

e alarmed deer will hold upright 

d wave like a flag when fleeing 

>m danger. A frightened deer is 

; pable of considerable speed and 

i lazing leaps in its escape. Deer have 

i en clocked at 20 to 30 mph and 

m to leap over an eight foot fence 

th ease. 

While deer are capable of surpris- 

5 speed initially, they can't hold it 

• long. This makes them subject to 

t ack from long-winded predators 

i :h as wolves and dogs. Wolves are 

> ig gone from Georgia, but packs 

f free-running dogs do damage the 

; te's deer population. These feral 

il free running dogs are particu- 

y dangerous to pregnant does, 

1 ich, even if they escape, may abort 

i a result of the stress of the chase. 

r ;se packs obey no season or bag 

lit and they can effectively elimi- 

a localized deer population, with 

t deer which are not killed moving 

iy to avoid harassment. 

)eer are surprisingly tolerant of 

lans. Many farmland and sub- 

1 an areas have large deer popula- 

| s. Closer in to town, the deer 

p n become garden pests and a high- 



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eer 




way hazard if the area is too densely 
populated to permit hunting. 

Like cows, sheep and other rumi- 
nants deer have four stomachs and 
can eat in haste, then later chew the 
partly digested food or cud. Deer 
normally favor the buds, fruits and 
nuts which are available in a forest 
habitat, rather than the grass diet of 
most domestic animals. 

Deer mate during a "rutting sea- 
son" in late fall and the does gestate 
over the winter. The fawn (or often 
fawns, since twins are common in 
good habitat) are born in spring and 



summer. The suckling fawns are often 
left in seclusion while the female feeds 
nearby. The fawns are virtually scent- 
less for the first weeks of their life 
and are not frequently found by 
predators. 

Well-meaning humans are one of 
the main threats to the young deer 
Finding the "abandoned" fawn, peo- 
ple will take it home as a pet. Young 
deer are quite tame and docile tor 
the first year or so. As the deer ma- 
tures, if it is a buck, the wild instincts 
gradually take over until the con- 
fined beast is virtual!} uncontrollable 



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during the rutting season and is quite 
capable of injuring its keepers. Leave 
all young wildlife in the woods where 
it belongs! 

The mature male whitetailed deer, 
the buck, usually possesses a fine set 
of antlers which he uses to fight with 
other males during the rutting season. 
These growths are not horns, which 
are hollow and permanent, but are 
more like bone and are made up 
principally of calcium. The antlers 
are shed by the buck each winter 
and he grows a new set during the 
summer. 

The whitetail is associated with a 
brush habitat; his eyesight is poor but 
a wonderful sense of smell serves him 
well in dense brush. The mature vir- 
gin forest is not particularly favorable 
to deer as most of the budding plants 
have grown out of reach. The open 
field is devoid of such growth as well 
as cover. The intermediate brushy 
areas midway between field and for- 
est are prime whitetail habitat. 

The whitetailed deer was virtually 
extinct in Georgia and most of the 
southeast at the turn of the century. 
A few remnants of the deer herd 
were left on the coastal islands and 
in the vast river swamps in the south- 
ern part of the state, but for the most 
part there was no deer hunting in the 
state. An early attempt to reinstate 
the mountain herd in 1928-29 was 
moderately successful but the major 
effort was to wait until later. In the 
1 950's the State Game and Fish Com- 
mission began a concentrated deer 
restoration program which is respon- 
sible for the excellent deer popula- 
tion which now thrives over the state. 

Today all 1 59 counties in the state 
have deer, and hunting is permitted 
in 145 of them. Deer season opens as 



early as October in some counties but 
for most of the state November is the 
traditional deer month. In some areas 
special "doe days" and either-sex 
hunts are used as management tools 
to check rapidly expanding deer pop- 
ulations. The statewide limit is two 



deer per hunter, and there is an amj 
amount of good deer range open 
the public. Deer hunters are advis 
to secure permission before hunti i 
on private land, and to check curre; 
hunting regulations for seasons a.i 
firearms limitations. 







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By Sam Pickering, Director 
Earth and Water Division 

Bill Morehead, Education-Research 
Officer 



An electronic density slice of 
a frame showing the coast from 
St. Simons Island to Tybee Island. 
Marshland shows as green, open water 
appears black, and highland orange. 




Every 1 8 days Georgia has its por- 
trait taken from a satellite 570 miles 
high. Each picture the satellite takes 
covers some 13,500 square miles (a 
square 1 1 5 miles on a side). The satel- 
lite was launched July 29, 1972, and 
has been operating continuously since 
that date. 

"ERTS" — or the Earth Resources 
Technology Satellite — is truly revo- 
lutionizing the way we look at Geor- 
gia. Since ERTS has been in orbit, the 
Department of Natural Resources has 
processed hundreds of outstanding, 
cloud-free photos which cover the en- 
tire state during various seasons. 
Never before have we been able to 
have such a comprehensive view of 
our natural resources and their de- 
velopment. 

One of the basic problems today is 

keeping up with the changes we make 

on the face of the earth. We build, 

harvest, mine, clear, reclaim, impound 

hannelize our natural resources 

an overall regional view of 

■ doing. We acquire and 



develop property, exploit mineral de- 
posits and plant crops with a view- 
point that heretofore has been limited 
to a few hundred feet above ground 
level. Our nearsightedness seldom lets 
us see more than a few hundred or a 
few thousand acres at a time. 

Thus, we have known remarkably 
little about the natural heritage of 
Georgia — especially the "big pic- 
ture" of that heritage. We know that 
some portions of the state support bet- 
ter row crops, pastures, orchards, for- 
ests, wetlands, or have terrain suitable 
for heavy industry or for abundant 
game and fish. Mineral exploration, 
water studies and regional soils map- 
ping have been done piecemeal for 
small areas. But it has been very diffi- 
cult to plot this information on a 
larger statewide scale, much less to 
analyze its distribution rapidly enough 
to make needed changes. The data 
that comes from ERTS gives us the 
opportunity to see the state as a whole, 
rather than in bits and pieces. 

How are these photographs pro- 






The Ocmulgee, Oconee, Altamaha, 
and Satilla River swamps, the 
coastal marshland and marsh nutrient 
sediment show in this view as 
shades of orange. Woodland is light 
green, and farmland black. 



duced? .The ERTS spacecraft carrk \ 
four sensors which produce four s - 
multaneous pictures as it passes ovei 
head. The sensors are filtered to ac- 
cept different wavelengths of light i i 
they sweep over the earth and retur l 
four different photographs of the sam; 
area. These four photos (which recorl 
green, red, near infrared and far ir - 
frared light) show different features o l 
the ground. Infrared records lake , 
rivers and wetlands clearly, whil i 
green and red show wetlands, cleare 1 
fields, cities, mining operations an l 
highways. An electronic signal froi i 
each sensor is converted to a blac . 
and white picture on the ground. W • 
have combined these four black an I 
white negatives to form color corr- 
posites which accentuate and empru • 
size various features. 

The Earth and Water Division c 
the Department of Natural Resource > 
is using ERTS photographs to mak i 
large-scale maps of the state to sho 1 ' 
many features never before recognize I 
or well mapped. We have complete 



a map showing all reservoirs, lakes, 
ponds and open water bodies of larger 
than four acres for approximately half 
of the state. This water map will serve 
to locate lakes and ponds presently 
unknown to us for stocking and public 
fishing. It will also help us make safety 
inspections on dams and aid in de- 
termining where or even if a proposed 
impoundment should be constructed. 

Similar statewide maps are being 
prepared showing the distribution of 
woodlands, cleared land, unreclaimed 
mines and quarries, geological struc- 
tures, urban areas, and swamps and 
marshes. 

These maps should be a boon to 
lunters and fishermen who don't quite 
<now where to get that deer or that 
nonster bass. The water map, for in- 
itance, will show sloughs, backponds 
ind lakes where "hog bass" are likely 

have never seen a lure. The wood- 
and map will be a great help to all 
lunters. The swamp and marsh maps 
)f the state will, in effect, be duck and 
voodcock hunting maps showing in 
letail where the swamps are (and not 
vhere they used to be). All of these 
naps should aid the camper seeking 
lew and unusual sites. Copies of these 
naps, approximately 2' by 3' each, 
hould be available late this winter. 

Many unusual features are becom- 
ng apparent on these satellite photos 
vhich, because of their large size, 
vere not previously appreciated. The 
)ucktown-Copperhill mining district, 
ust across the Tennessee border, is 
triking, showing up as a 10 mile 
iameter circle where air pollution 
as killed almost all of the vegetation. 

Patterns of muddy and clear water 

: how plainly on many large lakes, 

'^specially Lake Seminole. If you're a 

ig time bass fisherman, would you 

1 ke to have a map of Seminole every 
8 days showing where the clear and 

i luddy waters are? This is not possi- 
1 le now — but it may soon be. 

Interstate 95 along the coast is 
i larked by a series of dredged lakes 
w lere fill sand was obtained — these 
1 idden small lakes and ponds may be- 
c )me prime fishing sites. 

The wide, swampy flood plains of 
t e major coastal plain rivers end 
a iruptly at the Fall Line (the southern 
c Ige of the Piedmont). Want to know 
v here the ducks are? Look at these 




Coastal Georgia, from Cumberland Island to 

the south; ": tip of St. Simons Island. Highland is dark, and 
marshland is light colored. 



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This color infrared enhancemet l 

shows the Georgia coastal inarslu s 

in hold relief as dark grey against tl 

scarlet high ground of the islam ? 

and mainlani . 



Savannah and Brunswick show 
as dark areas in this coastal view. 
Interstate 95 is a thin hlack line, and 
marsh nutrient suspended in the 
ncarshorc area appears as a blue 
tinge. Farmland is dark, and 
woodland is light green. 



photos. The Okefenokee Swam I 
shows clear traces of old sandbar ! 
(telling us that it used to be a shallow 
coastal bay). 

What is the importance of a piec 
of legislation like our mining reclame 
tion laws? Using ERTS imagery, w 
can compare the effects of reclamatio 
as required by Georgia law wit 
similar mines in north Florida wher 
reclamation is not required. 



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\ This detail of the Allatoona-Lanier 
r irea shows farmland, highways, and 
1,l: trban areas as black, and woodlands 
is bright green. 

iite 



A detailed close-up of the "forks" 
area of south-central Georgia 
where the Ocmulgee and Oconee 
Rivers join to form the Altamaha. The 
wetlands and hardwood rivet- 
swamps, lakes and ponds show as 
light areas. These areas are prime 
fish and wildlife habitat. 



Nutrient-laden water washed from 
"le coastal marshlands is distinguish- 
able as much as 15 miles offshore, 
hesc nutrients sustain the micro- 
v :opic sea life, which in turn attract 
s nail fish — and the small fish attract 
c >mmercial and sporting fish. Are 
t lese photos from space potential salt- 
pi ater fishing maps? Probably. 

The little satellite orbiting the earth 
e 'ery 18 days is providing Georgia's 









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The abundant impoundments 
(Allatoona, Morgan Falls, Lanier, 
Hartwell, Tugaloo, Rabun, Seed, 
Burton, Chatuge, Nottely, and Blue 
Ridge) of north-central Georgia 
show as silver flecks across the Blue 
Ridge and Cohutta Mountains. 



The deeply folded and 

rock strata of northwest Georgi 

caused a wrinkled ridge and 

terrain. Prominent in this VI 

Allatoona Reservoir, Rock 

and Rocky Mountains, Taylor's 

and the Cohutta Mou 



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ar 
act 

ins 



Department of Natural Resources with 
brand new information. An atlas of 
selected photographs covering all 
parts of Georgia is now being pre- 
pared for publication by the Depart- 
ment. Also, 2' x 3' composite photos 
of the entire state on red and far in- 
frared "scans" will be published. 
I f you are an outdoorsman in Geor- 
ERTS provides your kind of 

nformation. You really can't 

lot to know about it. 






These huge circular depressions 

between the Alapaha and 

Withlacoochee Rivers, known as 

"Carolina bays," are thought to be 

.shallow meteor impact craters. 




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Lake Chatuge 




The home waters of Lake Chatuge' s tropin- bass an 

crappie back up behind this dam in Clay County, Nori 

Carolina, on the Hiwassee River. Chatuge straddles the Georgit 

North Carolina state lin 






By Dick Davis 

Glistening like a blue jewel in a 
setting of towering mountain green- 
ery. Lake Chatuge, in the Blue Ridge 
Mountains of Georgia, beckons the 
fisherman, boater, water skier, 
swimmer and picnicker. Of- 
a challenge to Georgia anglers, 



Lake Chatuge's population of game 
fish includes largemouth and small- 
mouth bass, crappie, bream, white 
bass, catfish, rainbow trout, yellow 
perch and walleyed pike. 

As first light dispels the darkness, 
rev up an outboard and head out onto 
the productive waters of Lake Cha- 
tuge. Most of the sizable bass are 



taken on plastic worms and lizarc 
in the summer and on minnows in th 
spring. Crappie hit shiners and do 
flies, bream and shcllcrackers go fc 
crickets and red wigglers. Spinnei 
and rooster tails are successfully use 
for white bass. Smallmouth can b 
taken on lizards in the fall when th 
water temperature begins to drop. 



Anglers test their luck with 

hass, bream and crappie in a 

productive area of a secluded cove 

where a creek enters Lake Chatuge. 



■ 




Photos by Dick Davis 



Chatuge is a small lake in compari- 
son with many reservoirs, but its 
limited size makes a large proportion 
i)f the lake readily available with 
1 imited boating. Stradling the Georgia- 
IvVorth Carolina border, the lake 
stretches 1 3 miles from the confluence 
f)f the Hiwassee River and Hightower 
Creek in Towns County, Georgia, to 
he dam near Hayesville in Clay 
?ounty. North Carolina. Total shore- 
ine of the lake is 132 miles. The 
jeorgia portion is comparatively nar- 
row, but the lake broadens to a width 



of about two miles at the North Caro- 
lina line. 

Lake Chatuge offers both shallows 
for rewarding fishing for bream and 
crappie, and waters of considerable 
depth for hooking into a trophy bass. 

Chatuge is truly a fishermen's lake 
with a minimum of speed boating, and 
with water skiing confined largely to 
the warmest summer months. The 
number of houseboats on the lake can 
be counted on one hand. 

Avid fishermen from several states 
come to Chatuge. Veteran anglers will 



often be found filling their freezers 
with catches in the areas where the 
Hiwassee River and such tributaries 
as Fodder Creek, Hog Creek, Wood 
Creek, Reed Branch and Bell Creek 
flow into the lake. At one time, Cha- 
tuge produced the world's record 
crappie and three to four pounders of 
this species are not too unusual in the 
lake today. 

A particular challenge at Chatuge is 
the bass fishing and this draws many 
an angler to its waters. Marina opera- 
tors Winston Farmer and Richard 



■'."■ ii ■ 






Exct Went camping and recreation 
sites are on the Georgia shores of 
Lake Chatuge. This TV A public use 
area accommodates tents, 
campers and mobile homes and 
offers a white sand beach and marked 
swimming area. 



23 



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Lynch confidently predict, "someday 
the record largemouth bass will be 
camiht here." They also tell of the 
vigorous smallmouth bass. "A three- 
pound smallmouth here will give more 
fight," says Lynch, "than most large- 
mouth bass twice that size." Among 
the trophy catches they remember is 
a largemouth weighing between 12 
and 13 pounds taken in Shooting 
Creek in the North Carolina waters. 
From time to time other largemouth 
bass between eight and nine pounds 
have been brought in, and one weigh- 
ing 1 1 pounds, 12 ounces was hooked 
»vithin the past year. 

Lake Chatuge is the centerpiece for 
i vast recreation area adjacent to and 
lear the lake and its tributaries. The 
Thattahoochee National Forest sur- 
ounds the Georgia portion of the 
ake. 

Chatuge is one of three projects 
milt by the Tennessee Valley Au- 
hority in the Hiwassee River basin 
nd operating as a unit for power pro- 
duction, flood control and maintain- 
ig Tennessee River navigation levels. 



Two of the three dams, Chatuge and 
Nottely, store water in the spring and 
release the water through the summer 
and fall months to help maintain 
power generation at the larger Hiwas- 
see Dam and other hydroelectric proj- 
ects downstream. 

On the Georgia shoreline of the 
lake are several commercially oper- 
ated installations offering overnight 
lodging and many provide complete 
fishing, boating, swimming and marina 
facilities and services. These are 
Farmer and Lynch Cottages, Robert- 
son's Cabins, Dyers Cabins and Blue 
Ridge Court, all on U.S. Highway 76 
near Hiawassee, and Oak Tree Village 
near Young Harris. 

Augmenting these facilities on the 
Georgia portion of Chatuge are a U.S. 
Forest Service camping area with ex- 
cellent campsites overlooking the blue 
waters of the lake, a boat ramp and 
toilet facilities; a TVA public use area 
with picnic tables, shower and toilet 
facilities and a white sand beach and 
established swimming area; numerous 
picnicking grounds and public access 



areas; and a municipal park at Hi- 
awassee. 

There are four public boat ramps 
on the Georgia portion of the Lake 
Chatuge. Two are operated by the 
Game and Fish Division, Department 
of Natural Resources; the Tennessee 
Valley Authority maintains a ramp, 
and the U.S. Forest Service has a 
ramp with paved parking and access 
located on its recreation areas on the 
lake. Additional ramps are maintained 
on the North Carolina shore areas. 

Reciprocity in fishing privileges is 
enjoyed by those who fish Chatuge. 
Under an agreement with the State 
of North Carolina, those with a valid 
Georgia fishing license may fish with 
rod and reel or hook and line in any 
part of Lake Chatuge, but cannot fish 
legally from the North Carolina shore 
or from a boarhnchored to the North 
Carolina shore. Georgians are gov- 
erned by Georgia creel and possession 
limits on all parts of Lake Chatuge. 
Fishermen with North Carolina fish- 
ing licenses enjoy the same privileges 
in any part of the lake within Georgia. 



Rewarding dock fishing draws many enthusiasts at various 

points on the shoreline of beautiful Lake Chatuge, with north 

Georgia's verdant mountains forming a scenic Inn kdrop. 




25 



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Conservation Ranger Districts 

In their insatiable search for the best "where to," "when to" and 
"how to" information, Georgia sportsmen often overlook a dozen 
authoritative sources: the Law Enforcement Section's 12 district offices. 

Charged with — among other duties — enforcing Georgia's hunting 
and fishing regulations, law enforcement personnel are familiar with 
those regulations as they apply to particular situations or local condi- 
tions, and they'll be happy to pass this information along. Section Chief 
Col. R. K. Fansler says his district offices welcome visitors or inquiries. 

The offices also sell licenses, and they generally have on hand copies 
of current regulations and informative brochures. Col. Fansler also sug- 
gests that the Conservation Rangers in these offices can provide those 
all-important "where to" tips. 

The list below gives the address and phone number of the 12district 
offices, along with the name of the officer and sergeant in charge. The 
map opposite indicates the counties in each district. 



REGIONAL SUPERVISORS 

Major William L. Cline, Supervisor 

Northern Law Enforcement Region 

Post Office Box 586 

Calhoun, Georgia 30701 

(404) 629-8674 



Major J. D. Atchison, Supervisor 
Southern Law Enforcement Region 
Post Office Box 358 
Metter, Georgia 30439 
(912) 685-2145 



Calhoun District 

Lt. Fred Shaw 
Sgt. L. F. Barton 
Post Office Box 586 
Calhoun, Georgia 30701 
(404) 629-8674 



Gainesville District 

Captain Robert Carter 

Sgt. Hugh C. Elrod 

Route Two, Browns Bridge Road 

Gainesville, Georgia 30501 

(404) 536-6062 



Walton District 

Captain James Riden 

Sgt. Jimmy Smith 

Route 2 

Social Circle, Georgia 30279 

(404) 557-2227 

Manchester District 

Captain Lewis P. Cotton 
Sgt. Joe Starling 
Post Office Drawer 152 
Manchester, Georgia 31816 
(404) 846-2541 



Macon District 

Captain Jack Benford 
Cpl. Harrell Poole 
Post Office Box 4707 
Forestry Riggins Mill Road 
Macon, Georgia 31208 
(912)745-1148 



Albany District 

Captain Steve Bush 
Sgt. James Sherling 
2024 Newton Road 
Albany, Georgia 31705 
(912) 435-0068 



Thomson District 

Captain Jimmy Steptoe 
Sgt. I. G. Knox 
Post Office Box 204 
Thomson, Georgia 30824 
(404) 595-4211 

Cordele District 

Captain T. O. Willis 
Sgt. Jack Turner 
Route 3 

Cordele, Georgia 31015 
(912) 273-8945 



Metter District 
Lt. Robert Hart 
Sgt. John Owings 
Post Office Box 358 
Metter, Georgia 30439 
(912) 685-2145 

Waycross District 

Captain Mallory Hatchett 
Sgt. Paul Johnston 
108 Darling Avenue 
Waycross, Georgia 31501 
(912) 283-6639 

Coastal District 

Northern Sector 

Captain J. O. Long 

Sgt. Warner E. Jones 

Box 86, Highway 67, South 

Richmond Hill, Georgia 31324 

(912) 756-3336 

Southern Sector 
Sgt. R. H. Godley, 
Acting District Chief 
Sgt. W. E. Young 
Post Office Box 1097 
Highway 1 7 South 
Brunswick, Georgia 31520 
(912) 265-1552 



27 







Big Deer Contest 



By Aaron P 



NONTYPICAL RACK 



1972/73 CONTEST WINNERS 

TYPICAL RACK 



Robert N. Hawkins of Lawrenceville, Georgia, 
182 4 8 pts., killed on November 16, 1972 in 
Butts County. 



TYPICAL RACK 



David Moon of Lithonia, Georgia, 180 3/8 pts., 
killed on November 1 1, 1972 in Newton County. 



STATE RECORDS 

NONTYPICAL RACK 



184 pts., Gene Almand, Riverdale, Newton County, 
November 16, 1966. 

WEIGHT 



1 97 3 8 pts., R. H. Bumbalough, Stone Mountain, 
Newton County, November 1, 1969. 



355 lbs. (dressed weight), Boyd Jones, Tallahassee, 

Florida, taken in Worth County on November 1 1, 

1972. 

(New State Record) 

Contest Entrants — The following individuals entered 
racks taken in the 1972 contest which scored above the 
minimum qualifying score of 150 pts. They will receive 
a Master Hunter's Certificate from Outdoors in Georgia 
magazine and the Georgia Wildlife Federation. 

Abbit Roach, Carnesville— 1 67 2 8 pts., Wilkes County 
Philip A. Clark, Doraville— 1 66 5 8 pts., Putnam 
County 

Virgil Mims, Coolidge— 163 5/8 pts., Colquitt County 
Clark, Hawkinsville— 157 5 8 pts., Pulaski County 



Billy Dunn, Marietta— 154 7 8 pts., Hancock County 
Perry Coker, Griffin— 152 2 8 pts., Spalding County 
James A. Bradshaw, Chickamauga— 1 50 7 8 pts., 
Walker County 






The judging is over and the winners named in 
the annual Georgia Big Deer Contest of 1972. 
This contest is jointly sponsored by OUTDOORS 
IN GEORGIA magazine of the Department of 
Natural Resources and the Georgia Wildlife 
Federation. Judging takes place after June 1 
each year to evaluate the deer trophies taken in 
Georgia during the previous hunting season. 
Winners are chosen on the basis of antler size 
in two categories, Typical Rack and Nontypical 
Rack. 

All racks are measured by competent wild- 
life biologists of the Game and Fish Division 
using the Boone and Crockett system of meas- 
urement. Any hunter who kills a buck with an 
unusually large rack should take it to the near- 
est Game Management Regional Field Office 
for measurement after the antlers have air- 
dried for 60 days. Typical racks scoring more 
than 150 points under the Boone and Crockett 
system of measurement or nontypical racks 



scoring 175 points are eligible for entry in the 
contest. Note that the Boone and Crockett sys- 
tem allows for the measurement of all dimen- 
sions of the rack and converts these dimensions 
to a point scale. It does not refer to the number 
of antler points or projections on the rack. 

Winners of the contest will attend Georgia 
Wildlife Federation's annual banquet where 
they will be awarded prizes as part of the Fed- 
eration Awards program. Each entrant in the 
contest will receive from the Department of 
Natural Resources a Master Hunter Certificate 
noting the hunter's name, date and place of kill 
and final score of antlers. 

The following is an updated listing of the 
rules for the Big Deer Contest which apply to 
the 1973-74 contest, and the official measuring 
stations of the contest. It is advised that all en- 
trants call for an appointrrrent to measure their 
trophies. 



RULES: 



VERIFYING OFFICIALS 



tain 



1. Any hunter is eligible regardless of whether or not he is a member of an affili- 
ated club of the Georgia Wildlife Federation or a subscriber to Outdoors in 
Georgia magazine. Hunters need not be residents of the State of Georgia to 
enter, but only deer taken in the State of Georgia by legal means and in con- 
formity with all state and federal game laws and regulations may be entered. 

2. Only deer killed during the current season will be considered for the contest 
prizes. 

3. Deer killed with a bow and arrow are also eligible, provided they meet minimum 
requirements. Indicate that archery equipment was used, rather than a rifle or 
shotgun. 

4. PHOTOGRAPH: A clear photograph is desirable if it's one that can be kept by 
Outdoors in Georgia magazine. Please do NOT send a photograph that you want 
returned. All photographs and entry forms become the property of Outdoors in 
Georgia magazine. Please identify all pictures submitted with your name written 
on the back. 

5. The Georgia Wildlife Federation and Outdoors in Georgia magazine reserve 
the right to re-measure any trophy rack entered, to interview witnesses of kill 
date and to refuse any questionable application. 

6. Before the affidavit can be accepted, the truth of the statements must be attested 
before a qualified officer such as a notary public, justice of the peace, sheriff, 
municipal clerk, postmaster, member of a state or local law enforcement agency, 
conservation ranger, etc. 

7. There is no entry fee for the contest. 

8. Split or repaired skulls will not be accepted. 

9. Antlers may not show removed or repaired points. 

10. All antlers must air dry for 60 days before measurements can be taken. Each 
applicant must present to the measurer an affidavit noting date 

11 Address all correspondence regarding these owor 

doors in Georgia magazine. 270 Washington St., S.W., Atlanta, Geor 
Deadline for entries is June 1, 1974. 



NORTHWEST 

William C. Collins 

Game Mgt. Reg. Headquarters 

Rt. 1 

Armuchee, Ga. 

404-232-9711 

NORTHEAST 

James Scharnagel 
Rt. 2 

Gainesville, Ga. 30501 
404 536 9936 

CENTRAL 

Richard Whittington 
Rt. 3, Box 7A 
Ft. Valley, Ga. 31030 
912 825-8248 

SOUTH CENTRAL 

Frank Parrish 

Rt. 1 

Fitzgerald, Ga. 31750 

912/423 2988 

SOUTHWEST 

Oscar Dewberry 
P.O. Box 911 
Bainbridge, Ga. 31717 
912 246 8610 

COASTAL 

C. V. Waters 

Sapelo Island, Ga. 31327 

912 485 2481 



29 



Outdoor 
World 



The master of hounds orders the 
dogs turned loose at 6:00 a.m. The 
hunters release their dogs and listen 
to their barks and bays for the next 
few hours as the hounds pursue a 
fox. The dogs' every move is ob- 
served by the hunt's judges who will 
later award the coveted National 
Champion title to one hound. 

If all this sounds like a scene from 
an old English movie, you're wrong. 
This scene took place repeatedly in 
late August in the Handy community 
in Coweta County as hunters from 
all over the country gathered for the 
National Fox Hunters Association's 
annual field trials. Hunters gather 
from as far away as California for 
the week-long activities. They come 
to show their dogs, hunt them, trade 
and buy them, and to visit with old 
friends. 

The hounds are judged on their 
appearance in a bench show and in 
the field on their performance during 
the hunts. At the bench show the 
dogs were judged this year by Lee 
Long of Macon in six classes — six 
months to twelve months old males 
and females, the Derby males and 



females (one to two years old), and 
the All Age males and females (over 
two years old). Winners in each class 
competed for the Best in Show and 
Best of the Opposite Sex Awards. 
Also a Best Pack of three or more 
dogs and a Best Pair were chosen. 
During the hunts each morning the 
dogs were closely watched by more 
than 20 judges who followed them 
in trucks, jeeps, on horseback and 
on foot. 

Hunter Wallace explained how the 
dogs were judged, "Dogs could be 
disqualified for loafing, 'babbling' or 
barking when they don't smell any- 
thing, running livestock, or just quit- 
ting before the hunt was over," he 
said. The judges awarded points if 
a hound was the first dog to reach a 
certain area, if the dog was at the 
catch when the fox was treed, or if 
it showed special speed and drive in 
hunting and trailing. Scores were 
brought to the master of hounds at 
the hunt's end and posted at the end 
of the day according to the numbers 
painted on the dogs' sides. At the end 
of the third hunt the scores are com- 
piled and the dog with the highest 
overall score is named National 
Champion. 

The July Fox Hunters Association 
actually came home when it came to 
Georgia this year since the organiza- 
tion was formed here, according to 
Wallace. He explained that the term 
"July hound" comes from a particu- 
lar dog a Georgia man once owned 




which became famous for its cc 
and terrific speed. The dog, nan 1 
July, began a line of dogs that ca 
to be called July hounds. 
— Jackie Pate 

Newnan Times-Her I 






rii', on the left above, a dog from the Sooner Slate, Oklahoma, look Best of 
ird. 



Brochures Now Available 

If you're interested in the outdoc 
you'll be interested in three brochu 
now available from the Departm 
of Natural Resources. Newly revi: 
editions of three popular brochu 
are ready for distribution: a direct< 
of Georgia's state parks; a guide 
camping and fishing in the parks; a 
a guide to Georgia's freshwater fi: 
ing which includes a directory 
marinas and fish camps. 

Ask for GEORGIA'S STA' 
PARKS; CAMPING, BOATO 
AND FISHING IN GEORG 
STATE PARKS; or GUIDE r 
FRESH WATER FISHING. 

These publications can be order 
from the Information Section, E 
partment of Natural Resourct 
Room 720, 270 Washington St., / 
lanta 30334. 



BooH 
Review 



HUNTING UPLAND BIRD) 
Charles F. Waterman, Winchesi: 
Press, 308 pages, $8.95. 
When a hunter successfully tak ' 
all four species of North Americ i 
wild sheep, he is said to have made i 
"Grand Slam." Charles Waterma i 
in researching HUNTING UPLAN I 
BIRDS, has made quite a start ( I 
another slam just as grand. The bo< 1 
covers 25 species of upland gar < 
birds (plus rabbit and squirre ) 
hunted in a variety of situations ate 
habitats from Alaska to Florida. Tl i 
most impressive part of all this 5 
that author Waterman has actual ) 
hunted all these species himself at q 
speaks from first-hand experience 

This is a bird hunter's book, wri - 
ten expressly for the man who rever s 
wingshooting above all other fom s 






of sporting endeavor. It covers in 
detail the habitats of each species 
mentioned and describes appropriate 
teel niques, guns and dogs. The book- 
is somewhat unique in that it devotes 
a chapter to several western species 
of grouse and the ptarmigan of Alas- 
ka in terms of methods and sporting 
potential for the shotgunner. These 
species are usually mentioned only 
as a sidelight to big game hunting. 
Closer to home, the book thor- 
oughly covers the species with which 
Georgia hunters are readily familiar. 
The bobwhite quail rates the first and 
the longest chapter in the book. An- 
other Georgia favorite, the mourning 
dove, is also given extensive treat- 
ment. Ruffed grouse, woodcock, 
snipe, and wild turkey round out the 
list of locally sought species covered 
in HUNTING UPLAND BIRDS. 

The chapters on rabbit and squir- 
rel may at first seem out of place in 
this bird hunting book. The same 
might logically be said of the wild 
turkey chapter, since turkey hunting 
is hardly classic wingshooting. We 
are told these chapters were added 
to round out the book, since rabbit 
and squirrel are popular game in- 
digenous to most upland habitat. The 
wild turkey, despite his peculiarities, 
is still an upland game bird. 

Besides the specific discussion of 
guns and dogs as they apply to each 
individual species, there are two 
chapters devoted to guns and dogs 
respectively. The chapter on guns 
knowledgeably discusses the gauges, 
chokes and actions normally used in 
the uplands and includes an excel- 
lent discussion of clay target practice. 
The dog chapter is essentially the 
same, conveying the most popular 
upland field dog breeds. 

Waterman's book is well written, 
informative and entertaining, as any 
300k written by a solid professional 
ind published by Winchester Press 
should be. It is set apart from the 
asual "All you ever wanted to know 
■ . ." type book by a certain indefin- 
ible quality that can only come from 
in author who has been all the places 
ind done all the things that he writes 
ibout. HUNTING UPLAND BIRDS 
s a good book and should be well 
eceived by any devoted bird hunter. 

— AFP 



LAI 



Outdoor 
Calendar 




Deer Firearms GAME ZONE I (see 
map): Open season November 3 
through November 24, 1973. Bag 
limit two (2) bucks. Hunting with dogs 
prohibited. The following counties in 
Game Zone I are closed to the taking 
of deer except as otherwise provided: 
That portion of Bartow and Cherokee 
Counties between Knox Bridge and 
McKasky Creek lying south of Ga. 
Highway #20 to Lake Allatoona; also 
that portion of Cherokee County 
bounded on the north by Ga. #20, on 
the east by Ga. #5, and on the west 
by Lake Allatoona; Catoosa, Murray. 
Pickens, that portion of Walker Coun- 
ty bounded on the north by Ga. #193, 
on the west by Hog Jaw Road and 
Cove Road, on the south by Ga. #239 
and the Chattooga-Walker County 
line, on the east by Bronco Road, and 
Whitfield County. The counties of 
Fulton, DeKalb, and Cobb arc also 
closed to the taking of deer. 

GAME ZONE I-A (see map): 
Open season November 3 through 
December 1, 1973. Bag limit two (2) 
bucks. Hunting with dogs prohibited. 
Provided however that Hart County 
shall be closed to the taking of deer. 

GAME ZONE II (see map): Open 
season November 3 through Decem- 
ber 1, 1973 in all counties in Game 
Zone II. except Bibb and Clayton 
Counties. Bag limit two (2) bucks. 
Hunting with dogs prohibited. 

GAME ZONE II (see map): Bonus 
Hunt. The following counties in Game 
Zone II will be open for a bonus hunt 
December 26. 1973 through January 
1. 1974: Baldwin. Bleckley, Butts. 
Clarke. Columbia. Coweta, Crawford. 
Elbert. Fayette. Glascock, Greene. 
Hancock. Harris, Heard. Houston. 



Jasper, Jones, Lamar, Lincoln, Ma- 
con, Meriwether, Monroe, Morgan, 
McDuffie. Newton, Oconee, Ogle- 
thorpe, Peach, Pike, Pulaski, Putnam, 
Richmond, Rockdale, Schley, Spald- 
ing, Talbot, Taliaferro, Taylor, Troup, 
Twiggs, Upson, Walton, Warren, 
Wilkes and Wilkinson. Bag limit two 
(2) bucks. Hunting with dogs pro- 
hibited. 

GAME ZONE II (see map): Either 
Sex Hunt. The following counties in 
Game Zone II will be open for the 
taking of deer of either sex on Decem- 
ber f, 1973 and January 1, 1974: 
Baldwin, Butts, Columbia, Crawford, 
Glascock, Hancock, Henry, Jasper. 
Jones, Lamar, Lincoln, Macon, Mon- 
roe, McDuffie, Newton, Putnam. 
Spalding, Talbot. Taliaferro, Taylor. 
Twiggs, Upson, Warren, Wilkes and 
Wilkinson. Bag limit two (2) bucks or 
one (1) buck and one ( I) doe. Hunting 
with dogs prohibited. 

GAME ZONE II (see map): Either 
Sex Hunt. The following counties in 
Game Zone II will be open for the 
taking of deer of either sex on Decem- 
ber 1, 1973; Green, Morgan. Ogle- 
thorpe and Pike. Bag limit two (2) 
bucks or one ( 1 ) buck and one ( I ) 
doe. Hunting with dog prohibited. 

GAME ZONE III (see map): No- 
vember 3, 1973 through January 1, 
1974. Bag limit two (2) bucks. Hunt- 
ing with dogs permitted in Baker. 
Calhoun, Decatur, Dougherty, Early, 
Grady, Mitchell, Seminole and Thom- 
as Counties. 

GAME ZONE III (see map): 
Either Sex Hunt. The following coun- 
ties in Game Zone HI will be open 
foi the taking of deer of either sex lor 
two days. December 31. l l >73 and 
January I, 1974: Chattahoochee and 
Muscogee. Bag limit two (2) bucks or 
one ( I) buck and one ( I ) doe. Hunting 
with dogs prohibited. 

Hunting with dogs prohibited in 
Muscogee, Chattahoochee, Randolph. 
Clay, Quitman and Miller Counties. 

(,\ME ZONE III (see map): 
Either Sex. The following counties 
shall be open for the taking of d< 



31 



either sex on January 1, 1974: Baker, 
Calhoun, Dougherty and Thomas. Bag 
limit two (2) bucks or one (1) buck 
and one (1) doe. Hunting with dogs 
allowed. 

Hunting with dogs will be allowed 
from December 17, 1973 through 
January 1, 1974 in Marion, Stewart, 
Terrell and Webster Counties. 

GAME ZONE IV: November 3 
through November 24, 1973 in die 
following counties: that portion of 
Dodge County lying west of Georgia 
Highway 230 and north of U.S. High- 
way 280; and that portion lying south 
of U.S. Highway 280 and west of 
Georgia Highway 1 1 7 southwest of 
Rhine, Georgia; Dooly, Laurens, 
Lee, Montgomery, Sumter, Telfair, 
Wheeler and Wilcox. Bag limit two 
(2) bucks. Hunting with dogs pro- 
hibited except as herein provided. 
Treutlen County closed to the taking 
of deer at any time. 

Johnson County shall be open for 
still hunting deer November 3 through 
January 1, 1974. Dogs will be allowed 
in that portion of Johnson County 
lying east of the Ohoopee River from 
December 3, 1973 to January 1, 
1 974. Bag limit two (2) bucks. 

Hunting with dogs allowed in that 
portion of Wilcox County lying east 
of U.S. Highway 129 and north of 
U.S. Highway 280 on November 22. 
23 and 24, 1973. 

That portion of Dodge County lying 
west of Georgia Highway 230 and 
north of U.S. Highway 280 shall be 
open for the taking of deer with dogs 
on November 22, 23 and 24, 1973." 

GAME ZONE V: November 3, 
1973 through December 1, 1973 in 
the following counties as provided 
herein: Appling, Atkinson, Ben Hill, 
Berrien, Brooks, Coffee, Colquitt, that 
portion of Echols County lying west 
of the Alapaha River, Irwin, Jeff 
Davis, Lanier, except that portion 
lying north of the Seaboard Coastline 
Railroad and east of the Alapaha 
River and southeast of U.S. Highway 
221, Lowndes, Tift and Worth. Bag 
limit two (2) bucks. Hunting with 
dogs prohibited. 

Hunting with dogs allowed in Col- 
»unty on November 9 and 10 



and November 23 and 24, 1973. Bag 
limit two (2) bucks. 

October 20, 1973 through January 
1. 1974 in the following counties as 
provided herein: Clinch County, ex- 
cept that portion lying in the south- 
west corner of the County, bordered 
on the north by the Seaboard Coast- 
line Railroad and on the east by Su- 
wannoochee Creek, and except that 
that portion lying north of Arabia 
Bay Wildlife Management Area and 
between U.S. Highway 221 and U.S. 
Highway 441, all of which exceptions 
are closed: Echols County east of U.S. 
Highway 129 and south of Georgia 
Highway 187; and Lanier County 
north of the Seaboard Coastline Rail- 
road and east of the Alapaha River 
and southeast of U.S. Highway 221. 
Bag limit two (2) bucks. Hunting with 
dogs allowed. 




November 26 through December 1, 
1973 in that portion of Atkinson 
County lying south of the Seaboard 
Coastline Railroad and east of U.S. 
Hwy. 221; that portion of Berrien 
County lying east of U.S. Hwy. 129, 
south of the Alapaha River, north of 
Ga. Hwy. 76 and west of Ga. Hwy. 
135. Bag limit two (2) bucks. Hunting 
with dogs allowed. 

October 20 through November 17, 
1973 in Ware County, except that 
portion lying north of U.S. 82 and 
those portions lying within the outer- 
most boundaries of Waycross State 
Forest WMA, which portions are 
closed to deer hunting. Bag limit two 
(2) bucks. Hunting with dogs allowed. 

GAME ZONE VI. October 20, 
1973 through January 1. 1974. All 
counties in Game Zone VI will be 
open with the following exceptions: 
that portion of Charlton County lying 
northwest of the Okefenokee Swamp, 
which is closed; that portion of Pierce 



County lying west of U.S. #82 ; |1 
Pleasant Hill Church Road; that p 
tion of Pierce County lying in 
northeast corner bounded on the w 
by U.S. #82 and on the south by < 
#32, and that portion of Pie 
County lying in the southeast cor 
bounded on the east by Ga. #15 i I 
on the west by U.S. #82, which p 
tions are closed; that portion 
Wayne County lying west of Jes 
which is bounded on the north by ( 
#169 and on the south by U.S. #- 
which is closed. Bag limit two 
bucks. Hunting with dogs allowed. 

November 1 through 24, 1973 
Toombs County. Dog hunting will 
allowed only in that portion 
Toombs County lying south of Ge 
gia Highway 107 and 56. Bag lir 
two (2) bucks. 

GAME ZONE VI (see ma 
Either Sex Hunt. The following coi 
ties in Game Zone VI will be open 
the taking of deer of either sex 
January 5, 1974: Burke, Effingha 
Jefferson, Jenkins, Screven and Wa: 
ington. Bag limit two (2) bucks or c 
(1) buck and one (1) doe. Hunti 
with dogs prohibited. Emanuel Coi 
ty closed to deer hunting. 

The marshes and islands lyi 
east of the Intercoastal Waterway 
Bryan, Camden, Chatham, Glyi 

Liberty and Mcintosh Counties v 
be open for the taking of deer of eitr 
sex on October 20 through Janm 
1, 1974. Bag limit two (2) bucks 
one (1) buck and one doe. Hunti 
with dogs allowed; provided howevi 
that Sapelo and Blackbcard Islan : 
are closed to all hunting except l 
otherwise specifically provided. 

Fox — There shall be no closed se a 
son on the taking of fox. 

It shall be unlawful for any pers j 
to take or attempt to take any fc* 
within the State, by use or aid of li 
corded calls or sounds or recorded ) 
electronically amplified imitations ) 
calls or sounds. 



Wild hogs — Hogs are considered no l 
game animals in Georgia. They at] 
legally the property of the land owm r 
and cannot be hunted without I ii 
permission, except on public lane 5 






Firearms are limited to shotguns with 
Number 4 shot or smaller, .22 rimfire 
rifles, centerfire rifles with bore diam- 
eter .257 or smaller, the .30 cal. Army 
Cailine, the .32/20, all caliber pis- 
tols, muzzle leading firearms and bows 
and arrows. 

Grouse — October 13, 1973 through 
February 28, 1974. Bag limit three 
(3) daily; possession limit six (6). 

Opossum — October 13, 1973 through 
February 28, 1974 in Carroll, Ful- 
ton, DeKalb, Gwinnett, Barrow, Jack- 
son, Madison, Elbert and all counties 
north of those listed. No bag limit. 
Night hunting allowed. All counties 
south of the above named counties 
are open year round for the taking 
of possum. No bag limit. Night hunt- 
ing allowed. 

Quail — November 20, 1973 through 
February 28, 1974. Statewide season. 
Bag limit (12) daily; possession limit 
thirty-six (36). 

Squirrel — (1) October 13, 1973 
through February 28, 1974 in Harris, 
Talbot, Upson, Monroe, Jones, Bald- 
win, Hancock, Warren, McDuffie and 
Columbia Counties and all counties 
lying north of these counties. Bag 
limit ten (10) daily. 

(2) October 20, 1973 through Feb- 
ruary 28, 1974 statewide. Bag limit 
ten (10) daily. 

Raccoon — October 13, 1973 through 
February 28, 1974 in Carroll, Fulton, 
DeKalb, Gwinnett, Barrow, Jackson, 
Vladison, Elbert and all counties north 
)f those listed. Bag limit one (1) per 
light per person. Night hunting al- 
owed. All counties south of the above 
lamed counties are open year round 
or the taking of raccoon. No bag 
imit. Night hunting allowed. 



)ove: Georgia has been divided into 
wo zones for the coming dove season 
>y a line formed by U.S. 80 from 
Toliimbus to Macon, Ga. 49 from 
dacon to Milledgeville, Ga. 22 from 
Mledgeville to Sparta, Ga. 16 from 
Sparta to Warrenton, U.S. 278 from 
Varrenton to Augusta. 

Northern Zone: December 15 
irough January 3. 



wei 



Southern Zone: December 6 
through January 15. 

Daily bag limit 12, possession limit 
24. Legal shooting hours will be from 
12 noon until sunset. 

Sea Turtles — There is no open season 
on sea turtles and their eggs. 

Turkey— November 20, 1973-Febru- 
ary 28, 1974 in Baker, Calhoun, De- 
catur, Early, Grady, Mitchell, Thomas 
Counties. Bag limit two (2) Turkey. 

NOTE: Spring Gobbler Seasons for 
1974 will not be set until February 
1974. Information on these dates and 
hunts will be available from the Public 
Relations and Information Division 
by February 15, 1974. 

Ducks — December 6, 1973 through 
January 19, 1974, statewide. 

The general bag limit on Juck 
species shall be five (5) daily and a 
possession limit of ten (10). This gen- 
eral bag may not include more than 
one (1) black duck with two (2) in 
possession nor more than two (2) 
wood ducks with four (4) in posses- 
sion. 

The season is closed on canvasback 
and redhead ducks, and on geese, and 
brant. 



Hunters on the seaward (east) side 
of the Intercoastal Waterway in Chat- 
ham, Bryan, Liberty, Mcintosh. 
Glynn, and Camden Counties may 
take an extra two (2) Scaup and pos- 
ses an extra four (4). These birds 
may be taken in addition to the gen- 
eral five (5) duck limit. 

The open season for hunting coots 
shall be December 6, 1973 through 
January 19, 1974. Bag limits on coots 
shall be fifteen (15) daily and thirty 
(30) in possession. 

The open season for hunting galli- 
nules shall be November 12, 1973 
through January 19, 1974. Bag limits 
shall be fifteen (15) daily and thirty 
(30) in possession. 

The open season for hunting mer- 
gansers shall be December 6. 1973 
through January 19, 1974. Bag limits 
on mergansers^ shall be five (5) daily 
and ten (10) in possession, of which 
not more than one (1) daily and two 
(2) in possession may be hooded mer- 
gansers. 

In addition to the required State 
licenses, each person. 16 years of age 
or older, who hunts waterfowl must 
possess a valid Federal Migratory 
Bird Hunting Stamp, available from 
most U.S. Post Offices. Shooting hours 
on migratory waterfowl shall be from 
Vi hour before sunrise to sunset daily. 



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Down Home 



by Robert Christie 



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JPcii 








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tdoors 

ip Georgia 



December, 1973 



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' ' V.*'»* 




BOARD OF 
NATURAL RESOURCES 

James Darby 

Chairman 

Vidalia— 1st District 

William Z. Camp, Sec. 
Newnan— 6th District 

Leo T. Barber, Jr. 
Moultrie— 2nd District 

Dr. Robert A. Collins, Jr. 
Americus— 3rd District 

George P. Dillard 
Decatur— 4th District 

Rankin M. Smith 
Atlanta-5th District 

Leonard E. Foote 
Marietta— 7th District 

Henry S. Bishop 
Alma-8th District 

Clyde Dixon 
Cleveland-9th District 

Leonard Bassford 
Augusta— 10th District 

Jimmie Williamson 
Darien— Coastal District 

Donald J. Carter 
Gainesville— State at Large 

Wade H. Coleman 
Valdosta— State at Large 

James D. Cone 
Decatur— State at Large 

A. Calhoun Todd, Jr. 
Macon— State at Large 



EARTH AND WATER DIVISION 
Sam M. Pickering, Jr., Director 

ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION DIVISION 
R. S. Howard, Jr., Director 

GAME AND FISH DIVISION 
Jack Crockford, Director 

PARKS AND HISTORIC SITES DIVISION 
Henry D. Struble, Director 

OFFICE OF PLANNING AND RESEARCH 
Chuck Parrish, Director 

OF ADMINISTRATIVE SERVICES 
James H. Pittman, Director 

LIC RELATIONS AND 
INFORMATION SECTION 
H. E. (Bud) Van Orden, Chief 



Jimmy Carter 
Governor 

Department of Natural Resources 



Joe D. Tanner 

Commissioner 



George T. Bagby 

Deputy Commissioner 









FEATURES 

Snipe Snafu Aaron Pass 

Wildlife Profiles: Bobwhite Quail . . Aaron Pass 

Unicoi— The New Way 

Seminole T. Craig Martin 

Tide Tables 

Wild Game Cookery NRA 

All In A Night's Work Joe Cullens 

DEPARTMENTS 

Book Review 

Outdoor World 

Outdoor Calendar 21 



( 
S 

i; 
u 
2: 
it 



Outdoors 



it? georgia 



December, 1 973 



Volume II 



Number X. 



Outdoors in Georgia is the official monthly magazine of the Georgia Departmen 
of Natural Resources, published at the Department's offices, Trinity-Washingfor 
Building, 270 Washington Street, Atlanta, Georgia 30334. No advertising accepted 
Subscriptions are $3 tor one year or $6 for three years. Printed by William 
Printing Company, Atlanta, Georgia. Notification of address change must includt 
old address label from a recent magazine, new address ond ZIP code, with 60 day 
notice. No subscription requests will be accepted without ZIP code. Articles one 
photographs may be reprinted when proper credit given. Contributions are wel 
come, but the editors assume no responsibility or liability for loss or damage o1 
articles, photographs, or illustrations. Second-class postage paid at Atlanta, Georgia 

MAGAZINE STAFF 
Phone 656-3530 

H. E. (Bud) Van Orden 

Editor-in Chief 



Bob Wilson Editor 

Liz Carmicfiael Jones . . . Art Director 
Jim Couch .... Staff Photographer 
Bob Busby ... Staff Photographer 

Linda Leggett . Circulation Manager 



Dick Davis Staff Write 

Aaron Pass Staff Write 

T. Craig Martin Staff Write 

Karen H. Stroud Staff Writei 

Joe Cullens Staff Writei 




EDITORIAL 



Outdoors in Georgia- 



Share it with Others 



Sharing experiences with others is one of the 
] ost rewarding and enjoyable occasions for all 
-)ncerned. The person who has learned some- 
:iing worthwhile and who wants to share these 
>ecial moments with others is a rare individual 
i deed. 
Outdoorsmen who have hunted a favorite 
:ld, fished a hidden pond, hiked a scenic trail, 
mped in the wilderness and who share these 
i Iventures with others through stories or by 
;king friends along next time are enriching the 
i es of their fellow sportsmen. 

"Outdoors in Georgia" provides a way for 
•1 aring many great moments of outdoor activity 
1 a continuing basis with the outdoor enthu-' 
list. 



As the seasons change, so do the stories and 
legends change that make each time of the year 
a little different. Our publication is for the active 
participant as well as for those who participate 
through the adventure of reading. 

The outdoors — our greatest natural gift. 
With this thought in mind, why not share this 
gilt with others by giving "Outdoors in Georgia" 
to someone who cares about sharing as much as 
you do. 

&LoL ~£S^S &Jcn/ 



SNIPE 

By Aaron Pass 

Photos by T. Craig Martin 




The Great American Snipe Hunt, 

a cherished, time-worn bit of rustic 

Americana, has served for years as 

one of the mystic initiation rites of 

pre-adolescence. The classic snipe 

hunting fable usually features, as main 

character, a city boy being introduced 

to the pursuit of the elusive snipe by 

his helpful country cousins. The un- 

nate neophyte, armed with an 

feed sack, is taken out after 

i reasonably remote and 

he is instructed to 



stand in a gully and hold open the sack 
while the others herd the snipe down 
the ditch. Often he is advised to clank 
two horseshoes together while chant- 
ing, "Snipe, snipe, snipe ..." The rest 
of the cast, of course, beat it back 
home, and there, between rounds of 
hot chocolate, chuckle over cousin 
Jack's dilemma. 

On the other hand, numerous out- 
door writers have, over the years, en- 
deavored to point out the truth about 
"real" snipe hunting. First, there is 



indeed a bird known as a snipe, 
more correctly, the common or V 
son's snipe (Capella gallinago d< 
cola). He is scientifically classified 
a shorebird and categorized with 
sandpipers and plovers. His near 
relative is the American woodec 
(Plulohela minor) and the two are 
ten confused due to the similarity 
appearance and habits. The major c 
tinction is that of habitat. The woe 
cock resides in dense brush and boj 
woods, while the snipe prefers 



c 



BNAFU 







en marsh. In appearance the snipe 
a more slender, trim bird than the 
:und woodcock and is usually a bit 
hter in coloration. The head mark- 
',s are the most positive field distinc- 
n. On the woodcock the markings 
1 across the head from eye to eye, 
ile the snipe's head is striped front 
back. 

The common snipe is our smallest 
ne bird, weighing in at a mere seven 
ices. Its overall length is about 1 1 
hcs, which includes a 2 '/2-inch bill. 



The long, flexible bill is used to probe 
in moist earth for the snipe's major 
food, earthworms. This inclination ac- 
counts for the snipe's preferred habi- 
tat, generally flooded pastures, grassy 
sloughs and mudflats near standing 
water. 

The history of snipe hunting (the 
"real" kind) goes back to the days of 
market hunting for wildfowl. Although 
small, the shore birds, including the 
snipe, were considered delicacies. The 
great migrating flocks of curlews and 



plovers were lured by decoys and 
"flock-shot" using large-bore shot- 
guns. This market hunting was stopped 
by law, and today, oi all the shorebird 
family, only the woodcock and jack- 
snipe may be legally hunted. These 
species have remained numerous due 
to their wide natural breeding range. 
The snipe is a highK regarded game 
bird in certain parts oi the country, 
both for his excellent table qualities 
and for the challenging target he pre- 
sents the wingshooter. 




. :K 1 L' 
H 7 /'//; me /<>//;,', semi-flexible beak, tlic snipe probes into the m 

for lu\ favorite foods, earthworms and small ernstaeen. \ 



Armed only with this general knowl- 
edge, several members of the Outdoors 
in Georgia staff decided late last win- 
ter to give snipe hunting a go and avail 
themselves of some firsthand experi- 
ence'of the snipe's sporting potential. 
In due course an expedition was laid 
on to the coast, where rumor had it 
snipe were present in abundance. On 
arrival, our hosts, who shall remain 
nameless, assured us unfortunate neo- 
phytes that the snipe was without 
parallel as a sporting bird and that we 
would have a memorable experience. 

The fiasco began in, of all places, a 
barge disguised as a duck blind, an- 
chored in a large tidal river. Since the 
early morning tide prevented our wan- 
dering through the marsh, jump- 
shooting snipe in the classic manner, 
we opted to pass the time duck hunt- 
ing until the tide went out. Our morn- 
ing sojourn was virtually uninter- 
rupted by ducks, except for two shov- 
ellers who circled the camouflaged 
barge at about 200 yards. Our expert 
cluck calling soon increased this dis- 
tance to 500 yards and eventually 
dro 1 ■ the ducks out of sight. During 
all this excitement, someone in the 
party noted that the water level inside 
eemed to be deepening. 
rum was attributed to 



the rain, which was coming down at a 
slow drizzle. Much later, after the rain 
had ceased, the water level inside the 
barge continued to rise. Thus we faced 
bitter reality, our duck blind/barge 
was sinking. 

Our hosts had left a bit earlier to 
get another boat and had neglected to 
mention the depth of water under the 
barge. Our panic-stricken estimates 
ranged from twenty feet to fifty fath- 
oms. Suddenly, with great dignity, the 
old craft began to heel over and go 
under. With considerably less dignity, 
we, like rats, scuttled to the high side 
and abandoned ship (barge? duck 
blind?), determined to see how far 
snipe hunters wearing waders can 
swim. 

It was with no little relief that we 
discovered the water was only four 
feet deep. 

Not having the good sense to be 
warned by the preceding events that it 
was not going to be a red-letter day for 
snipe hunters, we anxiously awaited 
the return of our hosts to commence 
the snipe expedition. 

Now, as has been previously men- 
tioned, the correct manner of hunting 
snipe is to stroll through the marsh, 
shooting at the Hushing birds. This is 
alleged to be very difficult as the snipe 



have a tendency to flush wild and 1 
in a very erratic pattern. Having sei 
large swarms of snipe trading abo 
while still aboard the defunct duo 
blind, we made our first landfall wi 
all the spirit of the Marines hitting tl 
beach at Midway. About five steps ii 
land, we discovered one of the greate 
coastal defenses of all time — so 
marsh. In our educational experieni 
with soft marsh, it was determine 
that on the surface it appears to be? 
somewhat soggy form of terra firm; 
but isn't. When a snipe hunter step 
on soft marsh, he immediately sink 
to a depth of not less than one, no) 
with luck, more than three feet. B 
diligent struggling in an attempt t 
extricate himself, he may, howeve 
work his way down to four or eve 
five feet. It is highly unlikely that h 
will go any deeper than four or fiv 
feet, but it is also unlikely that he wi 
get free without assistance. 

From this initial experience wit 
the sport, we have reached som 
conclusions about snipe hunting an' 
several of these are printable. In gen 
eral, we agree that snipe are a trul; 
difficult target and are quite a chal 
lenge for the wingshooter. They ar 
particularly difficult, we noted, whet 
the shooter is mired hip-pocket-dee] 






l 



the marsh. As for guns, type and, 
i some extent, gauge are not impor- 

t, as long as the owner does not 

id using the piece to break the suc- 
di of the mud. The snipe is a small 

d and a dense pattern of small shot 

h as #9 is the best bet. Ranges vary 
cm fifteen to forty yards and modi- 
j 1 choke is probably the best com- 

rniise. 

In an attempt to get a somewhat 

ader base of experience on snipe, 
j went to the Bureau of Sport Fish- 
i:s and Wildlife and there found an 
ual experienced snipe hunter. Ed- 
rd Carlson, Regional Director of 
i Bureau, grew up hunting snipe. 

•lson confirms that snipe are gener- 
considered a difficult target. He 

s the snipe "... a tremendous 
( rting bird. It is preferred by the 
wingshots of the upper mid-west, 
[fere I grew up." Apparently there is 
: e soft marsh in the upper mid-west. 

f bag of common snipe might not seem 
t inordinary in comparison to the huge 

s of the long-gone market hunters, hut 

presents some really exciting wing 
wting and some really difficult slogging 

•e marsh. 




At the conclusion of the described disaster, both the evening sun 

and one of our heroes seem to be sinking into the marsh. 

The perceptive reader will note the joyful expression of the 

individual on the right and the caution of the individual on the 

left as they navigate around the "soft spot" found by the 

unfortunate wretch in the center. 




Wildlife 
Profiles: 



By Aaron Pass 

Art bv Liz Carmichael Jones 





uat 




i 



The bobwhite quail (Colinus vir- 
ginianus) is well known and well loved 
by most southern sportsmen. Despite 
the quail's relatively small size (about 
1 1 inches long, weighing 8 ounces) he 
commands the respect of a zealous 
following of hunters who rate the quail 
as the number one game bird in the 
southeast. So dominant is the quail on 
the southern sporting scene, that the 
phrase, "gone bird hunting," means 
literally quail hunting to the exclusion 
of other feathered game. 

The bobwhite himself is a small, 
chunky bird bedecked in a variegated 
plumage of black, shades of brown, 
and russet-red. The belly is covered 
with white feathers tipped in black, 
giving a somewhat scaled appearance. 
The cock bird is distinguished by a 
white band above each eye and a white 
throat; on the hen these areas are a 
buff-brown. The common name, bob- 
white, comes from the cheery two-note 
mating call of the cock bird. This dis- 
tinctive whistle is only a portion of the 
rather varied quail vocabulary. 

Mating occurs in April and May 
when cocks and hens pair off. This ini- 
tial pair will stay together through the 
incubation of eggs and the rearing of 
the young birds, on into the winter. 
An average clutch of 14 eggs is laid 
in a ground nest, and both the cock 



and the hen share the incubation dut 
About 23-24 days are required for tl a 
eggs to hatch. If the nest is destroys : 
during the incubation period, the pa i 
will probably re-nest. If the broc : 
hatches out and is lost, it is likely thi 
no re-nesting attempt will be mad 
The brood and the parent birds fori : 
the covey, the basic family unit < 1 
quail populations. Particularly lar< : 
coveys, or those with young of diffe ■ 
ent ages, are the result of two famii , 
groups joining. 

The quail is a member of the Gall 
naceous order of birds, which ident 
fies him as principally a ground dwel 
er. The bobwhite can and does fly an I 
may occasionally perch on limbs, bi : 
by and large he keeps his feet on th ! 
ground. On the ground he nests, reaii 
his young, feeds, roosts, and generall 
lives out his life. It is within thi 
ground level stratum, that the qua 
must supply himself with the daily ne 
cessities of food, water, and cove 
from his enemies. 

The bobwhite quail is essentially 
seed eater, feeding predominantly c 
grass and weed seeds, and waste grai; 
in agricultural areas. Fruits and ber 
ries are often eaten, as are insects, bu 
these are seasonal luxuries. Cover fo 
roosting and nesting, and for escap 1 
from predators, is another essential 



I 



For roosting and nesting, quail prefer 
low, grassy cover with an open over- 
story for escape by flight. Escape cover 
is usually thick and brushy for defense 
against both terrestrial and airborne 
predators. 

Quail are a true prey species near 
the bottom of the food chain. They 
feed primarily on vegetable matter, 
converting it to protein which is sought 
by the meat-eating predators. Almost 
any predator will take a quail when 
given the opportunity. Foxes, owls, 
bobcats, and hawks are all quail preda- 
tors, but all this predation, under nor- 
mal circumstances, does no harm to 
the quail population. It is even bene- 
ficial in that the natural predators tend 
to selectively take the sick, weak, and 
crippled birds, preventing the spread 
of disease or parasites through the 
whole covey. These same predators 
also prey heavily on cotton rats, a 
prime habitat competitor and nest 
spoiler of quail. 

Like most prey species, quail coun- 
ter predation with a high reproductivi- 
ty potential. The quail population buf- 
fers the effects of predation (includ- 
ing human hunting), disease, para- 
sites, and inclement weather by simply 
overproducing young. This surplus is 
trimmed throughout each summer, 
fall, and early winter to bring the quail 
population down to a viable number 
during the year's most severe period — 
late winter. This annual mortality usu- 
ally amounts to 70% -80% loss from 
spring to spring. The hunter's bag is 
taken from this normal loss factor 
which will occur to the same degree 
whether the quail are hunted or not. If 
there is no hunting, other decimating 
factors such as disease or starvation 
will account for the loss. 

Quail hunting is a hallowed and re- 
vered tradition in the south. Southern 
quail hunting was in its heyday when 
small farm agriculture was the domi- 
nant land-use pattern. This created a 
patchwork pattern of grain and cotton 
fields, interspersed with creek bottoms 
and brush-filled gullies. This combi- 
nation of food and cover areas in 
close association was ideal quail habi- 
tat and the quail population boomed. 
World War II, however, land- 
is changed. People have moved 
■ cities and many family farms 
reclaimed by the forest. 




r ' 



- 



8 



Modern agriculture is big business 
and intolerant of the "wasted space" 
that used to be quail cover. 

This change in land-use has had a 
telling effect on quail. With the con- 
tinuing advance of forest land and 
high-efficiency agriculture, the quail 
population has declined from the 
"boom days" of the early part of the 
century. Newer problems in the form 
of urban and suburban expansion into 
the countryside, and the "clean farm- 
ing" philosophy combined with the 
heavy use of pesticides and herbicides 
in modern agriculture are also factors 
which adversely affect the quail popu- 
lation. 

Quail depict graphically the inter- 
relationship between wildlife and its 
habitat. As the usable habitat expands, 
the wildlife adapted to that habitat will 
also expand its population. When the 
habitat shrinks, either naturally or due 
to man-induced changes, the wildlife 
population will also shrink. 

There are a number of techniques 
which can be applied which will bene- 
fit quail populations, and cost little 
more than simple consideration. Lack 



of cover is often a prime limiting fat 
tor on an efficient clean farm. Qua 
habitat can be increased by a numbc 
of methods. Leaving a brushy bordt 
strip around fields is a great help. Th 
border strip should be "knocked back 
by mowing or disking to keep it froi 
becoming too dense for quail use. Thi 1 
same procedure, applied to "odd 
field corners, drains, and roadside 
adds greatly to usable cover, by pre 
viding cover intrusions into fields an 
pastures to increase quail utilizatio 
of the waste grain found there. 

Woodland owners and manager 
can very simply increase their qua 
populations by the controlled use c 
fire and by adequate tree thinning 
This combination provides for 
healthy undergrowth of grasses anr 
weeds which provide quail food am 
cover in a pine forest. Since fire cai 
be damaging to hardwoods, fooi 
plantings are recommended for thi 
type of woodland. These planting 
should consist of species adaptable ti 
the region; the lespedezas, millet 
peas, or any kind of the cereal grain 
all work fine. 



ft 



UNICOI the new way 




Photos by Edwin Forlson 



I, 



.n an area of great natural beauty, 
where the basic elements of mountain 
earth, clear air and sparkling water 
seem to be molded especially to pro- 
vide myriad recreational opportuni- 
ties, Georgia lias established the Uni- 
coi Outdoor Recreation Experiment 
Station, one mile north of Helen. 

The overall purpose of Unicoi Sta- 
tion is to explore the problems created 
by man's ever increasing demands on 
a limited and delicate environment 
and to develop new ways for everyone 
to use and enjoy it, while at the same 
time preserving precious and dwind- 
ling natural areas. As one approach 
toward meeting this goal, an inno- 
vative plan for recreation facilities and 
programs has been launched at Unicoi. 
This includes 100. tent and recrea- 
tional vehicle campsites; 20 one, two, 
and three bedroom lakefront cottages; 
two beach areas with canoes and row- 
boats; a general store; and a program 
of planned recreation and crafts ac- 
tivities. With the recent addition of a 
lodge and conference center, the fa- 
cilities were completed. 

Open to vacationers and conference 
groups all year, the Center offers su- 
perb family accommodations at bud- 
get prices. Located on the crest of a 
wooded hill with mountain panoramas 
in every direction, the new lodge actu- 
ally is a group of four buildings. The 
Center houses the restaurant, confer- 
ence rooms, spacious lounges and a 
craftshop. Three lodging clusters next 
to the Center contain 60 cedar paneled 
guest rooms, each featuring individual 
climate control and magnificent views 
of the forest and mountains. The focal 
point of each cluster is its spacious 
commons room, where a vaulted ceil- 
ing rises two stories above a sunken 




fireplace ringed by built-in sofa seat- 
ing. Four room arrangements accom- 
modate up to five guests, and the larger 
rooms feature sleeping lofts especially 
planned for children. Rates range 
from $13 to $19, with an additional 
$2 charge for each adult (12 and 
older) above double occupancy. 

For conference groups, Unicoi Cen- 
ter offers a peaceful setting away from 
the noise and distractions of the city, 
yet completely equipped and designed 
for successful meetings. 

The main conference room accom- 
modates up to 180, features a built-in 
sound system, and can be divided into 
two or three smaller rooms. There are 
two smaller rooms, one seating 40, the 
other 15, while verandas and outdoor 
amphitheaters offer more casual set- 
tings. 

The Center's conference staff can 
provide assistance in program plan- 
ning, presentation and evaluation. A 
full range of audiovisual equipment 
and conference aids are available and 
onference support services include 
photography, brochure prep- 
id secretarial support. 



The Unicoi Center restaurant offers 
everything from sandwiches to full- 
course meals. Special picnics, cook- 
outs and banquets can be arranged for 
conference and family groups. 

Families can enjoy Unicoi Station's 
cottages and camping facilities. Twen- 
ty unusual one, two, and three bed- 
room lakeside cottages feature full 
kitchens, electric heat and cheery fire- 
places; and they incorporate such ac- 
cents as carpeted bedrooms and bent- 
wood rockers. They rent complete 
with all linens and kitchen and table 
utensils. 

One hundred campsites provide for 
every camping preference: recrea- 
tional vehicle sites equipped with wa- 
ter and electric hook-ups, non-electri- 
fied RV sites, tent sites and unique 
group camping platforms. Campsite 
amenities include tables, grills, water, 
comfort stations with liot showers, a 
central dump station for RV holding 
tanks, campfire rings, amphitheater, 
walking trails, beach and swimming 
area, and a country store offering 
camping staples and mountain crafts. 

The mountain area surrounding 



Unicoi offers many recreational ai 
scenic opportunities. Backpacking < 
the Appalachian Trail, canoeing on tl 
Chattahoochee and Chattooga Ri 
ers, and exploring the Tallulah Gor; 
are a few of the activities open to tl 
hearty. Less strenuous pleasures i 
elude fishing, sightseeing, or qui 
contemplation in some placid spot. 
In the language of the Cheroke 
who once hunted and fished in the 
Blue Ridge Mountains, Unicoi meai 
the "New Way." The facility whk 
bears the name today is dedicated to 
new way, both in preserving precioi 
natural areas and in providing facil 
ties and programs to make a visit I 
Unicoi much more than just a trip i 
the mountains. 

For more information and reserv; 
tions, contact: 

Reservations Clerk 

Unicoi 

P.O. Box 256 

Helen, Georgia 30545 

Phone: 404-848-2201 










I ! 



SEMINOLE! 




i 




I 






M » it 



Jy T. Craig Martin 

hotos by the Author 



Ice forming on the bass boat? 

Tackle moldering in the closet? Fami- 
y beginning to wear on you during 
hose long winter weekends indoors? 
s that what's troubling you, bucko? 

Then free your boat, unearth that 

: ackle and say goodbye to the wife 
nd kids, raise yourself from those 
Ireary dreams of yesteryear: it's time 
or a trip to Lake Seminole! 

Snuggled into Georgia's far south- 
zest corner, Seminole offers year 
ound fishing, but perhaps its greatest 
ervice is as a remedy to those mid- 
winter blues. While Lanier and Hart- 
k\\ and Jackson and Sinclair chal- 
;nge polar bears using lead lines to 

: earch out an occasional bass, Semi- 
ole may offer shirtsleeve weather and 
5-degree water temperature. And 
lat's enough to rouse any angler from 

i is winter hibernation. 

Seminole's log and stump-choked 

' 'aters would make any bass fisher- 



man smile in anticipation, but this 
shallow lake also harbors fat crappie 
and bream, and offers such exotics as 
chain pickerel and striped bass. And 
all of them can be caught in the winter. 

The secret to cold weather fishing 
at Seminole, at least according to Jack 
Wingate, a lodge and marina operator 
who's lived nearby all his life, is to 
keep very close track of its fast- 
changing water temperature. Seminole 
is a very shallow lake, and its tem- 
perature can vary by 1 5 or 20 degrees 
in a couple of days. The trick is to fish 
when the water is at its warmest, for 
the fish will be feeding best then. 

Wingate recommends a quick foray 
into Spring Creek to test the "worm 
drops" (areas that usually produce on 
soft plastic lures). If nothing turns up 
in this shallow, stumpy area, he then 
heads back out into the deeper chan- 
nels, reasoning that the bass have re- 
mained out in the areas with more 
stable temperatures. Out there he 
works with deep-running plugs and 
the darker plastic worms. 

He also suggests a specialized form 
of structure fishing for the winter man. 



Here the angler fishes near each stump 
or log, moving rather quickly from 
obstruction to obstruction and ignor- 
ing the open water between. The lure 
is tossed over near the structure, al- 
lowed to sink, then moved a short 
way. If no strike comes, it is quickl) 
retrieved, then cast into another spot. 
The reasoning behind this tactic seems 
to be that a bass will be sluggish in the 
cooler water and won't chase the bait 
very far from its holding ground. 

For those who don't know Spring 
Creek from foggy bottom, Wingate 
and the other marina operator: usu- 
ally have maps of Seminole, and they 
are happy to part with some inform. i 
tion on where and how to fish during 
the prevalent conditions. 

The Seminole-bound angler would 
bs ill-advised to discard Ins longjohns 
just because the lake enjoj S occasional 
spurts of good weather: temperatures 
in the low 30s aren't uncommon, and 
that's right brisk on am lake Warm 
clothes and foul weather gear should 
accompany any fisherman, and at least 
the rain gear should he in th< boaf 
each time he heads out from the dock. 



! } 




I his lake is both big and shallow. .1 
dangerous combination in bad weath- 
er. Even moderate winds can manu- 
facture substantial waves here, and the 
newcomer would do well to head in at 
the first sign of an approaching storm. 

Seminole is about a six or seven 
hour drive from Atlanta, which means 
that the fanatic could leave after work 
on Friday and reach Bainbridge in 
plenty of time for a good night's sleep 
before Saturday's fishing, since sunup 
doesn't come till 7 or 7:30 a.m. And 
he could leave by about three on Sun- 
day after a few hours on the lake and 
still rest a bit before returning to work 
on Monday. 

Several of the marinas offer lodging, 
and there are plenty of motel facilities 
in Bainbridge. Wingate and others 
can provide -guide service, a worth- 
while expenditure for those new to 
the lake. 

So don't hibernate this winter, 
grouching at your wife and kids as you 
watch the ice forming on your boat or 
you decide that those hooks just can't 
stand another sharpening. Drive just 
a little to enjoy a lot. Visit Lake 
Seminole! 

Marinas on Lake Seminole 

Dunn's Camp: William S. Turner, 
(912) 861-3436 

Ga. 39 & 253, Donalsonville. Boat 
rental, motor rental, overnight fa- 
cilities, launching ramp. bait, tackle. 
camping. 

Jack Wingate's Camp: Jack Win- 
gate. (912) 246-0658 
Ga. 97, Bainbridge. Boat rental, 
motor rental, guides, overnight fa- 
cilities, food, boat launching ramp, 
bait, tackle, camping. 

Reynolds bantling: Sepriton, 

(912) 861-3247 

Off Ga. 253. Donalsonville. Boal 

rental, motor rental, guides, over- 
night facilities, food, launching 
ramp, bait, tackle, camping. 

Stone's Landing: Bill & Lou Walley, 

(912) 246-2650 

Off Ga. 310-253. Bainbridge. Boal 
rental, motor rental, overnight fa- 
cilities, launching ramp, bait, tackle, 

camping, food, 



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Outdoors in Georgia Zwj - a special print for 
you or for someone you like. Simply send a 
three-year gift subscription to a friend and 
get a 16x20 format print of this painting by 
Mel Wolfe for yourself. If you're jccling really 
generous, bare us send your print to your 
friend— just let us knon\ nell enclose a gift 
card. 

If you want an extra print, enclose S2. W 
and tell us where to send it. 

This offer is good only until limitary 31, 
1974. 



\ i * \ 



IIS! 



kj'S^ $ *• 



MVWfc 



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J^vM 



1914 GEORGIA THE TABLES 

This Tide Table for 1974 is furnished to you compliments of OUTDOORS I 
GEORGIA for your use in coastal fishing and hunting. 

Fold it and put it in your tackle box, hunting coat, or wherever it will always I 
handy, for use all year long. 

To keep up-to-date on everything about outdoor recreation in Georgia, keep up yo\ 
OUTDOORS IN GEORGIA subscription. For new subscriptions, send $3.00 for a yea 
$5.00 for two years or $6.00 for three years to OUTDOORS IN GEORGIA, 270 Was 
ington St., S.W., Atlanta, Georgia 30334. For renewals, please furnish the address lab 
off your latest issue. 

P.S. Please remember . . . be a good sportsman. Obey all regulations, and don't litter! 



Times given are Eastern Standard— adjust for Daylight Saving by adding one hour. 

Calculations are for Savannah River Entrance. Corrections for other locations can be made I 
using the accompanying tidal difference data. Merely add or subtract the correction as indicate 
for the specific location. 



2707 
2715 



2719 
2727 
2731 

2733 
2739 
2743 



2747 
2749 



DIFFERENCES 

Time 
High Low 

GEORGIA Water Water 

Savannah River 

Tybee Light —0 08 

Port Wentworth +0 33 

Tybee Creek and 
Wassaw Sound 

Tybee Creek entrance . . . —0 07 

Thunderbolt +0 34 

Isle of Hope, Skidaway River +0 52 

Ossabaw Sound 

Egg Island +0 06 

Fort McAllister, Ogeechee R. +0 50 

Cane Patch Creek entrance . +0 57 

St. Catherines and 
Sapelo Sounds 

Kilkenny Club, Kilkenny Cr. . +0 31 

Sunbury, Medway River . . +0 56 

Blackbeard Island . . . . +0 20 

' , at Old Teakettle Cr. . +0 47 



-0 15 


2762 


+ 41 


2763 




2769 




2771 




2773 


+ 02 




+ 09 


2779 


+ 25 


2781 




2785 




2787 


+ 07 




+ 1 13 


2797 


+ 40 


2799 




2807 




2817 


+ 13 


2821 


+ 42 


2823 


+ 19 


2825 


+ 43 


2827 



DIFFERENCE 1 

Time 

High Low 

Doboy and Altamaha Water Wa " 
Sounds 

Blackbeard Cr., Blackbeard I. +0 21 + - 

Sapelo Island 00 +0 ( 

Darien, Darien River . . . .+110 +1 

Wolf Island +0 06 +0 : 

Champney I., S. Altamaha R. +112 +2 'A 

St. Simons Sound 

St. Simons Sound bar ... +0 01 — ( ' 

St. Simons Light +0 24 +0:{ 

Troup Cr. entr., Mackay R. . +0 54 +0'? 

Brunswick, East River ... +0 55 +0<( 

St. Andrew Sound 

Jekyll Point +0 28 +0 'A 

Jointer Island, Jointer Creek +1 02 +0^5 

Dover Bluff, Dover Creek . . +0 57 +0 o 

Cumberland Wh., Cumb. R. . +0 40 + 0^2 

Cumberland Sound 

St. Marys Entr., north jetty . +0 15 +0 15 

Crooked River entrance + 1 23 +1 12 

Harritts Bluff, Crooked River +2 09 +2 12 

St. Marys, St. Marys River. . +121 +113 



JANUARY, 1974 



FEBRUARY, 1974 







High 


Water 




Low 


Water 


Day 


A.M. 


Ht. 


P.M. 


Ht 


A.M. 


P.M. 


1 Toe. 


12:36 


6.4 


12:55 


60 


7:03 


7:33 


2 Wed. 


1:32 


6.5 


1:49 


59 


8:06 


8:31 


3Thu. 


2:32 


6.7 


2:52 


5.9 


9:09 


9:32 


4 Fri 


3:36 


7.0 


4:00 


6.0 


10:13 


10:30 


5 Sat 


4:41 


7.4 


5:07 


6.2 


11:13 


11:27 


6 Sun. 


5:43 


7.8 


6:09 


66 


— 


12:11 


7Mon. 


6:41 


8.2 


7:05 


69 


12:24 


1:07 


8Tue. 


7:34 


8.5 


8:00 


7.2 


1:20 


2:00 


9 Wed. 


8:25 


8.5 


8:52 


7 4 


2:15 


2:52 


lOTho. 


9:15 


8.3 


9:44 


7.4 


3:08 


3:42 


11 Fri. 


10:06 


8.0 


10:40 


7.3 


4:00 


4:31 


12 Sat. 


10:59 


7.5 


11:36 


7.1 


4:53 


5:20 


13 Sun. 


11:50 


7.0 


— 


— 


5:46 


6:09 


14Mon. 


12:31 


6.9 


12:41 


65 


6:41 


7:03 


15Tue. 


1:27 


6.7 


1:35 


6.0 


7:42 


7:59 


16 Wed. 


2:23 


6.5 


2:31 


5 7 


8:42 


8:55 


17Thu. 


3:26 


6.3 


3:28 


5.5 


9:40 


9:51 


18 Fri. 


4:25 


6.3 


4:30 


5.4 


10:33 


10:42 


19 Sat. 


5:23 


6.4 


5:26 


5 5 


11:24 


11:31 


20 Sun. 


6:09 


6.6 


6:14 


57 


— 


12:14 


21 Mon. 


6:51 


6.7 


6:53 


59 


12:17 


12:59 


22 Tue. 


7:28 


6.8 


7:31 


6.0 


1:02 


1:39 


23 Wed. 


8:01 


6.9 


8:05 


62 


1:44 


2:20 


24Thu. 


8:32 


6.8 


8:39 


6.3 


2:24 


2:57 


25 Fri. 


9:04 


6.8 


9:14 


6.4 


3:02 


3:32 


26 Sat. 


9:34 


66 


9:49 


6.4 


3:38 


4:06 


27 Sun. 


10:11 


6.5 


10:29 


6.5 


4:15 


4:40 


28 Mon. 


10:48 


6.3 


11:15 


66 


4:53 


5:17 


29 Tue. 


11:33 


6.1 


— 


— 


5:38 


6:02 


30 Wed. 


12:05 


6.6 


12:21 


5.9 


6:29 


6:55 


31 Thu. 


12:58 


6.6 


1:17 


57 


7:31 


7:57 


Moon Phases: 












1st Qtr 


1st, Full Moc 


n 8th, 


Last Qtr. 


15th, New 


Moon 23rd, 


1st Qtr. 


31st 

















High Water 




Low W 


ater 


Day 


A.M. 


Ht. 


P.M 


Ht 


AM 


P.M 


1 Fri. 


2:01 


6 7 


2:22 


5.7 


8:41 


9:03 


2 Sat. 


3:08 


6 H 


3:35 


S 8 


9:48 


10:07 


3 Sun. 


4:21 


7.1 


4:50 


6.1 


10:53 


11:10 


4 Mon. 


5:27 


7 5 


5:58 


6 6 


11:53 


— 


5 Tue. 


6:27 


7.9 


6:54 


7.1 


12:09 


12:48 


6 Wed. 


7:20 


8 2 


7:48 


7 5 


1:07 


1:41 


7 Thu. 


8:10 


8 3 


8:37 


7.7 


2:02 


2:32 


8 Fri. 


8:58 


8 1 


9:27 


7 8 


2:53 


3:20 


9 Sat. 


9:44 


7 8 


10:16 


7 6 


3:44 


4:05 


10 Sun. 


10:32 


7 3 


11:06 


7 3 


4:32 


4:51 


11 Mon. 


11:20 


68 


11:57 


7 


5:20 


5.36 


12 Tue. 


— 


— 


12:07 


6.3 


6:10 


6:25 


13 Wed. 


12:49 


6.6 


12:57 


5 8 


7:05 


7:19 


14 Thu. 


1:43 


6? 


1:48 


5 4 


8:03 


8:16 


15 Fri. 


2:40 


6.0 


2:47 


5 2 


9:03 


9:16 


16 Sat. 


3:45 


5 9 


3.49 


5 2 


10:01 


10:12 


17 Sun. 


4:46 


6.0 


4:53 


5.4 


10:54 


11:03 


18 Mon. 


5:39 


6.2 


5:45 


5 6 


11:42 


11:52 


19 Tue. 


6:24 


65 


6:27 


6.0 


— 


12:27 


20 Wed. 


7:01 


67 


7:04 


6.3 


12:37 


1:09 


21 Thu. 


7:35 


68 


7:41 


6.5 


1:20 


1:49 


22 Fri. 


8:06 


6.8 


8:13 


6 B 


2:00 


2:27 


23 Sat. 


8:36 


6 8 


8:48 


6 V 


2:38 


3:01 


24 Sun. 


9:08 


6 7 


9:23- 


7 


3:15 


3:36 


25 Mon. 


9:42 


6 5 


10:04 


7 1 


3:52 


4:11 


26 Tue. 


10:22 


6 4 


10:48 


7.1 


4:32 


4:50 


27 Wed. 


11:06 


6 2 


11:38 


7 


5:13 


5:33 


28 Thu. 


11:59 


60 




— 


6:05 


6:23 



Moon Phases: 

Full Moon 6th, Last Qtr 14th, New Moon 22nd 





1 


WARCH, 19 

High Water 


74 


Low 


Water 


Day 


A.M. 


Ht. 


P.M. 


Ht. 


A.M. 


P.M. 


1 Fri. 


12:36 


6.9 


12:57 


5.8 


7:08 


7:33 


2 Sat. 


1:38 


6.8 


2:06 


5.7 


8:20 


8:43 


3 Sun. 


2:51 


6.8 


3:23 


5 9 


9:31 


9:53 


4 Mon. 


4:04 


7.0 


4:41 


6.3 


10:35 


10:57 


5 Tue. 


5:13 


73 


5:45 


69 


11:34 


11:56 


6 Wed. 


6:12 


7.7 


6:43 


75 


— 


12:28 


7 Thu. 


7:04 


80 


7:33 


7.9 


12:53 


1:19 


8 Fri. 


7:51 


8.0 


8:19 


8.1 


1:45 


2:07 


9 Sat. 


8:37 


7.9 


9:05 


8.1 


2:36 


2:54 


10 Sun. 


9:20 


7.5 


9:50 


79 


3:23 


3:37 


11 Mon. 


10:03 


7.1 


10:35 


7.5 


4:08 


4:19 


12 Tue. 


10:46 


6.6 


11:19 


7,1 


4:54 


5:03 


13 Wed. 


11:30 


6.2 


— 


— 


5:40 


5:46 


14 Thu. 


12:07 


6.6 


12:18 


5.8 


6:28 


6:36 


15 Fri. 


12:58 


6.2 


1:09 


5.5 


7:24 


7:33 


16 Sat. 


1:53 


59 


2:05 


5 3 


8:24 


8:37 


17 Sun. 


2:55 


5.8 


3:08 


5.3 


9:23 


9:37 


18 Mon. 


3:59 


5.9 


4:10 


5 5 


10:15 


10:30 


19 Tue. 


4:57 


6 1 


5:07 


5 9 


11:05 


11:21 


20 Wed. 


5:45 


6.3 


5:53 


63 


11:50 


— 


21 Thu. 


6:25 


66 


6:35 


6.7 


12:08 


12:32 


22 Fri. 


7:02 


6.7 


7:12 


7 1 


12:51 


1:12 


23 Sat. 


7:36 


6.8 


7:46 


7.4 


1:32 


1:51 


24 Sun. 


8:09 


6 8 


8:22 


7 6 


2:12 


2:28 


25 Mon. 


8:43 


68 


9:00 


7 7 


2:53 


3:07 


26 Tue. 


9:20 


6.7 


9:43 


77 


3:33 


3:46 


27 Wed. 


10:02 


6.5 


10:29 


7.6 


4:14 


4:27 


28 Thu. 


10:51 


6.3 


11:21 


7 4 


5:01 


5:14 


29 Fri. 


11:46 


6.1 


— 


— 


5:53 


6:12 


30 Sat. 


12:21 


7.2 


12:50 


6 


6:55 


7:19 


31 Sun. 


1:24 


70 


2:00 


6 


8:05 


8:32 


Moon Phases: 

1st Qtr. 1st, Full Moc 
1st Qtr. 31st 


n 8th, 


Last Qtr 


15th, New Moon 23rd, 



APRIL, 1974 







High Water 




Low 


Water 


Dcy 


A.M. 


Ht. 


P.M. 


Ht 


A.M. 


P.M 


1 Mon. 


2:35 


6.9 


3:16 


ft 3 


9:14 


9:41 


2 Tue. 


3:48 


7.0 


4:30 


6 8 


10:15 


10:44 


3 Wed. 


4:54 


7.2 


5:31 


7.4 


11:13 


11:42 


4 Thu. 


5:53 


7 5 


6:27 


7 9 


— 


12:03 


5 Fri. 


6:44 


7 6 


7:15 


8 ? 


12:35 


12:53 


6 Sat. 


7:30 


7 6 


758 


8 4 


1:26 


1:40 


7 Sun. 


8:12 


7 5 


8:40 


8 3 


2:15 


2:25 


8 Mon. 


8:53 


7 2 


9:21 


80 


3:01 


3:07 


9 Tue. 


9:34 


6 9 


10:03 


7 6 


3:44 


3:49 


10 Wed. 


10:15 


6 5 


10:44 


7.1 


4:26 


4:31 


11 Thu. 


10:58 


6.1 


11:30 


6 7 


5:11 


5:12 


12 Fri. 


11:44 


5 8 






5:57 


5:59 


13 Sat. 


12:17 


6 4 


12:33 


5 7 


6:46 


6:54 


14 Sun. 


1:08 


6 1 


1:27 


5.6 


7:41 


7:56 


15 Mon. 


2:01 


5 9 


2:25 


5 ft 


8:39 


8:56 


16 Tue. 


3:01 


5 Q 


3:24 


5 8 


9:34 


9:53 


17 Wed. 


4:01 


ft 


4:20 


ft ? 


10:22 


10:44 


18 Thu. 


4:52 


6 2 


5:12 


ft ft 


11:07 


11:32 


19 Fri. 


5:42 


ft 4 


5:58 


7.1 


11:51 


— 


20 Sat. 


6:23 


ft ft 


6:37 


7 .5 


12 19 


12:33 


21 Sun. 


7:01 


ft 7 


7:18 


7 o 


1:02 


1:15 


22 Mon. 


7:41 


ft 8 


7:57 


8 1 


1:46 


1:57 


23 Tue. 


8:19 


ft 8 


8:41 


8 7 


2:32 


2:39 


24 Wed. 


9:01 


ft 7 


9:25 


8-1 


3:15 


3:23 


25 Thu 


9:47 


ft ft 


10:16 


7 9 


4:01 


412 


26 Fri. 


10:43 


ft -1 


11:09 


7 7 


4:51 


5:04 


27 Sat. 


11:43 


ft 3 






5:44 


602 


28 Sun. 


12:10 


7 1 


12:49 


ft 3 


6:44 


7:10 


29 Mon. 


1:14 


7 1 


1:57 


ft s 


7:51 


8:19 


30 Tue. 


2:21 


7 


3:07 


ft 7 


8:54 


9 27 



Moon Phases: 

Full Moon 6th, Last Qtr 14lh, New Moon 22nd, 1 it Qt. 29lh 



iy 







MAY, 1974 












High Water 




Low 


Water 


Day 


A.M. 


Ht. 


P.M. 


Ht. 


A.M. 


P.M. 


1 Wed. 


3:27 


6.9 


4:15 


7.2 


9:54 


10:28 


2 Thu. 


4:32 


6.9 


5:15 


7.6 


10:47 


11:24 


3 Fri. 


5:31 


7.0 


6:08 


8.0 


11:38 


— 


4 Sat. 


6:22 


7.1 


6:54 


8.2 


12:16 


12:27 


5 Sun. 


7:08 


7 1 


7:38 


8.2 


1:06 


1:13 


6 Mori. 


7:47 


6.9 


8:17 


8.1 


1:52 


1:58 


7Tue. 


8:28 


6.8 


8:56 


7.8 


2:38 


2:41 


8 Wed. 


9:05 


6.5 


9:33 


7.5 


3:21 


3:21 


9Thu. 


9:46 


6.3 


10:14 


7.1 


4:03 


4:03 


10 Fri. 


10:26 


6.1 


10:53 


6.8 


4:42 


4:42 


1 1 Sat. 


11:12 


5.9 


11:36 


6.5 


5:24 


5:27 


12 Sun. 


11:59 


5.8 


— 


— 


6:10 


6:15 


13Mon. 


12:23 


6.2 


12:49 


5.8 


7:00 


7:11 


14Tue. 


1:13 


6.1 


1:43 


5.9 


7:53 


8:11 


15 Wed. 


2:04 


6.0 


2:35 


6.1 


8:46 


9:09 


16Thu. 


2:58 


5.9 


3:31 


6.5 


9:36 


10:04 


17 Fri. 


3:56 


6.0 


4:28 


6.9 


10:22 


10:54 


18 Sat 


4:49 


6.1 


5:18 


7.3 


11:10 


11:44 


19 Sun. 


5:40 


6.3 


6:07 


7.8 


11:55 


— 


20Mon. 


6:30 


6.5 


6:53 


8.1 


12:33 


12:41 


21 Tue. 


7:13 


6.7 


7:37 


8.4 


1:22 


1:30 


22 Wed. 


8:00 


6.8 


8:24 


8.5 


2:12 


2:19 


23Thu. 


8:49 


6.8 


9:13 


8.4 


2:59 


3:08 


24 Fri. 


9:41 


6.7 


10:05 


8.1 


3:50 


4:00 


25 Sat. 


10:37 


6.7 


11:01 


7.8 


4:40 


4:55 


26 Sun. 


11:40 


6.7 


11:59 


7.5 


5:33 


5:54 


27 Mon. 


— 


— 


12:44 


6.7 


6:31 


6:57 


28 Tue. 


1:00 


7.2 


1:49 


6.8 


7:31 


8:05 


29 Wed. 


2:01 


6.9 


2:52 


7.0 


8:30 


9:08 


30 Thu. 


3:03 


6.6 


3:54 


7.3 


9:28 


10:09 


31 Fri. 


4:04 


65 


4:54 


7.5 


10:22 


11:03 


Moon Phases: 














Full Moon 


6th, Las 


1 Qtr. 14th 


New Moo 


n 21st, 


1st Qtr. 28th 



JUNE, 1974 







High Water 




Low 


•Voter 


Day 


A.M. 


Ht. 


P.M. 


Ht. 


A.M. 


P.M. 


1 Sat. 


5:03 


6.5 


5:47 


7.7 


11:13 


11:57 


2 Sun. 


5:57 


6.5 


6:35 


7.9 


11:59 


— 


3 Mon. 


6:43 


6.4 


7:17 


7.9 


12:45 


12:45 


4 Tue. 


7:26 


6.4 


7:57 


7.7 


1:31 


1:31 


5 Wed. 


8:03 


6.3 


8:34 


7.6 


2:17 


2:13 


6 Thu. 


8:42 


6.2 


9:08 


7.3 


2:59 


2:56 


7 Fri. 


9:21 


6.1 


9:45 


7.1 


3:38 


3:36 


8 Sat. 


9:58 


6.0 


10:21 


6.8 


4:17 


4:16 


9 Sun. 


10:40 


6.0 


11:00 


6.6 


4:56 


4:56 


10 Mon. 


11:25 


6.0 


11:42 


6.4 


5:36 


5:41 


11 Tue. 


— 


— 


12:10 


6.0 


6:20 


6:29 


12 Wed. 


12:27 


6.2 


1:00 


6.2 


7:05 


7:24 


13 Thu. 


1:15 


6.0 


1:51 


6.4 


7:56 


8:23 


14 Fri. 


2:05 


5.9 


2:46 


6.6 


8:47 


9:23 


15 Sat. 


3:01 


5.9 


3:43 


7.0 


9:40 


10:19 


16 Sun. 


4:02 


5.9 


4:42 


7.4 


10:30 


11:12 


17 Mon. 


5:02 


6.1 


5:37 


7.8 


11:21 


— 


18 Tue. 


6:00 


6.3 


6:30 


8.2 


12:06 


12:14 


19 Wed. 


6:53 


6.6 


7:20 


8.5 


12:59 


1:07 


20 Thu. 


7:44 


6.8 


8:10 


8.6 


1:52 


2:01 


21 Fri. 


8:37 


7.0 


9:01 


8.5 


2:44 


2:56 


22 Sat. 


9:31 


7.1 


9:54 


8.3 


3:35 


3:49 


23 Sun. 


10:29 


7.1 


10:48 


8.0 


4:25 


4:43 


24 Mon. 


11:28 


7.1 


11:44 


7.6 


5:16 


5:38 


25 Tue. 


— ' 


— 


12:28 


7.1 


6:10 


6:38 


26 Wed. 


12:40 


7.1 


1:29 


7.1 


7:05 


7:42 


27 Thu. 


1:36 


6.7 


2:29 


7.1 


8:01 


8:45 


28 Fri. 


2:36 


6.3 


3:29 


7.2 


9:00 


9:45 


29 Sat. 


3:37 


6.1 


4:29 


7.2 


9:56 


10:41 


30 Sun. 


4:36 


6.0 


5:25 


7.3 


10:46 


11:32 



Moon Phases: 

Full Moon 4th, Last Qtr. 13th, New Moon 20th, 1st Qtr. 26th 







JULY, 1974 












High Water 




Low 


Water 


Day 


A.M. 


Ht. 


P.M. 


Ht. 


A.M. 


P.M. 


1 Mon. 


5:32 


6.0 


6:15 


7 4 


11:34 


— 


2 Tue. 


6:22 


6.0 


6:57 


75 


12:22 


12:24 


3 Wed. 


7:04 


6.1 


7:36 


7.5 


1:09 


1:08 


4 Thu. 


7:43 


6.2 


8:11 


7.4 


1:52 


1:52 


5 Fri. 


8:19 


6.2 


8:45 


7.2 


2:34 


2:33 


6 Sat. 


8:54 


6.2 


9.17 


7.1 


3:13 


3:12 


7 Sun. 


9:31 


6.2 


9:15 


69 


3:50 


3:50 


8 Mon. 


10:11 


6.3 


10:26 


67 


4:26 


4:27 


9 Tue. 


10:50 


6.3 


11:04 


6.5 


5:02 


5:07 


10 Wed. 


11:34 


6.4 


11:45 


63 


5:40 


5:51 


11 Thu. 


— 


— 


12:21 


6 5 


6:21 


6:42 


12 Fri. 


12:30 


6.1 


1:10 


6.7 


7:07 


7:39 


13 Sat. 


1:22 


60 


2:05 


6.9 


8:03 


8:44 


14 Sun. 


2:19 


5.9 


3:04 


7 1 


9:00 


9:45 


15 Mon. 


3:22 


5.9 


4:09 


7.4 


9:59 


10:45 


16 Tue. 


4:31 


6.1 


5:13 


7 8 


10:55 


11:42 


17 Wed. 


5:37 


64 


6:11 


8.2 


11:52 





18 Thu. 


6:37 


6.8 


7:05 


8.6 


12:38 


12:50 


19 Fri. 


7:31 


7 2 


7:57 


8 7 


1:33 


1:46 


20 Sat. 


8:24 


75 


8:47 


8 7 


2:25 


2:41 


21 Sun. 


9:18 


7 7 


9:38 


8 5 


3:16 


3:34 


22 Mon. 


10:12 


7 7 


10:28 


8.1 


4:05 


4:27 


23 Tue. 


11:09 


7.7 


11:21 


7 6 


4:53 


5:20 


24 Wed. 


— 


— 


12:05 


75 


5:43 


6:15 


25 Thu. 


12:15 


7.1 


1:02 


73 


6:36 


7:15 


26 Fri. 


1.08 


6.6 


1:59 


7,2 


7:30 


8:18 


27 Sat. 


2:03 


62 


2:59 


70 


8:29 


9:18 


28 Sun. 


3:04 


5.9 


4:02 


70 


9:27 


10:15 


29 Mon. 


4:07 


58 


5:00 


7 


10:20 


11:07 


30 Tue. 


5:07 


5 B 


5:52 


7.1 


11:12 


11:55 


31 Wed. 


5:58 


6.0 


6:37 


7 3 


High Noon 


Moon Phases: 














Full Moon 


4th, Last Qtr. 12th 


New Moo 


n 19th, 


1st Qtr. 


26th 



AUGUST, 1974 



Day 

1 Thu. 

2 Fri. 

3 Sat. 

4 Sun. 

5 Mon. 

6 Tue. 

7 Wed. 

8 Thu. 

9 Fri. 

10 Sat. 

11 Sun. 

12 Mon. 

13 Tue. 

14 Wed. 

15 Thu. 

16 Fri. 

17 Sat. 

18 Sun. 

19 Mon. 

20 Tue. 

21 Wed. 

22 Thu. 

23 Fri. 

24 Sat. 

25 Sun 

26 Mon. 

27 Tue. 

28 Wed. 

29 Thu. 

30 Fri. 

31 Sat. 



A.M. 

6:40 

7:20 

7:55 

8:29 

9:01 

9:38 

10:15 

10:57 

11:44 

12:47 
1:47 
2:56 
4:10 
5:21 
6:24 
7:17 
8:10 
9:01 
9:51 
10:42 
11:36 

12:38 
1:32 
2:29 
3:33 
4:38 
5:29 
6:14 
6:53 



High Water 
Ht. P.M. 



6.2 
6.4 
6.5 
6.7 
6.7 
6.8 
6.9 
6.9 
7.0 

6.2 

6.1 
6.1 
6.3 

6.8 
73 

7 9 
8.2 

8 4 
8.4 
8.2 
7.9 

6.6 
6.2 
5.9 
5.8 
6.0 
6.2 
6.5 
6.8 



7:14 

7:49 

8:20 

8:51 

9:20 

9:52 

10:28 

11:09 

11:55 

12:34 

1:33 

2:35 

3:45 

4:52 

5:55 

6:49 

7:41 

8:28 

9:17 

10:05 

10:55 

11:43 

12:29 

1:27 

2:25 

3:30 

4:30 

5:23 

6:08 

6:46 

7:19 



Ht. 
7.4 
7.4 
7.3 
7.2 
7.1 
6.9 
6.7 
6.5 
6.3 
7.1 
7.1 
7.3 
7.5 
7.9 
8.3 
8.7 
88 
8.8 
8.5 
8.1 
7.6 
7.1 
75 
7.2 
6.9 
6.8 
6.9 
7.0 
7.2 
7.4 
75 



Low 

A.M. 

12:41 

1:25 

2:05 

2:44 

3:19 

3:52 

4:27 

5:01 

5:42 

6:29 

7:26 

8:29 

9:35 

10:38 

11:38 

12:19 

1:12 

2:03 

2:52 

3:40 

4:27 

5:13 

6:02 

6:57 

7:56 

8:55 

9:53 

10:46 

11:34 

12:11 

12:53 



Water 
P.M. 

12:45 
1:28 
2:09 
2:46 
3:24 
4:00 
4:37 
5:19 
6:05 
7:03 
8:10 
9:18 
10:24 
11:23 

12:35 
1:31 
2:25 
3:17 
4:06 
4:57 
5:49 
6:44 
7:43 
8:47 
9:45 
10:38 
11:26 

12:19 
1:02 



Moon Phases: 

Full Moon 3rd, last Qtr. 1 1th, New Moon 17th, 1st Qtr. 24th 



SEPTEMBER, 1974 



OCTOBER, 1974 







High Water 




Low Water 


Day 


A.M. 


Ht. 


P.M. 


Ht. 


A.M. 


P.M. 


1 Sun. 


7:28 


7.1 


7:51 


7.5 


1:33 


1:42 


2Mon. 


8:00 


7.3 


8:21 


7.4 


2:10 


2:21 


3Tue. 


8:35 


7.4 


8:51 


7.3 


2:46 


2:58 


4 Wed. 


9:07 


7.5 


9:23 


7.1 


3:19 


3:35 


5 Thu. 


9:44 


7.6 


9:58 


6.9 


3:54 


4:12 


6 Fri. 


10:27 


7.6 


10:39 


6.7 


4:29 


4:54 


7 Sat. 


11:14 


7.5 


11:28 


6.5 


5:09 


5:38 


8 Sun. 


— 


— 


12:07 


7.4 


5:58 


6:38 


9Mon. 


12:23 


6.4 


1:08 


7.4 


6:58 


7:46 


lOTue. 


1:29 


6.3 


2:15 


7.5 


8:09 


8:59 


1 1 Wed. 


2:42 


6.4 


3:25 


7.6 


9:19 


10:04 


12Thu 


3:59 


6.8 


4:36 


8.0 


10:24 


11:03 


13 Fri. 


5:10 


7.3 


5:39 


8.3 


11:23 


11:58 


14 Sat. 


6:09 


8.0 


6:32 


8.6 


— 


12:19 


15 Sun. 


7:03 


8.5 


7:22 


8 8 


12:49 


1:15 


16Mon. 


7:53 


8.9 


8:08 


8.7 


1:38 


2:07 


17Tue. 


8:38 


8.9 


8:54 


8.4 


2:27 


2:57 


18 Wed. 


9:26 


8.8 


9:39 


8.0 


3:13 


3:45 


19Thu. 


10:13 


8.5 


10:25 


75 


3:58 


4:32 


20 Fri. 


11:04 


8.0 


11:13 


7.0 


4:43 


5:22 


21 Sat. 


11:54 


7.6 


— 


— 


5:30 


6:13 


22 Sun. 


12:04 


6.6 


12:50 


7.1 


6:21 


7:09 


23 Mon. 


12:55 


6.2 


1:46 


6.9 


7:18 


8:09 


24 Tue. 


1:55 


6.0 


2:46 


6.7 


8:21 


9:09 


25 Wed. 


2:55 


6.0 


3:46 


6.7 


9:21 


10:02 


26Thu. 


3:59 


6.2 


4:42 


69 


10:15 


10:51 


27 Fri. 


4:54 


6.5 


5:29 


7.1 


11:05 


11:34 


28 Sat. 


5:42 


6.9 


6:11 


7,3 


11:50 


— 


29 Sun. 


6:20 


7.3 


6:45 


74 


12:16 


12:32 


30 Mon. 


6:56 


7.6 


7:20 


7.5 


12:56 


1:13 



Moon Phases: 

Full Moon 1st, Last Qtr. 9th, New Moon 16th, 1st Qtr 23rd 



Day 

1 Tue. 

2 Wed. 
3Thu. 

4 Fri. 

5 Sat. 

6 Sun. 

7 Mon. 

8 Tue. 

9 Wed. 

10 Thu 

11 Fri. 

12 Sat. 

13 Sun. 

14 Mon. 

15 Tue. 

16 Wed. 
17Thu. 

18 Fri. 

19 Sat. 

20 Sun. 

21 Mon. 

22 Tue. 

23 Wed. 

24 Thu. 

25 Fri. 

26 Sat. 

27 Sun. 

28 Mon 

29 Tue. 

30 Wed. 

31 Thu. 

Moon Phases: 
Full Moon 
Full Moon 



A.M. 

7:30 

8:06 

8:42 

9:20 

10:03 

10:53 

11:49 

12:12 

1:21 

2:34 

3:48 

4:57 

5:55 

6:45 

7:33 

8:18 

9:02 

9:47 

10:32 

11:20 

12:20 
1:16 
2:13 
3:11 
4:07 
4:58 
5:42 
6:23 
7:01 
7:40 



High Water 
Ht P.M. 



7 9 

8 
8 1 
8.1 
8 
7 9 
7.7 
6 5 

6 5 
6.7 
7.2 

7 8 

8 4 
8 8 
9.1 
9.0 
8 8 
8.4 
7 9 
7.5 

6.2 

6.1 
6.1 

6.3 
66 

70 
7 4 

7 8 
8.1 

8 3 



7:49 
8:22 
8:57 
9:34 
10:19 
11:11 

12:52 
1:59 
3:08 
4:17 

5:18 
6:12 
7:01 
7:46 
8:29 
9:13 
9:57 
10:42 
11:28 
12:10 
1:02 
1:56 
2:52_ 
3:48" 
4:41 
5:26 
6:08 
6:45 
7:20 
7:57 



Ht. 
7.4 

7 4 

7.2 

70 

6 8 
67 

7 6 
7 5 
7 6 

7 8 

8 1 
8 3 

8 4 

8 3 
8.0 
7 7 
7 3 
6 8 
6 5 
7.1 
6 8 
6 6 
6 5 
6.6 
6 7 

6 9 
7.0 

7 2 
7 2 
7 2 



Low Water 
A.M. P.M 



1:33 
2:10 
2:47 
3:24 
4:05 
4:48 
5:40 
6:44 
7:54 
9:06 
10:11 
11:10 

12:24 
1:14 
2:01 
2:47 
3:29 
4:14 
4:59 
5:46 
6:39 

739 

8:39 

9:37 

10:28 

11:15 

High 

12:18 
12:57 

1.38 



1:54 
2:33 
3:12 
3:52 
4:35 
5:24 
6:21 
7:29 
8:40 
9:45 
10:41 
11:34 
12:04 
12:57 
1:48 
2:37 
3:24 
4:09 
4:53 
5:41 
6:33 
7:28 
8:26 
9:20 
10:09 

10:54 

11:37 

Noon 

12:43 

1:27 

2:09 



1st, Last Qtr 8th, Nev 
31st 



Moon 15th, 1st Qtr. 23rd, 



NOVEMBER, 1974 



DECEMBER, 1974 







High 


Water 




Low V 


/ater 


Day 


A.M. 


Ht. 


P.M. 


Ht. 


A.M. 


P.M. 


1 Fri. 


8:19 


8.4 


8:36 


7.1 


2:18 


2:51 


2 Sat. 


9:01 


8.4 


9:18 


7.0 


3:01 


3.36 


3 Sun. 


9:47 


8.2 


10:08 


6.8 


3:46 


4:23 


4 Mon. 


10:40 


8.0 


11:04 


6.7 


4:34 


5:14 


5 Tue. 


11:36 


7.8 


— 


— 


5:28 


6:10 


6 Wed. 


12:09 


6.6 


12:39 


7.6 


6:32 


7:14 


7 Thu. 


1:16 


6.7 


1:43 


7.4 


7:42 


8:19 


8 Fri. 


2:26 


70 


2:50 


7.3 


8:51 


9:23 


9 Sat. 


3:36 


7.3 


3:55 


7.4 


9:56 


10:18 


10 Sun. 


4:41 


7.8 


4:57 


75 


10:54 


11:10 


11 Mon. 


5:37 


8.3 


5:53 


76 


11:48 


— 


12 Tue. 


6:28 


8.6 


6:40 


76 


12:00 


12:40 


13 Wed. 


7:15 


8.7 


7:26 


75 


12:49 


1:28 


14 Thu. 


7:59 


8.6 


8:09 


7.4 


1:36 


2:17 


15 Fri. 


8:41 


8.4 


8:49 


7.1 


2:23 


3:02 


16 Sat. 


9:21 


8.0 


9:30 


68 


3:04 


3:45 


17 Sun. 


10:03 


7.6 


10:11 


6.5 


3:49 


4:28 


18 Mon. 


10:45 


7.2 


10:56 


6.3 


4:29 


5:11 


19Tue. 


11:28 


69 


11:44 


6 1 


5:14 


5:57 


20 Wed. 


— 


— 


12:15 


66 


6:02 


6:44 


21 Thu. 


12:34 


60 


1:03 


6 4 


6:55 


7:38 


22 Fri. 


1:26 


6.1 


1:52 


6 ? 


7:53 


8:31 


23 Sat. 


2:20 


6.2 


2:47 


6.2 


8-52 


9:22 


24 Sun. 


3:14 


6.5 


3:40 


6.2 


9:48 


10:09 


25 Mon. 


4:09 


6.8 


4:34 


63 


10:38 


10:54 


26 Tue. 


5:02 


7.2 


5:23 


6,4 


11:26 


11:39 


27 Wed. 


5:50 


7.6 


6:11 


6 6 


— 


12:12 


28 Thu. 


6:34 


7.9 


6:53 


6.8 


12:25 


12:59 


29 Fri. 


7:17 


8.2 


7:38 


69 


1:09 


1:48 


30 Sat. 


8:02 


8.4 


8:20 


6.9 


1:57 


2:34 



Moon Phases: 

Last Qtr. 7th, New Moon 1 4th, 1 st Qtr. 21 st. Full Moon 29th 







High Water 




Low Water 


Day 


A.M. 


Ht. 


P.M. 


Ht 


A.M. 


P.M. 


1 Sun. 


8:48 


8 4 


9:09 


6 9 


2:44 


3:22 


2 Mon. 


9:37 


8 2 


9:59 


69 


3:34 


4:11 


3 Tue. 


10:29 


S 


10:59 


6 8 


4:24 


5:01 


4 Wed. 


11:25 


7 7 


— 


— 


5:20 


5:55 


5 Thu. 


12:02 


6 8 


12:26 


7 4 


6:21 


6:54 


6 Fri. 


1:06 


6 9 


1:24 


7.1 


7:26 


7:55 


7 Sat. 


2:12 


7 


2:27 


6 3 


8:33 


8:57 


8 Sun. 


3:17 


7 2 


3:30 


6 7 


9:37 


9:53 


9 Mon. 


4:22 


7 5 


4:33 


6 6 


10:35 


10:47 


10 Tue. 


5:21 


7 7 


5:31 


6 7 


11:30 


11:39 


11 Wed. 


6:12 


7.9 


6:23 


6 7 


— 


12:23 


12 Thu. 


7:01 


8 


7:07 


6 7 


12:28 


1:10 


13 Fri. 


7:43 


7 9 


7:49 


6 / 


1:15 


1:57 


14 Sat. 


8:21 


7 B 


8:28 


6 6 


2:00 


2:40 


15 Sun. 


8:58 


7 5 


9:07 


6 4 


2:43 


3:21 


16 Mon. 


9:35 


7 2 


9:44 


6 3 


3:24 


4:02 


17 Tue. 


10:14 


6.V 


10:24 


6 1 


4:03 


4:40 


18 Wed. 


10:51 


6.6 


11:06 


6 1 


4:43 


5:20 


19 Thu. 


11:30 


6 : 


11:51 


6 


5:25 


6:02 


20 Fri. 


— 


— 


1213 


6.1 


6:10 


6:47 


21 Sat. 


12:40 


6.0 


12:59 


5.9 


7:03 


7:37 


22 Sun. 


1:29 


6 1 


1:48 


5.8 


8:00 


8:31 


23 Mon. 


2:22 


6 3 


2:40 


5 7 


9:00 


9:22 


24 Tue. 


3:19 


t S 


3:41 


5.7 


9:59 


10:13 


25 Wed. 


4:18 


6.8 


4:41 


59 


10.52 


11:04 


26 Thu. 


5:15 


7 2 


5:37 


6 1 


1 1:42 


11:56 


27 Fri. 


6:09 


7 6 


6:32 


6 4 




12:37 


28 Sat. 


6:59 


30 


7:20 


6 7 


12:46 


1:28 


29 Sun 


7:47 


3 2 


8:09 


6 V 


1:38 


2:18 


30 Mon. 


8:35 


S3 


9:00 


7,0 


2:30 


3:06 


31 Tue. 


9:25 


8.1 


9:52 


7 1 


3:21 


3 55 


Moon Phases 
Last Qtr 


6th, New 


Moon 13th, 1st Qtr 


21 it. Full Moon 29lh 



21 



Wild Gome Cooker// 



.mm-' ii Suiunui ' i1> - <ic:ariun 



■ 



- ; . • ' : : - -.--. : • s ecai irr 

game iv; re -. . i - . i rra re ise - - - i 

51I zi: - : . htc c j . 1*e kirche i r p _ e 

;.:..:. ed arge . i jame i~rre 

:~ck:- : . . : : r -...:: ': - 

t : - : ::.:. TC 

■ . iic si r . " i 7 . ■ - - . 7 . . . 

: ■--. : l - ■ : ' ■-. 5nmsis 

bI feci 5. tncane ~Psr~ 

.--••- . • " - ■ rrsri scpes za 

: . : 

: -it : : . : l -. . . . i ; : . . 7 l . -. . 

. : 7 : HTC rmj ' 7 7 . 7 : 7 : . 7 : . ; 

OCT _ . : . : ; 

fig jame . : re ies rrccse - - . .-rair 

. . rd . " 7 . : - : 7 : - . . • : 7 . ■ 7:7-7 

- . : ■ 7 : . • . rra . . . • (TTCugfr a grinder 

- - : : - '..:■. 7 : -.--: . - . : tec. 
. . - - rra Errirrra n i : : htc :cl re 

: lame i 7 • i ar ce =rncven ry 
: " ■ - - r cig game 

7 • - . -..::- -idrec 

imp '. eaxz 

: : 7 jroiied ar 

- : . - . . : 

: . . - : . .7 :css 

7 : 7 : - 
: 7 . : : - -. - : : 

- ; 7 



: - : : - E : : : . 

- : re . "" - : - - 

. . . re : iff - i . 

... : . 7 : 7 . : rcairr. <a - 

: . arcs are fence . ■ - : 

: 7 . : ate . r .'- . . ~ 7 :e= 

: p epper fo rase - . - : 

skiilef 5rc sec - - 

: : . : . htc serve a 7 . : . 




: ■ '. 

. ■ : " - 
n : : • 
: - - - . • 
: : ~ 

- . - . : 





_ 



. : " : : : : . - : ; 

t ■ : 

-'-.. . ~ -:;--- 

: : : . : : : : - - - : : 

~ " : : r : : - - - — ; 

" - : ! r 

- - . • 1 - . - : - 

a : :.:-:-- - : _f - - 

:t : ::- t~ ~ - * : . " : '.'--.' :-- 



: - : . : :-. r= 

:: — : - - ~ : roe 

• : • - ■ : ■ r : - - . - : re - : 

• : . - r : : : : - : : - : ■ - : : 

: : : : : : . : 

_ • . = : - : : : - - - : ~ -' r 2E 




■ - 



- - 



: " 



::.::'- 



~~ez taxi' zr aci> ~~t-. 









- - 



" r~ - 



*' T w 



2uici -t^-ES^; - : ! . 



3 



■ -. -. . arc • - - 'i J i-r~ : 

- - : . : 

- " : : ; r : - 

: ' t . ■ : - : - - . ' ' 

: : : r - : . ' - 

: : : t : - 



S« « f-r •" r T . . « • Z i • I : : - : : : 

; . . . - . 

. • : : : = : 



. • : 7 : J 7 . . . 

I 7 ; ; : : : 

r ; . ; . ; - . . : 

7 ~ r; : : 

: 7 : 

- : . . : i ; .' . : : 

. . ■ 



- 




*;, 




Rabbit with Dark Raisin Gravy 



whole cloves 
bay leaves 
teaspoon allspice 

(optional) 
cup dark raisins 
cup brown sugar 




1-2 rabbits cut in 4 

quarters 2 

V2 cup vinegar V2 

2 teaspoons salt 
1 tablespoon minced Vi 

onion flakes or Va 

1 small onion 
chopped 

Place rabbit pieces in deep pot and cover with c< 
water. Add Va cup of vinegar to water and bring 
boil. Let boil for 5 minutes. Throw this water aw. 
Again, cover rabbit with cool water and add Va c 
vinegar, 2 teaspoons salt, onion, cloves, bay lea\ 
and allspice. Cook until almost tender and then a 
raisins and brown sugar. Continue cooking until rab 
is tender and done. Remove rabbit from pot and thick 
liquid with a paste of flour and water. Replace rab 
in thickened gravy and heat just before serving. 



One Dish Squirrel 

1 cup diced onion 
Vi doz. small potatoes, 






cubed 
medium can tomatoes 



squirre 

salt, pepper 

flour 

vegetable oil 1 

Cut squirrel meat into serving pieces. Sprinkle w 
salt, pepper and flour. Fry in oil until lightly brownt 
Layer squirrel, onion, potatoes in casserole dish. Co\ 
with tomatoes. Bake covered in oven set at 350 : F. 
1 Vi hours. 






: 1 



LARGE GAME 



Venison Steaks And Chops Boiled or Sauteed 

If these are from young animals, they need no mari- 
nating. The meat should hang for two or three weeks 
and then be properly cut by your butcher. 

To cook young steaks or chops, heat a heavy skillet 
until quite hot and add half butter and half oil. Saute 
the meat, turning it frequently to brown on both sides 
without charring. Salt and pepper to taste. If you like, 
flame the meat with cognac just before serving. 

Steaks and chops from young animals may be cooked 
in the same manner as beef steaks or lamb chops: 
broiled, grilled or sauteed. 

When broiling or cooking on outdoor grill, cook 
quickly and do not overcook! Game will become tough 
or dry with long broiling or frying. Salt and pepper to 
taste. 

To saute young chops or steaks, melt butter in a 
heavy skillet. Add meat to the hot skillet and saute it 
by turning it often on both sides so that it will brown 
without charring. Salt and pepper to taste. 



Vt 


lb. ground venison 


1 


1 


teaspoon minced 


l'/2 




onion 


y 2 


1 


cup milk 





Venison Roast Baked In Foil 

3-4 lb. roast Preheat oven to 450° F. 

Vi package of dry 
onion soup 

Place roast on piece of heavy duty aluminum foil. 
Sprinkle V2 package of dry onion soup over meat. Bring 
edges of foil together and seal tightly. Place in shallow 
roasting pan and bake at 425 : F. for 2-2'/2 hours. There 
will be ample juice collected inside foil which can be 
thickened for gravy. 



Venison Meat Loaf 

egg 

teaspoon salt 
cup dried bread 

crumbs 
Preheat oven to 
350° F. 
Mix all ingredients together. Place in greased 9x5 
< 3" loaf pan. Bake for 1 hour in 350° F. oven. 



Venison Roast In Oven Cooking Bag 

3-4 lb. roast 4" thick 2 bay leaves, 

salt and pepper crumbled 

1 medium onion I/2 cup dry red wine 

quartered Preheat oven to 

325° F. 
Shake 1 tablespoon flour in small size (10" x 16") 
>ven cooking bag and place in two-inch deep roasting 
>an. Pour wine into bag and stir until flour is well 
nixed. Rub meat with salt and pepper. Place meat i 
>ag. Put onion and bay leaves around roast. Close bag 
</ith twist tie and make six half-inch slits in top. Cook 
-2'/2 hours. If the roast is smaller, it will take less time, 
erve with the clear wine gravy or thicken if so desired. 



Venison Casserole 



cup canned tomatoes 

or 2 fresh tomatoes 
Preheat oven to 325 



2 lbs. of venison meat 1 

cubed 
1 can mushroom soup 
1 package dry onion 

soup mix 

Place meat in casserole and add mushroom soup, dry 
onion soup mix and tomatoes. Cover and bake at 
325 F. for 2 hours. 



Venisonburgers 

If the venison is very lean, add some beef fat to the 
meat when having it ground. You may cook these 
burgers the same way as any beefburger— saute, broil, 
or grill. Be sure not to overcook as this will dry out.your 
game meat. 



Venison Swiss Steak 

Use a round steak and pound thoroughly. Flour, salt, 
and pepper the steak and brown in shortening in a 
heavy skillet. Add enough water to cover steak. At 
this point, recipe may be varied by adding onions, 
mushroom soup, celery soup or tomatoes. Cook 1 V2 
hours or until tender. Additional water may need to be 
added occasionally. An electric skillet may be used for 
this recipe and should be set at 350 F. 









•>i 



r * >. d 






• 



SI 



V 



IP 






*^*\ 









25 










All In a Night's Work 



By Joe Cullens 

Photos by T. Craig Martin 



The still, damp cold of an early No- 
vember night began to creep through 
the layers of protective clothing cover- 
ing the shivering bodies of a group of 
men gathered near a small mountain 
branch. Thoughts of the warm camp- 
fire and the delicious meal they had 
just enjoyed lingered in their minds. 
A barely audible bark drifted from the 
distance. 



"They've struck," cried one of the 
men. 

The wait was over. The two regis- 
tered redbone hounds turned loose 
near the branch in Banks County had 
found their quarry. Anticipation 
heightened as the men climbed aboard 
the truck and began the trek up the 
mountain slope toward the sound of 
the hounds. 

"Boy, they're in a pretty rough 
place," became the understatement of 
the night as the hunters trudged 
through heavy underbrush, crossing 
small branches, and climbing what 



seemed to be unending steep slop* 
Pausing momentarily to listen at st 
eral points along the way, the m 
dickered over distance and directi 
to the spot where the dogs had tree 
The ability of the dogs' owner ai 
trainer to discern the telltale differen 
in each dog's bark which meant t 
dog was no longer on the trail but h; 
treed the wary object of the sean 
was amazing. The steepest climb f 
the group of men still lay ahea 
Across a branch and up a nearly ve 
tical slope laden with a deep carpet 
leaf mulch lay the end of the quest. 



26 



Flashlights exposed the glimmer of 
several pairs of glowing red eyes. 
Coins' The dogs had done their duty 
wel 1 , for at the top of a large white oak 
tree was not one, but three of the 
ring-tailed quarry . . . raccoons. With 
the sharp report of a small-bore pistol, 
the wily prey came tumbling from its 
hiding place and was immediately fin- 
ished off. This was the first of two 
raccoons which were the fruit of the 
nocturnal excursion. 

From the first day of the season in 
the north Georgia mountains, Tom 
Irvin and his fellow coon-hunters 
tramp the hollows and ridges of Banks 
County in search of the raccoon. When 
the north Georgia season ends, year- 
round coon hunting is available in all 
counties south of Carroll, Fulton, 
DeKalb, Gwinnett, Barrow, Jackson, 
Madison, and Elbert. 

For avid enthusiasts of the sport, 
such as Irvin, nothing is too pressing 



that time cannot be taken to hunt the 
raccoon. According to Tom's brother, 
State Representative Jack Irvin, also 
a coon hunting enthusiast, Tom will 
travel anywhere at the drop of a hat if 
there's sport involved. 

The raccoon is probably best-known 
for his peculiar habit of feeling his 
food, especially in the water. He seems 
to "wash" his food. In actuality, the 
animal has a high degree of sensitivity 
in his forepaws, and likes to feel his 
food. It would appear that the raccoon 
has a fetish for food fondling, if you 
will. 

Procyon, the first part of the Latin 
name for the common North Ameri- 
can raccoon, means "before the dog." 
Lotor, the second part of the Latin 
name, means appropriately, "washer." 
The common name, raccoon, probably 
came from the Algonquin Indian word 
"arakunem," meaning "he scratches 
with his hands." 



Coons are found in every part of 
the North American continent, but arc 
peculiar to the New World. The wilj 
raccoon's nearest relative is probably 
the COati mundi of Central and South 
America. It may also be related to the 
ring-tailed cat of the Southwestern 
United States. 

Especially populous in the South- 
eastern United States, the raccoon is 
truly omnivorous. He eats anything; 
however his favorite foods seem to be 
fish and shellfish. A tasty treat enjoyed 
by the coon is the familiar crayfish or 
"crawdad" found in many spring-fed 
streams. 

The raccoon is also somewhat of a 
scavenger, and many a surprised 
camper has awakened to find one of 
the stealthy creatures rummaging 
through the camp garbage in the wee 
hours of the morning. Apparently 
fearless, raccoons have been known to 
venture into the tents of unwary camp- 



The only breaks in a night's hunt are taken when the dogs tree; 
of course, even these moments can prove to he a strain on the neck. 




27 



"Rock" and "Blazer" hold the 

wily prey at bay after it has been 

rousted from its perch. 



The chase ended, and the quarry 
felled, Tom Irvin moves in to 
call off the dogs. 





ers in search of a tidbit. 

The coastal estuaries of the Eastc 
United States are also well-populai 
with raccoons. The tidal marshlar 
in such areas provide a voluminc 
supply of food for the animals. N< 
mally a nocturnal feeder, the coon 1 
adapted his feeding habits in I 
coastal areas to coincide with 1 
movement of the tides. 

Coon hunting as the sport is kno' 
today, came to this continent with l 
English settlers. The native Indians 
North America still-hunted the a 
mal, and only occasionally were dc 
used. With the English immigra: 
came the dogs, and the sport pre 
much as it is known today. 

The dogs used in coon hunting i 
usually one of two breeds, blue tick 
redbone hounds. The redbone hou 
seems to be the one most favored 
the more avid enthusiasts of the spc 
although numerous arguments coi 
be encountered over which breed 
actually the best. Suffice it to say tf 






■ : :!r 



a well-trained coon dog is a beautiful 
sight to watch in action. 

As previously mentioned, the dogs 
have distinctly separate barks indicat- 
ing the chase and the tree. There is no 
set way to distinguish the barks among 
different dogs, unless you happen to 
know a particular dog's yelp. Each 
dog is quite individual in this respect. 
According to Tom Irvin, and a fel- 
ilow coon-hunter from Newton Coun- 
ty, Johnny Cowan, dogs do not work 
well in a pack unless they are familiar 
with each other. It seems as though 
i the animals get jealous of each other 
and do not respect each other's nosing 
ability. 

The sense of smell is very acute in 
ithese animals, and once a coon has 
'been treed, the dogs will circle the tree 
'to check the area to see if the coon 
may have tried to outwit them by 
sneaking down an adjacent tree. Once 
assured that the coon is still up the 
(tree, the dogs set in to a continuous 
ihowling to advise their masters that 
they have found the prey. 

The dogs used this particular night 
(Were "Rock" and "Blazer" owned by 
'Cowan, and "Sue" owned by Irvin. 
■'Rock" and "Blazer" have developed 
in interesting habit, in that they will 



\An oak makes a good backrest for 
Johnny Cowan while "Rock" and 
"Blazer" look as if to say, 
"Come on, where 's the next one." 



hunt only once after being turned 
loose. In other words, after being 
loosed, the dogs will tree onlj one 
time, after which they must be put 
back into the truck and carried to a 
different place before they will hunt 
again. Their owner, Cowan, says that 
is due to the way he has hunted the 
dogs, and the way that hunters like 
Irvin and himself hunt. Generally they 
will kill only one coon per night, leav- 
ing the rest for other hunts. 

The meat of the raccoon is quite 
palatable, according to Irvin. Not 
greasy like opossum, the meat is red 
with a texture similar to beef and may 
be prepared in a number of different 
ways. Irvin's favorite method is to boil 
the meat first in a pressure cooker, 
remove and baste it well with barbe- 
cue sauce, then place in an oven to 
roast for 30 or 40 minutes. 

"We don't believe in being greedy," 
says Irvin, adding that a major part of 
the sport of coon hunting is in the 
comradeship and fellowship of the 
night gatherings in the woods. A lot of 
tall tales are traded around campfires 
lit to keep away the cold; and the fel- 
lowship of a group of good friends 
gathered to enjoy the chase through 
the woods is indeed pleasurable. 




BooH 
Reviews 



CATCH MORE BASS 

B\ Stan Fagerstrom, Caxton Printers. 

Ltd.. 167 pages, $7.95 (papcrbound). 

A writer for one of the western 
counterparts of Outdoors in Georgia 
might offer this book to his readers 
with great enthusiasm; in fact, this 
writer has a friend in northern Cali- 
fornia who soon will receive a copy. 
But there's little in CATCH MORI- 
BASS that will be new to the expe- 
rienced Georgia bass fisherman. 

This doesn't at all mean that there 
aren't useful Tips in the book. It's just 
that Georgians grow up fishing lor 
bass, and many live their lives fishing 
the finest bass waters in this country. 
Bass fishing is an honored tradition 
here; many of the tricks that Fager- 
strom learned through toilsome trial 
and effort the Georgia bassman picks 
up almost through osmosis by the time 
he's in his teens. So this book on the 
"Secrets of a Western Bass Man" at 
best can review ancient truths o\ the 
trade, emphasizing the author's per- 
sonal preferences where choice exists 

Now ever) Georgian is not. of 
course, a home town Homer Circle: 
quite a few of those "good ol' boys" 
couldn't cast a lure within ten feet o\ 
their target or properly rig one o\' the 
soft plastic worms. But then they're 
not likely to read something on the 
sport anyhow . 

And that leaves a book like this in 
limbo: the audience that could profit 
from it won't buj it. while the audi- 
ence that might buy it has already 
passed beyond its level. The serious 
fisherman ( much less bass-addict ) al- 
ready knows about level-wind reels, 
he knows about balanced tackle, he 
understands the importance of com- 
fortable clothes and an appropriate 
boat. And. although he might not talk 
about it. he understands and lives 
Fagerstrom's main point: the serious 
fisherman fishes. He fishes whenever 
and wherever he can: he fishes in good 
water and bail, in fair weathei ami 
foul. And when he's not fishing he's 
working on tackle or reading about 



OQ 



fishing or planning his next trip. 

That is what makes the difference 
between the really serious bass man 
and the rest of us, for we let petty dis- 
tractions lure us away from the water, 
distractions — wife, job, home, etc. — 
that the bass man tolerates but man- 
ages to keep in proper perspective. 

Fagerstrom obviously is such a 
man, and his enthusiasm for the sport 
brightens every page. Emphasize 
sport. Unlike many avid bass fisher- 
men, Fagerstrom dislikes tourna- 
ments, disdaining competition with 
other fishermen. He prefers to com- 
pete with the fish, to match himself 
closely with his quarry; and, on those 
occasions when he wins the contest, 
he seems as often as not to return the 
fish to the water. He loves to catch big 
bass, he enjoys a full stringer; but he 
enjoys the search and the battle more. 
He finds a greater thrill in releasing 
that 8-pounder than in waving its dead 
hulk before his friends. And that 
makes him a rare and honorable man. 

It's not, then, that Fagerstrom 
doesn't have important things to say 
about fishing as a sport, about the na- 
ture of the challenge and the rewards 
we should seek. The problem with this 
book is that the technical information 
it contains probably isn't worth the 
whopping $7.95 (for a paperback!) 
to an avid Georgia fisherman. 

For those who collect bass books, 
however, this might be an interesting 
addition. Autographed copies (so Fa- 
gerstrom claims, although my "auto- 
graphed" copy has no readily appar- 
ent signature) are available from the 
author at P.O. Box 27, Silver Lake, 
Washington 98645. 

—TCM 

Outdoor 
World 



CAMPERS TO HOLD 
NATIONAL MEET 

"Futurecamp" will be the theme of 

the \merican Camping Association's 

National Convention to be held in At- 

February 20-23. Over 2,000 

lers will meet to discuss 

ns lor tomorrow's camp." 






Dr. Glen Olds, president of Kent 
State University, will be the keynote 
speaker at the opening banquet Wed- 
nesday, February 20. His address will 
center on a critical analysis of trends 
of our times, inversion of values and 
prospects for survival. 

Activities scheduled include special 
interest group meetings, seminars, 
workshops, exhibits and entertain- 
ment. Anyone interested in youth and 
camping is urged to attend the Febru- 
ary convention at the Marriott Hotel 
in Atlanta. 

Further information is available 
from Allen R. Coggins, Department 
of Natural Resources, Parks and His- 
torical Sites Division, 270 Washing- 
ton Street, S.W., Atlanta, Georgia 
30334. 

— Karen H. Stroud 



MARSHLAND PRODUCTIVITY 
$4000 PER ACRE YEARLY 

Marine scientists have placed a 
value of $4,000 per acre annually on 
natural tidal marshes. James Gosse- 
link, Eugene Odum and R. M. Pope 
reported that by-product production, 
such as fisheries, yields only $100 per 
acre/year. Potential uses, such as oys- 
ter aquaculture, which preserves many 
natural functions of the marsh, yield 
values of about $1,000 per acre/year. 
The potential for waste assimilation is 
much greater, worth about $2,500 per 
acre per year. Summing up the non- 
competing uses, scientists report that 
the overall "ecological life-support 
value" of the marshes comes to about 
$4,000 per acre yearly. 

— Wildlife Management Institute 



GEORGIA COASTAL AREA 
DIRECTORY 

A directory listing outdoor recrea- 
tion facilities such as golf courses, ten- 
nis courts, fish camps, hunting areas, 
and travel camps is being compiled by 
the Coastal Area Planning and De- 
velopment Commission (CAPDC), 
Brunswick, Georgia. Available facili- 
ties in the eight-county CAPDC 
coastal area will be listed in the direc- 
tory and identified on an accompany- 
ing map. 



The directory will be a valuable ; i 
to travelers who are driving throu 
the Georgia coastal area as well as 
valuable source of information for 
cal residents in identifying speci 
recreational areas. Completion of t 
directory is expected by the end of t 
year. 



SKIDAWAY INSTITUTE GETS 
POLLUTION STUDY GRANT 

Skidaway Institute of Oceonogi 
phy near Savannah, a part of the Ui 
versity System of Georgia, is one 
four institutions in the United Stat 
which have received grants from t 
National Science Foundation (NSF) 
participate in a six-year internatior 
program to learn how pollutants affe 
plant and animal life in the work 
oceans. Chemical pollutants prese 
in the oceans in small concentratio 
may be concentrated in the marii 
food chain and thus become a pote 
tial danger to man and the marii 
ecosystem. 

The project, the Controlled Ecosy 
tern Pollution Experiment (CEPEX 
is designed specifically to learn wh 
effects chemical pollutants have ( 
plankton communities. CEPEX w 
involve investigators from Canada ar 
the United Kingdom as well as fro 
the United States. 

To obtain natural populations < 
plankton, the scientists plan to u 
large, flexible plastic containers whic 
are open to the atmosphere but close 
at the bottom. During the exper 
ments, the contents of one contaim 
will be altered by adding very low le' 
els of chemical pollutants. The lonj 
term effects on the plankton popul; 
tions will be studied and compare 
with changes taking place in enck 
sures which are maintained as close! i 
as possible to their natural state. Tr - 
levels of chemicals that will be adde 
to the containers are designed to brin 
the concentrations of pollution up t ) 
that expected to be present in the er 
vironment in the year 2000. 

Three prototype enclosures ar; 
srheduled to be built, and after a tea 
site is selected, scientists will survc j 
the pollutant baseline levels and th : 
plankton populations in the test are* 
The test site selected must be sheitere I 
and remote from pollutant source; , 



must be as nearly typical of open ocean 
ecosystems as possible, and must have 
a background of supportive data al- 
ready available and support facilities 
nearby. 

The scientific coordinators of the 
project are Dr. David Menzel, Direc- 
tor, Skidaway Institute of Oceanogra- 
phy; Dr. Timothy Parsons of the Uni- 
versity of British Columbia; and Dr. 
John H. Steele of the Marine Labora- 
tory, Department of Agriculture and 
Fisheries, Aberdeen, Scotland. 

FISH SMOKING 
PROCESS DEVELOPED 

A University of Georgia food scien- 
tist, Romeo Toledo, has developed a 
process for smoking mackerel in an 
effort to develop processing techniques 
and marketability for Georgia's un- 
derutilized species. Mackerel are plen- 
tiful in Georgia waters but are con- 
sidered mainly a sport fish and are not 
extensively harvested commercially. 

Since smoked meats are popular 
food items, Toledo felt that smoked 
mackerel might prove attractive to 
processors and become a desirable 
market item if he could develop an 
inexpensive smoking procedure which 
could maintain uniform taste and tex- 
ture in every fish. 

Using a precisely controlled steel- 
and-brick smokehouse in which he 



I could regulate temperature, humidity, 
smoke density, and air flow, Toledo 
eventually found a combination that 
keeps the meat moist and tender and 
imparts a proper smoked flavor. First, 
a cleaned, split mackerel is soaked in 
a brine solution. Then it is hung in a 
smokehouse at room temperature and 
hickory smoke is pumped in for three 
to five hours. This ''cold smoking" 
hardens the fish surface and seals in 
moisture. After the cold smoking, the 
fish is placed in cold storage for 24 
hours while the moisture diffuses 
through the meat. The next day the 
fish is "hot smoked" at 180 degrees 
: or one hour, which cooks the meat, 
neightens the smoky taste, and colors 
:he surface a honey brown. 

Taste test panels have been enthusi- 
istic about the smoked mackerel, and 
wo fish processing companies plan to 
est market it. If response- is good, 
hey will begin producing it for mass 
listribution. 



Toledo is also working on process- 
ing techniques for other Georgia fishes 
such as whiting, sea bass, and mullet. 
He is currently working on a fish loaf 
made from whiting. The technique in- 
volves running the fish through a ma- 
chine that removes bones and crushes 
the meat into a pulp. Then, using the 
pulp as a binder and larger chunks of 
meat for body, he can form a loaf, 
cake or sausage that can be baked and 
sliced. Work on the loaf has been de- 
layed while the food science depart- 
ment gets an adequate deboning ma- 
chine and extruder, but should be per- 
fected during the next year. 

REGIONAL SHRIMP 
STUDY UNDERWAY 

A comprehensive study of the 
shrimp industry in North Carolina, 
South Carolina, Georgia, and the east 
coast of Florida will be conducted by 
the Marine Resources Division of the 
South Carolina Wildlife and Marine 
Resources Department. Funds for the 
study are available through the State- 
Federal Fisheries Management Pro- 
gram administered by NOAA's Na- 
tional Marine Fisheries Service 
(NMFS), under an agreement reached 
by the four states and NMFS. 

The purpose of the study is to com- 
pile a profile of existing information 
on the South Atlantic shrimp fishery 
which will aid state, federal, and in- 
dustry officials in making decisions 
affecting the industry. This profile will 
include identification of shrimp spe- 
cies, fishing methods, seasons, and 
regulations; marketing; history of the 
fishery; structure and organization o\' 
the industry; research problems and 
possible management solutions. Simi- 
lar profiles are being prepared by 
Louisiana State University and Texas 
A&M University for the Gulf Coast 
shrimp fisheries. 

Because of the availability of facili- 
ties for conducting the study. South 
Carolina's Marine Resources Division 
was chosen by the four states to coor- 
dinate the study. North Carolina. 
South Carolina. Georgia. Florida, and 
NMFS will provide personnel and 
other services as necessary to assist in 
the study. The contract is for the pe- 
riod of June 15, 1973 to June 30, 
1974 and provides $40,000 for un- 
dertaking the study. 



APPROACH TO SPRINGER 
MOUNTAIN IMPROVED 

The Georgia Appalachian Trail 
Club has announced the completion 
of work it has been doing this year on 
the approach trail to Springer Moun- 
tain from Amicalola Falls State Park 
in northern Georgia. Springer Moun- 
tain is at the southern terminus of the 
Appalachian Trail and can be ap- 
proached only by trail. 

The Georgia Club's project was to 
improve the blue-blazed approach 
trail by relocating it off the U.S. For- 
est Service woods road onto the hea\i- 
ly forested ridges in the area. This was 
accomplished by the GATC clearing 
and marking the two-mile segment o\ 
new trail between the cemetery road 
and the top of Frosty Mountain. This 
new trail swings well away from the 
road, traversing a fine deciduous for- 
est with lots of dogwood, and ascends 
Frosty from the west. 

The club has also extended the 
Amicalola Falls Approach Trail from 
the top of the falls where it used to be- 
gin, to the new beginning at the con- 
cession pavillion near the park en- 
trance. According to GATC. the new 
trail sections measure: from the park 
entrance to the lake dam. 1.1 miles; 
and from the lake dam to the ceme- 
tery road. 2.1 miles. 

— Appalachian /'railway News 

FOREST FIRMS LIST CONTACTS 
FOR HUNTING PERMISSION 

Finding land on which he can ob- 
tain permission to hunt is perhaps the 
major problem facing today's sports- 
man. Permission to hunt on private 
lands is difficult to obtain, but perhaps 
e\ en more difficult is finding the owner 
of the land to ask permission. 

Many of the forest industries in 
Georgia have vast acreages of land 
which they allow hunters to use if per- 
mission is requested. In fact, more 
than three million acres of industry- 
owned land are open in Georgia each 
year, by permission. 

The Georgia Department of Na- 
tural Resources, as a public service, 
has provided a list of forest industries 
to aid sportsmen in obtaining permis- 
sion to hunt. The list was compiled 
in cooperation with the Southern I I 
est Institute, an association of wood- 



using industries in the Southeast. 
Hunters are urged to respect the own- 
ers' property and to abide by any 
company rules. 

The Department, in publishing this 
list, does not guarantee that hunting 
privileges will be granted by any com- 
panies or on any lands. The list is pro- 
vided to inform hunters who they 
should contact to request permission 
to hunt on the lands owned by the 
various companies. The Department 
also reminds hunters that they must 
have the permission of any landowner, 

including forest industries, before 
hunting. 

No information is available from 
the Department as to the location of 
any lands of any of the companies. 
Maps of these lands are available from 
some of the companies. 

Contacts of the various companies 
to request information and hunting 
privileges are: 

Georgia Kraft Co., Wood and 
Woodlands Division, P.O. 1551, 
Rome, Ga. 30161; also district man- 
agers, W. J. Rowston, P.O. Box 103, 
Coosa, Ga. 30129; T. A. Gresham, 
P.O. Box 272, Gainesville, Ga. 30501; 
Paul L. Lawrence, Rt. 6, Box 287, 
Macon, Ga. 31201; J. H. Colson, 625 
West Taylor St., Griffin, Ga. 30223; 
and W. G. Carson, Oconee Develop- 
ment Forest, Greensboro, Ga. 30642. 

Container Corporation of America, 
Paper Mill Division, North Eight St., 
Fernandina Beach, Fla. 32034; also 
Ed Mathews, Area Forester, Con- 
tainer Corp. of America, Waycross 
Area Headquarters, Box 887, Way- 
cross, Ga. 31501; Walt Branyan, Area 
Forester, Container Corp. of America, 
McRae Area Headquarters, P.O. Box 
237, McRae, Ga. 31055; Ed Pope, 
Area Forester, Container Corp. of 
America, Cusseta Area Headquarters, 
P.O. Box 58, Richland, Ga. 31825. 

Gilman Paper Co., St. Mary's Kraft 
Division, St. Marys, Ga. 31558; also, 
J. G. Fendig, Manager, Timber Divi- 
sion, Gilman Paper Co., St. Mary's 
Kraft Division, St. Marys, Ga. 31558. 

International Paper Co., George- 
town, S.C. 29440; also Harold M. 
Phillips, Area Superintendent, P.O. 
Box A. Richmond Hill, Ga. 31324; 
David Warren, Forest Wildlife Spe- 
cialist for the Panama City Region, 



P.O. Box 2487, Panama City, Fla. 
32401. 

ITT Rayonier Inc., P.O. Box 528, 
Jesup, Ga. 31545; also, Thomas E. 
Evans, Area Supervisor, ITT Ray- 
onier, Inc., Eastman, Ga. 31023; 
Luke H. Morgan, Area Supervisor, 
Supervisor, ITT Rayonier, Inc., 
Swainsboro, Ga.; Marvin F. Williams, 
Area Supervisor, ITT Rayonier, Inc., 
Waycross, Ga. 31501; W. J. Menear, 
Jr., Area Supervisor, ITT Rayonier, 
Inc., Swainsboro, Ga.; Slen C. Camp- 
bell, Area Supervisor, ITT Rayonier, 
Inc., Jesup, Ga. 31545. 

Union Camp Corp., George Gehr- 
ken. Woodlands Division, P.O. Box 
570, Savannah, Ga. 31402. 

Brunswick Pulp and Paper Co., H. 
Glenroy Dowdy, Land Manager, 
Brunswick, Ga. 31521. 

Great Northern Paper Co., Mr. An- 
derson, Timberlands Manager, P.O. 
Box 44, Cedar Springs, Ga. 31732. 

Outdoor 
Calendar 




HUNTING SEASONS 

Deer Archery — The open season for 
hunting deer with bow and arrow 
in Game Zones I, la, II, III, IV and 

V, shall be from September 29 through 
October 27, 1973, in any county, or 
part thereof, having a legal firearms 
deer season. Bag limit is two (2) bucks 
or one (1) buck and one (1) doe. 
Hunting with dogs prohibited except 
in such areas and during such times 
as it may be legal under firearms hunt- 
ing regulations. 

The open season for hunting deer 
with bow and arrow in Game Zone 
VI shall be from September 29 
through October 19, 1973, in any 
county, or part thereof having a legal 
firearms deer season. Bag limit is two 
(2) bucks or one (1) buck and one (1) 



doe. Hunting with dogs prohibited 
Notice: Archery equipment maj 
used during firearms hunts, howe 
all hunters must abide by firea 
regulations as to bag limits. 

Deer Firearms Seasons 

GAME ZONE V: October 
1973 through January 1, 1974 in 
following counties: Clinch Coui 
except that portion lying in the soi 
west corner of the County, borde 
on the north by the Seaboard Co 
line Railroad and on the east by 
wannoochee Creek, and except 1 
portion lying north of Arabia ] 

Wildlife Area and between U.S. Hi 
way 221 and U.S. Highway 4 
which exceptions are closed: Eel 
County east of U.S. Highway 129 ; 
south of Georgia Highway 187; ; 
Lanier County north of the Seabo 
Coastline Railroad and east of 
Alapaha River and southeast of I 
Highway 221. Bag limit two 
bucks. Hunting with dogs allowed 
October 20 through November 
1973 in Ware County, except t 
portion lying north of U.S. 82 i 
those portions lying within the out 
most boundaries of Waycross St 
Forest WMA, which are closed 
deer hunting. Bag limit two (2) buc 
Hunting with dogs allowed. 

GAME ZONE VI. October '. 
1973 through January 1, 1974. . 
counties in Game Zone VI will 
open with the following exceptio 
that portion of Charlton County ly 
northwest of the Okefenokee Swan 
which is closed; that portion of Pie 
County lying west of U.S. #82 a 
Pleasant Hill Church Road; that p 
tion of Pierce County lying in 
northeast corner bounded on the w 
by U.S. #82 and on the south by C 
#32, and that portion of Pie 
County lying in the southeast con 
bounded on the east by Ga. #15 a 
on the west by U.S. #82, which p ( 
tions are closed; that portion 
Wayne County lying west of Jes 
which is bounded on the north by ( 
#169 and on the south by U.S. #1 
which is closed. Bag limit two 
bucks. Hunting with dogs allowed. 

The marshes and islands ly 
cast of the lntercoastal Waterway 



'. 



i 



Bryan. Camden. Chatham, Glynn, 
Liberty and Mclntoch Counties will 
be ipen for the taking of deer of either 
sex on October 20 through January 
I, 1974. Bag limit two (2) bucks or 
one ( 1 ) buck and one doe. Hunting 
with dogs allowed; provided however, 
that Sapelo and Blackbeard Islands 
are closed to all hunting except as 
otherwise specifically provided 

Fox — There shall be no closed sea- 
son on the taking of fox. 

It shall be unlawful for any person 
to take or attempt to take any fox, 
■ within the State, by use or aid of re- 
corded calls or sounds or recorded or 
electronically amplified imitations of 
calls or sounds. 

Grouse — October 13, 1973 through 
February 28, 1974. Bag limit three 
(3) daily; possession limit six (6). 

Wild hogs — Hogs are considered non- 
game animals in Georgia. They are 
legally the property of- the land owner, 
and cannot be hunted without his 
permission, except on public lands. 
Firearms are limited to shotguns with 
Number 4 shot or smaller, .22 rimfire 
rifles, centerfire rifles with bore diam- 
'eter .257 or smaller, the .30 cal. Army 
Carbine, the .32/20, all caliber pis- 
tols, muzzle loading firearms and bows 
and arrows. 

Opossum — October 13, 1973 through 
j February 28, 1974 in Carroll, Ful- 
ton, DeKalb, Gwinnett, Barrow, Jack- 
■ son, Madison, Elbert and all counties 
, north of those listed. No bag limit. 
: Night hunting allowed. All counties 
south of the above named counties 
I are open year round for the taking 
)f possum. No bag limit. Night hunt- 
ng allowed. 

Raccoon — October 13, 1973 through 
February 28, 1974 in Carroll, Fulton, 
)eKalb. Gwinnett, Barrow, Jackson, 
4adison, Elbert and all counties north 
)f those listed. Bag limit one (1) per 
light per person. Night hunting al- 
owed. All counties south of the above 
iamed counties are open year round 
or the taking of raccoon. No bag 
:mit. Night hunting allowed. 



Rail (Marsh Hens): September 10 
through November 18. King and clap- 
per rail daily bag limit 15, possession 
limit 30, singly or in aggregate. Vir- 
ginia and sora rail daily bag limit 25, 
possession limit 25, singly or in ag- 
gregate. Legal shooting hours will be 
30 minutes before sunrise until sun- 
set. 

Dove: Georgia has been divided into 
two zones for the coming dove season 
by a line formed by U.S. 80 from 
Columbus to Macon, Ga. 49 from 
Macon to Milledgeville, Ga. 22 from 
Milledgeville to Sparta, Ga. 16 from 
Sparta to Warrenton, U.S. 278 from 
Warrenton to Augusta. 

Northern Zone: December 15 
through January 3. 

Southern Zone: December 6 
through January 15. 

Daily bag limit 12, possession limit 
24. Legal shooting hours will be from 
12 noon until sunset. 

Ducks — December 6, 1973 through 
January 19, 1974, statewide. 

The general bag limit on duck 
species shall be five (5) daily and a 
possession limit of ten (10). This gen- 
eral bag may not include more than 
one (1) black duck with two (2) in 
possession nor more than two (2) 
wood ducks with four (4) in posses- 
sion. 



I he season is closed on canvasback 
and redhead ducks, and on geese, and 
brant. 

Kxtra Scaup Limit: In addition to the 

scaup which may be taken in the 
regular duck season daily bag. an 
extra 2 scaup daily with 4 in posses 
sion will be allowed on the cast (sea- 
ward) side of the [ntracoastal Water- 
way in Chatham. Bryan, Liberty. Mc- 
intosh, Glynn and Camden counties 

Coots: December 6 through January 
19. Daily bag limit 15, possession 
limit 30. Legal shooting hours will be 
30 minutes before sunrise until sunset. 

Gallinules: November 12 through 
January 19. Daily bag limit 15. pos- 
session limit-30. Legal shooting hours 
will be 30 minutes before sunrise until 
sunset. 

Mergansers: December 6 through Jan- 
uary 19. Daily bag limit 5, possession 
limit 10. Not more than 1 daily and 2 
in possession may be hooded mergan- 
sers. Legal shooting hours will be 30 
minutes before sunrise until sunset. 
In addition to the required State 
licenses, each person. 16 years of age 
or older, who hunts waterfowl must 
possess a valid Federal Migratory 
Bird Hunting Stamp, available from 
most U.S. Post Offices. 



Outdoors 

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